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US Revolutionary War

US Revolutionary War (1775-1783)

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When America won its independance from the British.
Introduction

The American War of Independence (or the American Revolutionary War) began in 1775 after a series of incidents surrounding the strictures of British control of colonial America. The signing of the Declaration of Independence on the 4th July 1776 is still celebrated today as a milestone in America's quest for liberty and Independence.

Cornwallis's surrender at Yorktown in 1781 precipitated the end of the war which formally drew to a close in 1783 when the Treaty of Paris was signed.

Timeline
 16 Dec 1773  CEThe Boston Tea Party, when 50 or 60 American "Sons of Liberty," disguised as Mohawks, protested the 3 cents per pound British tax on tea by dumping chests of the popular drink into Boston Harbor.
    1774  CEBritish close port of Boston to all commerce.
    1774  CEBritish Parliament passes Boston Port Bill.
    1774  CEChestertown tea party occurs when tea is dumped into the Chester River in the US.
 23 Mar 1775  CEThe 'Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death' Speech by Patrick Henry.
 19 Apr 1775  CEThe start of the American War of Independence which begins with the battles of Lexington and Concord
 23 Apr 1775  CEKing George III proclaims colonies to be in open rebellion
   Apr 1775  CEThe British begin siege of Boston.
 17 Jun 1775  CEBattle of Bunker Hill (actually it was Breed's Hill).
  3 Jul 1775  CEGeorge Washington appointed commander-in-chief of American Army
 28 Nov 1775  CEContinental Congress authorizes creation of Continental Navy initally with 7 ships, and later bcomes the US Navy.
 26 Dec 1775  CEBattle of Trenton
 31 Dec 1775  CEBattle of Quebec, when the attacking Americans are unable to take The British stronghold.
    1775  CEAmerican Revolutionary forces capture Montreal.
    1775  CEAmerican Revolutionary War hero Ethan Allen captured
    1775  CEAmericans drag cannon up hill to fight British (Gun Hill Road, Bronx)
    1775  CEBritish Parliament declares Massachusetts colony is in rebellion
    1775  CECitizens of Mecklenburg County, North Carolina declare independence of Britain
    1775  CEEdmund Burke presents his 13 articles to the English parliament
    1775  CEGeneral Washington forbids recruiting officers enlisting blacks
    1775  CEGreen Mountain Boys capture Fort Ticonderoga NY-American Revolution
    1775  CELord Dunmore, promises freedom to male slaves who join British army
    1775  CEMinutemen Capt John Parker orders not to fire unless fired upon
    1775  CEOfficers decide to bar slaves & free blacks from Continental Army
    1775  CEPaul Revere & William Dawes warn "the British are coming!"
    1775  CEPortland, Maine burned by British
    1775  CEThe first Continental currency issued ($3,000,000)
    1775  CEThe first naval battle of Revolution-Unity (Am) captures Margaretta (Br)
    1775  CEThe first official US flag raising (aboard naval vessel Alfred)
    1775  CEUnited Colonies change name to United States
    1775  CEUS Army founded
    1775  CEUS Marine Corps established by Congress
   Jan 1776  CEGeneral George Washington hoists Continental Union Flag
 14 Feb 1776  CEThomas Paine wites 'Common Sense'.
 12 Jun 1776  CEThe Virginia Declaration of Rights adapted by the Virginia Convention which was drafted by George Mason
  2 Jul 1776  CEDeclaration of Independence approved and signed by John Hancock with other Delegates signing two days later
  4 Jul 1776  CEAmerican Declaration of Independence was signed
 23 Dec 1776  CEThomas Paine publishes his first 'American Crisis' essay.
    1776  CEAmericans begin shelling British troops in Boston
    1776  CEAmericans withdraw from Manhattan to Westchester
    1776  CEBattle of Trenton-major British defeat
    1776  CEBattle of White Plains; Washington retreats to NJ
    1776  CEBrig Gen Arnold's Lake Champlain fleet defeated by British
    1776  CEBritish Brigade begins guarding Throgg Necks Road in the Bronx
    1776  CEBritish defeat Americans in Battle of Long Island
    1776  CEBritish forces capture Kip's Bay Manhattan during the Revolution
    1776  CEBritish forces evacuate Boston to Nova Scotia during Revolutionary War
    1776  CECharleston, SC repulses British sea attack
    1776  CECol John Glover & Marblehead regiment meet British Forces in Bronx
    1776  CEFrance and Spain agree to donate arms to American rebels.
    1776  CEGeorge Washington asks for a spy volunteer, Nathan Hale volunteers
    1776  CEGeorge Washington's retreating army crosses Delaware River from NJ
    1776  CEHalifax resolution for independence adopted by North Carolina
    1776  CEHessians capture Fort Lee, NJ
    1776  CEHessians capture Fort Washington, Manhattan
    1776  CENathan Hale executed as a spy by the British
    1776  CENathan Hale leaves Harlem Heights Camp (127th St) for spy mission
    1776  CERhode Island declares independence from England
    1776  CEThe first American revolutionary flag displayed
    1776  CEUS Continental Congress appoints a committee to write a Declaration of Independence
    1776  CEUS Continental Congress authorizes a medal for General George Washington
    1776  CEUS Continental Congress renames 'United Colonies', 'United States'
    1776  CEVirginia adopts Declaration of Rights
    1776  CEWashington crosses Delaware & surprises & defeats 1,400 Hessians
    1776  CEBenjamin Rush, professor of chemistry at Philadelphia and a member of Congress, signs the Declaration of Independence. Rush and his 'heroic' system of medicine dominated the profession well into the nineteenth century.
  3 Jan 1777  CEWashington defeats British at Battle of Princeton, New Jersey
 12 Mar 1777  CEUS Congress, flees to York Philidelphia from Baltimore, as British forces advance.
 14 Jun 1777  CEUS Continental Congress adopts Stars & Stripes replacing Grand Union flag.
 16 Aug 1777  CEAmericans defeat British in Battle of Bennington, Vt.
 11 Sep 1777  CEBattle of Brandywine, Pa; Americans lose to British
 11 Sep 1777  CEBattle of Brandywine
 19 Sep 1777  CEBattle of Freeman's Farm (Bemis Heights) or the first Battle of Saratoga.
  4 Oct 1777  CEBattle of Germantown; Washington defeated by the British
  7 Oct 1777  CEAmericans beat the British in the second Battle of Saratoga and the Battle of Bemis Heights.
 17 Oct 1777  CEBurgoyne's invasion from Canada begins and ends in failure at the Battle of Saratoga
 15 Nov 1777  CEArticles of Confederation written and and adopted by Continental Congress.
   Nov 1777  CEWashington settles his troops at Valley Forge, Pa for the winter
    1777  CEBritish ambassador Joseph Yorke demands dismissal of Governor John de Graaff for saluting US flag
    1777  CEBritish General Howe plots attack on Washington's army for Dec 4
    1777  CEBritish troops occupy Philadelphia during the American Revolution
 
  1777  CEFrance recognizes independence of English colonies in America.
 
 
  1777  CEMarquis de Lafayette lands in US.
 
 
  1777  CENew York adopts new constitution as an independent state
 
 
  1777  CEPeople of New Connecticut (Vermont) declare independence from England
 
 
  1777  CEThe first American national Thanksgiving Day, commemorating Burgoyne's surrender
 
 
  1777  CEVermont declares independence from NY
 
 
23 Feb 1778  CEPrussian Baron von Steuben joins Continental Army at Valley Forge and begins drilling and training the troops.
 
 
18 Jun 1778  CEGeneral Clinton and the British Redcoats, fearing a French blockade, withdraws from Philadelphia and marches for New York City.
 
 
19 Jun 1778  CEWashington moves from Valley Forge to intercept Clinton.
 
 
28 Jun 1778  CEBattle of Monmouth, NJ, after a standoff, General Clinton continues towards New York.
 
 
11 Nov 1778  CELoyalista and Iroquois Indians in New York kill 40 American settlers in the Cherry Valley Massacre.
 
 
  1778  CEArticles of Confederation ratified by the first state, South Carolina
 
 
  1778  CEBritish kill 17 Stockbridge indians in the Bronx during Revolution
 
 
  1778  CEFrance recognizes US, signs treaty of aid in Paris. The first US treaty.
 
 
  1778  CEMary Ludwig Hayes 'Molly Pitcher' aids American patriots
 
 
  1778  CEOliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, creates the symbol '$' to represent a dollar.
 
 
  1778  CERhode Island General Assembly authorizes enlistment of slaves
 
 
  1778  CEStars and Stripes arrives in foreign port for first time (France).
 
 
  1778  CEThe first American military court martial trial begins, Cambridge MA
 
 
15 Jul 1779  CEAmerican General Anthony Wayne captures Stony Point, Bronx.
 
 
27 Sep 1779  CECongress appoints John Adams to negotiate Revolutionary War peace terms with Britain with England.
 
 
  1779  CEBattle of Stone Ferry
 
 
  1779  CEGeorge Rogers Clark captures Vincennes IN from British
 
 
  1779  CEUS army Corps of Engineers established (first time)
 
 
12 May 1780  CECharleston SC falls to the British, with losses of 5,400 men, 4 ships and a military arsenal, this is the worst American defeat of the Revolutionary War.
 
 
16 Aug 1780  CEBritish decisively defeat Americans in Battle of Camden, SC.
 
 
16 Aug 1780  CEBattle of Camden
 
 
7 Oct 1780  CEBritish defeated by American militia near Kings Mountain, SC, Cornwallis abandons his invasion of North Carolina.
 
 
  1780  CEBattle at Cape St Vincent admiral Rodney beats Spanish fleet
 
 
  1780  CEBenedict Arnold gives British Major Andr‚ plans to West Point
 
 
  1780  CEBritish MAJ John Andre was apprehended as a Spy, near Tarrytown, NY
 
 
  1780  CESnowstorm hit Washington's army at Morristown New Jersey.
 
 
  1780  CEUS Continental Congress establishes court of appeals
 
 
15 Mar 1781  CEBattle of Guilford Court House, South Carolina, British General Cornwallis troops suffer heavy losses.
 
 
15 Mar 1781  CEBattle of Guildford
 
 
14 Aug 1781  CEGeorge Washington begins to move his troops south to fight Cornwallis
 
 
1 Sep 1781  CEAmericans & French begin siege of Cornwallis at Yorktown; last battle of the Revolutionary War
 
 
6 Sep 1781  CEBritish naval expedition led by Benedict Arnold loots and burns the port of New London, Connecticut.
 
 
19 Oct 1781  CECornwallis surrenders to Washington at Yorktown, precipitating the end of the American Revolutionary War of Independance.
 
 
  1781  CERobert Morris becomes the Superintendent of Finance in the Continental Congress
 
 
  1781  CEArticles of Confederation ratified by 13th state, Maryland
 
 
  1781  CEBank of North America incorporated in Philadelphia
 
 
  1781  CEBattle of Virginia Capes, French defeat British, traps Cornwallis
 
 
  1781  CEJack Jouett rides to warn Jefferson of British attack
 
 
  1781  CEJohn Hanson elected the first 'President of the US in Congress assembled'
 
 
  1781  CEUS Continental Congress adopts Articles of Confederation
 
 
19 Apr 1782  CENegiotiations by John Adams results in the recognition of the United States of America by the Netherlands.
 
 
20 Jun 1782  CEUS Congress approves Great Seal of US & the eagle as it's symbol
 
 
30 Nov 1782  CEBritain signs preliminary peace treaty recognizing US independence along with British withdrawal from America.
 
 
  1782  CECharleston, SC evacuated by British
 
 
  1782  CEGeorge Washington creates Order of the Purple Heart
 
 
  1782  CEThe first American commercial bank, Bank of North America, opens in Philadelphia
 
 
  1782  CEUS congress resolves the establishment of a US mint
 
 
3 Feb 1783  CESpain recognizes US independence.
 
 
4 Feb 1783  CEBritain officially declares an end to hostilities in America.
 
 
3 Sep 1783  CETreaty of Paris signed, ending the US Revolutionary War of Independance.
 
 
2 Nov 1783  CEGeneral Washington bids officers farewell at Fraunce's Tavern, New York NY
 
 
25 Nov 1783  CEBritain evacuates NY, their last military position in US
 
 
23 Dec 1783  CEWashington appears before Congress and voluntarily resigns as US Army's commander-in-chief.
 
 
  1783  CESweden & US sign a treaty of Amity & Commerce
 
 
  1783  CESweden recognizes US independence.
 
 
14 Jan 1784  CETreaty of Paris ratified by US congress formally ending the American Revolutionary War of Independance.
 
 
  1791  CETo help recover debts from the US Revolutionary War an excise tax on whiskey prompted the Whiskey Rebellion that peaked in 1794 near Pittsburgh. The tax was repealed 8 years later.
 
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
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