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World War I

World War I (1914-1918)

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The Great War that was called the War to end all wars.
Introduction

There were 8.6 million casualties during World War 1 ('The Great War'), with the Allied Powers (the victors) losing 5.1 million and the Central Powers losing 3.5 million.

The war was devastating to the countries involved, and was also known as the "war to end all wars" - until the second world war began.

Timeline
    1909  CEBritain, France, Germany and Italy ask Serbia to set no territorial demands.
    1909  CESerbia mobilizes against Austria-Hungary.
 14 Mar 1914  CESerbia and Turkey sign a peace treaty.
 28 Jun 1914  CEAssassination of the heir to Austro-Hungarian empire, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophia, in Sarajevo in Bosnia by a Serbian Nationalist, Gavrilo Princip. This incident precipitated a war with Serbia, eventually starting WW1.
 28 Jul 1914  CEAustria-Hungary declares war against Russia.
 28 Jul 1914  CEAustria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, accusing Serbia of provoking the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife.
  1 Aug 1914  CEGermany declares war on Russia at the beginning of WW I
  2 Aug 1914  CEGermany invades Luxembourg.
  3 Aug 1914  CEGermany declares war on France.
  4 Aug 1914  CEGermany invades neutral Belgium, violating a treaty signed by Prussia to respect Belgian neutrality.
  4 Aug 1914  CEBritain declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary, after Germany invades Belgium.
  4 Aug 1914  CEUS President Wilson issues Proclamation of Neutrality at the outbreak of World War I.
  6 Aug 1914  CESerbia declares war against Germany.
 23 Aug 1914  CEJapan declares war on Germany.
 26 Aug 1914  CEGermans defeat Russians at the Battle of Tannenberg (26-30 Aug).
  5 Sep 1914  CEThe First Battle of Marne begins, halts German advance and prevents them from occupying Paris, resulting in stalemate and trench warfare (5-10 September).
  9 Sep 1914  CEThe First Battle of Masurian Lakes, which Russia loses (9-14 September).
 14 Sep 1914  CEThe Battle of Aisne begins between the Germans and the French during WWI beginning trench warefare.
 17 Sep 1914  CEAustro-German attack western Poland.
 18 Sep 1914  CEBattle of Aisne ends with Germans beating French during WW I.
 14 Oct 1914  CEThe First Battle of Ypres (14 Oct - 22 Nov).
 29 Oct 1914  CEThe Ottoman Empire enters World War I.
  8 Dec 1914  CEBattle of the Falkland Islands in WW I.
 15 Dec 1914  CEBattle of Lodz ends and the Russians retreat toward Moscow (November-December).
 21 Dec 1914  CEFirst German air raid on Britain.
 25 Dec 1914  CEUnofficial Christmas truce declared by soldiers along the Western Front during WWI.
    1914  CEJews are expelled from Mitchenick in Poland.
    1914  CEJews are expelled from Tel Aviv by Turkish authorities.
 13 Jan 1915  CEWinston Churchill presents plan for an assault on Dardanelles.
 19 Jan 1915  CEThe first German LZ-38 Zeppelin attack over Great Britain, 4 die.
   Jan 1915  CEZeppelin drops hundred of bombs on Southend-on-Sea in Britain.
  4 Feb 1915  CEGermany declares a submarine blockade of England.
  6 Feb 1915  CEThe 2nd Battle of Masurian Lakes (also known as the Winter Battle) when the German armies are surrounded a Russian army (7-21 Feb).
 19 Feb 1915  CEAllied amphibious attack began on the Dardanelles and Gallipoli initiated by Winston Churchill, who later resigns as a consequence.
 26 Feb 1915  CEArgonnen Malancourt develops the first flame-thrower for Germany.
   Feb 1915  CE(February-December) Turkey's Canakkale (Trojan) Sea Victory against allied powers (USA, Australia, England, Italy).
 14 Mar 1915  CEGerman cruiser Dresden blows itself up near coast of Chile.
 18 Mar 1915  CEBritish battle cruisers Inflexible and Irresistible hit mines in the Dardanelles.
 18 Mar 1915  CEFrench battleship Bouvet explodes, 640 killed.
   Mar 1915  CEBritish expedition Army in Belgium captures Neuve Chapelle.
 22 Apr 1915  CESecond Battle of Ypres begins with a surprise offensive by the German 4th Army on the Allied front line (22 April - 5 May).
 22 Apr 1915  CEThe first military use of poison gas, Chlorine, by Germany at Ypres, during WW I.
 25 Apr 1915  CEANZAC troops land at Gallipoli the peninsula and attempt to advance into Turkey, a stalemate is reached and they withdraw at the end of the year.
  6 May 1915  CEAllies attack Cape Helles, Hellespont.
  7 May 1915  CEThe British ship Lusitania, heading from New York to Liverpool, is sunk by German submarine off Irish coast and 1198 lives were lost. The loss of American lives created a US-German diplomatic crisis.
 23 May 1915  CEItaly declares war on Austria-Hungary, dropping the Triple Alliance.
 25 May 1915  CEThe 2nd Battle of Ypres ends with 105,000 casualties.
 28 Aug 1915  CEItaly declares war against Germany during WW I.
 30 Aug 1915  CEAt the request of the US, Germany curtails its submarine warfare and stops sinking ships without warning.
 12 Oct 1915  CEBritish nurse Edith Cavell executed by Germans in Belgium during World War I.
 12 Dec 1915  CEThe first all-metal aircraft, the Junkers J.1, is test flown at Dessau in Germany.
 28 Dec 1915  CEAllies begin withdrawal of troops from Gallipoli.
    1915  CE20th Russian Army corps surrenders.
    1915  CEBritish Vice Admiral Carden begins bombing of Dardanelles forts.
    1915  CEEdward Stone, the first US combatant to die in WWI, is mortally wounded.
    1915  CEGerman submarine attack on Le Havre.
    1915  CEGerman submarine sinks US ship Gulflight.
    1915  CEGerman U boat torpedoes Netherlands merchant ship Medea.
    1915  CEGerman U-20 sinks Centurion SE of Ireland
    1915  CEGerman U-20 sinks Earl of Lathom
    1915  CEGerman-British sea battle at Doggersbank and Helgoland.
    1915  CEGermany begins 'unrestricted' submarine war.
    1915  CEGermany sinks US ships Carib and Evelyn and torpedoes Norwegian ship Regin.
    1915  CEItalian liner Ancona sinks by German torpedoes, killing 272.
    1915  CEJews of Laibach Austria expelled.
    1915  CENetherlands merchant ship Tubantia torpedoed and sinks in the North Sea.
    1915  CEThe first US ship lost in WWI, William P Frye. It was carrying wheat to the UK.
    1915  CEThe Turkish and German army reach the Suez Canal.
 21 Feb 1916  CEBattle of Verdun begins (1 million casualties) when Germans attack on Mort-Homme ridge, West of Verdun. The French eventually defeat the Germans.
  9 Mar 1916  CEGermany declares war against Portugal.
 31 May 1916  CEBattle of Skagerrak, a British-German sea battle at Jutland. There were 10,000 dead.
  5 Jun 1916  CEWith British support, led by T.E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia), Hussein, grand sherif of Mecca, lead an Arab revolt against the Turks in the Hejaz.
  1 Jul 1916  CEStart of the Battle of the Somme (1 Jul-18 Nov), with the greatest number of casualties in British military history, 60,000.
 31 Aug 1916  CEGermany suspends submarine assaults.
 27 Sep 1916  CEThe massacre of Turkish troops in the village of Tafas south of the city of Damascus by Arab forces led by T E Lawrence when he gave his controversial 'take no prisoners' order.
 15 Oct 1916  CEGermany resumes U-boat attacks.
   Oct 1916  CET E Lawrence was sent on a fact-finding mission to the Hedjaz, where Sherif Hussein of Mecca had rebelled against Turkish imperial rule.
  7 Dec 1916  CEHerbert Henry Asquith resigns and is succeeded David Lloyd George as British Prime Minister (until 1922).
 31 Dec 1916  CERasputin is murdered in Russia.
    1916  CEAllies attack Zeebrugge Belgium
 
  1916  CEAsiago Italy falls when Austrian troops attack the Italian front
 
 
  1916  CEAustria-Hungary offensive against Montenegro
 
 
  1916  CEBelgian troop march into Kigali, German East-Africa.
 
 
  1916  CEBritain's military service act enforced (conscription)
 
 
  1916  CEBritish battle cruiser Invincible explodes, killing all but 6
 
 
  1916  CEEscadrille Américaine (Lafayette) transfered to Verdun.
 
 
  1916  CEFrench artillery kills entire French 72nd division at Samogneux Verdun.
 
 
  1916  CEFrench cruiser "Admiral Charner" torpedoed off Syrian coast, kills 374.
 
 
  1916  CEFrench driven out of Fort Douaumont after 500 killed or injured.
 
 
  1916  CEFrench troops capture/Serbian army flees to Corfu.
 
 
  1916  CEFrench troops occupy parts of Fort Douaumont Verdun.
 
 
  1916  CEGeneral Fransisco 'Pancho' Villa leads Mexican band raid on Columbus NM (17 killed).
 
 
  1916  CEGeneral Pershing, 15,000 troops chasing Villa into Mexico, stays 10-months.
 
 
  1916  CEGerman colony of Cameroon surrenders to Britain & France
 
 
  1916  CEGerman munitions bunker in Fort Douaumont explodes
 
 
  1916  CEGerman troops conquer Fort Douaumont near Verdun
 
 
  1916  CEGermans sink French transport ship Provence II, killing 930.
 
 
  1916  CEGermany begins attacking ships in the Atlantic
 
 
  1916  CEMontenegro surrenders to Austria-Hungary
 
 
  1916  CEPaul Von Hindenburg becomes chief-of-General-Staff in Germany
 
 
  1916  CERussian offensive in Kaukasus
 
 
  1916  CERussian troops conquer Erzurum Armenia
 
 
  1916  CERussian troops conquer Kermansjah in Persia (Iran).
 
 
  1916  CEThe first bombings of Paris by German Zeppelins takes place
 
 
  1916  CEThe first tank used in war, "Little Willies" at Battle of Flors, France
 
 
31 Jan 1917  CEGermany announces unrestricted submarine warfare and that U-boats will attack neutral merchant ships.
 
 
1 Feb 1917  CEAdmiral Tirpitz announces unrestriced submarine war will bengin again.
 
 
24 Feb 1917  CEThe 'Zimmermann Telegram' is passed to the US by Britain, detailing an alleged German proposal to join with Mexico against the US.
 
 
26 Feb 1917  CEUS President Woodrow Wilson requests permission from Congress to arm US merchantmen to stop German Atlantic U-boat attacks.
 
 
11 Mar 1917  CEBritish troops occupy Baghdad.
 
 
15 Mar 1917  CERussian Tsar Nicholas abdicates.
 
 
 Mar 1917  CERussia collapses (March-September).
 
 
2 Apr 1917  CEUS President Wilson asks Congress to declare war against Germany.
 
 
6 Apr 1917  CEUS declares war on Germany during World War I.
 
 
9 Apr 1917  CEBattle of Arras begins.
 
 
26 Jun 1917  CEUS General Pershing and his 1st Division HQ staff arrived in Paris during WW I.
 
 
27 Jun 1917  CEGreece enters the war on the side of the Allies.
 
 
16 Jul 1917  CET E Lawrence and Arab forces take Akaba from the Turks by mounting a supprise rearward attack after crossing the Nefu dessert.
 
 
7 Nov 1917  CEBritish capture Gaza Palestine from the Turks.
 
 
13 Nov 1917  CEBritish General Allenby defeats the Turkish forces at Megiddo and British forces enter and capture Jerusalem.
 
 
9 Dec 1917  CEJerusalem falls to Britain.
 
 
  1917  CE10 million US men begin registering for draft in WW I
 
 
  1917  CEArabs sack Tel Aviv
 
 
  1917  CEAustria-Hungarian troops conquer Forlani Italy
 
 
  1917  CEBritish submarine K13 leaves Gaire Loch
 
 
  1917  CEGerman Navy torpedoes 7 Dutch ships
 
 
  1917  CEGerman-occupied Lithuania proclaims independence from Russia
 
 
  1917  CEJews are expelled from Tel Aviv & Jaffa by Turkish authorities
 
 
  1917  CETurkish Government authorizes Jews to return to Tel Aviv & Jaffa
 
 
  1917  CEUS Federal government took over operation of American railroad for duration of WW I.
 
 
  1917  CEUS liner Housatonic sunk by German sub & diplomatic relations severed
 
 
3 Mar 1918  CERussia withdraws from WWI, signs Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and Austria. After the murder of the former tzar, Finland, Poland and the Baltic states declared independance.
 
 
21 Mar 1918  CEGermany launches its Spring push, eventually mounting five major offensives against Allied forces, starting with the Battle of Picardy against the British.
 
 
 Apr 1918  CEThe Zeebruggge Raid.
 
 
 Jun 1918  CEThe Piave Offensive begins (June-July).
 
 
16 Jul 1918  CEThe Bolsheviks murder Russian Tsar Nicholas and his family.
 
 
29 Sep 1918  CEThe Allies break through the Hindenberg Line.
 
 
21 Oct 1918  CEGermany ceases unrestricted submarine warfare.
 
 
30 Oct 1918  CETurkey concludes an armistice with the Allies.
 
 
3 Nov 1918  CEGerman fleet mutinies at Kiel.
 
 
3 Nov 1918  CETrieste falls to the Allies and Austria-Hungary then concludes an armistice.
 
 
9 Nov 1918  CEKaiser Wilhelm II abdicates after German defeat in WW I.
 
 
10 Nov 1918  CEKaiser Wilhelm II flees to Holland.
 
 
10 Nov 1918  CEThe German republic is founded.
 
 
11 Nov 1918  CEArmistice Day, when World War I ends, at 11 AM on the Western Front. The Central Powers are forced to annul the Brest-Litovsk Treaty.
 
 
 Dec 1918  CEGermany claims Baltic states, Finland & Ukraine from Russia.
 
 
 Dec 1918  CEThe Hungarian People's Republic is declared.
 
 
 Dec 1918  CEIceland becomes independent state under the Danish crown.
 
 
 Dec 1918  CELatvia declares independence from Russia.
 
 
 Dec 1918  CERepublic of Czechoslovakia created with T.G. Masaryk as President.
 
 
 Dec 1918  CEThe Independant Republic of Poland was proclaimed, with marshal Jozef Pilsudski, founder of the PPS, elected president.
 
 
 Dec 1918  CERussia declared a republic of Soviets.
 
 
 Dec 1918  CEFormerly under Austrian Hapsburg control, Yugoslavia joined Croatia and Slovenia to become the Kingdom of Serbs under Peter Karageorgevic (Peter I).
 
 
  1918  CEBattle of Amiens ends in WW I when the Allieds beat the Germans.
 
 
  1918  CEBritain opens offensive on Western front during WW I
 
 
  1918  CEBritain's Royal Flying Corps replaced by Royal Air Force
 
 
  1918  CEBritish premier Lloyd George demand for unified peace
 
 
  1918  CECrépy-en-Laonnoise: German artillery shells Paris France, 256 killed
 
 
  1918  CEDuring WW I, US forces launch an attack on German-occupied St Mihiel
 
 
  1918  CEDuring WWI Germany launches Somme offensive
 
 
  1918  CEGreek troops lands at Smyrna
 
 
  1918  CEHMS Vindictive sunk to block entrance of Ostend Harbor
 
 
  1918  CEMeuse-Argonne offensive against Germany began during WW I
 
 
  1918  CERussian Bolshevik Party becomes the Communist Party
 
 
  1918  CESeparation of church & state begins in USSR
 
 
  1918  CESoviets disallows a Constitution Assembly
 
 
  1918  CEStrike on Berlin ammunitions factory
 
 
  1918  CETatars declares Azerbaijan, in Russian Caucasus, independent
 
 
  1918  CETerek Autonomous Republic established in RSFSR (1918-1921)
 
 
  1918  CEThe first WWI US army troop ship torpedoed & sunk by Germany, off Ireland
 
 
  1918  CEUkrainian mobs massacre Jews of Seredino Buda
 
 
  1918  CEUS & Russia sever diplomatic ties
 
 
  1918  CEUS President Hoover calls for "wheatless" & "meatless" days for war effort
 
 
  1918  CEUS President Wilson authorizes US Army's Distinguished Service Medal
 
 
  1918  CEUS President Wilson outlines his 14 points for peace after WWI
 
 
  1918  CEUS President Wilson sails for Versailles Peace Conference in France, the first chief executive to travel outside US while in office
 
 
  1918  CEUS troops land in Archangel, Russia, stay 10 months
 
 
  1918  CEUS troops land in Vladivostok, Siberia, stay until 1920
 
 
18 Jan 1919  CEWWI Peace Congress opens in Versailles, France.
 
 
25 Jan 1919  CEVersailles peace conference accepts the principle of a League of Nations. The first meeting was one year later.
 
 
14 Feb 1919  CEDraft covenant of League of Nations completed.
 
 
6 May 1919  CEParis Peace Conference disposes of German colonies. German East Africa is assigned to Britain and France, German Southwest Africa to South Africa.
 
 
21 Jun 1919  CEGermans scuttle their own High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow.
 
 
28 Jun 1919  CEThe Treaty of Versailles, ending WWI, is signed.
 
 
 Jun 1919  CELithuania gains independence from Russia and Germany.
 
 
  1919  CEBelgian Army occupies Düsseldorf.
 
 
  1919  CEBelarussian SSR established.
 
 
  1919  CEFriedrich Ebert (SPD), elected President of Germany.
 
 
  1919  CEGerman National Meeting accepts Anschluss incorporation of Austria.
 
 
  1919  CEMoscow's Politburo/Central Committee forms.
 
 
  1919  CENew York City welcomes home Gen John J Pershing and 25,000 WW I soldiers.
 
 
 Jun 1920  CEPeace treaty gives Estonia independence.
 
 
  1920  CEDutch government refuses to turn over ex-Kaiser Wilhelm I of Germany to the allies.
 
 
  1920  CEGerman-Latvian peace treaty signed.
 
 
  1920  CEJapan receives League of Nations mandate over the Pacific islands.
 
 
  1920  CEThe League of Nations' first meeting in Geneva. The Treaty of Versailles is in effect.
 
 
  1920  CEUS Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles for the second time refusing to ratify League of Nations' covenant (maintaining its isolation policy).
 
 
  1923  CEFrench and Belgian troops occupy Ruhr to collect WW I reparations.
 
 
  1923  CEThe last US troops leave the Rhineland in Germany.
 
 
25 Sep 1939  CEVersailles Peace Treaty forgot to include Andorra, so Andorra & Germany finally sign an official treaty ending WW I.
 
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
Note 2: The events are sorted in semi-chronological order according to what is factually known about the date of the event ( Explain ).
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