HistoryMole.com HistoryMole.com
Login:
 Home  Search  Browse  Schools  Help  Feedback 
 
 
TimeScape Biographies Themes Subjects  |
 
Related Topics
Medicine
Medicine
The Printed Legacy
The Printed Legacy
Late Christianity
Late Christianity
Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
Exploration of Land & Sea
Exploration of Land & Sea
Jupiter
Jupiter
Saturn
Saturn
Technology & Engineering

Technology & Engineering (0050-)

View or Print as PDF View or print as a PDF
Key technological developments throughout human history.
Timeline
c.    0050  CEHero of Alexandria invented crude steam engine 'aeolipile'.
    0285  CEPappus of Alex, described 5 machines (cogwheel, lever, pulley, screw and wedge).
    0595  CEFirst authenticated record of decimal number system (0-9) appears in India
    0868  CEThe Buddhist script 'The Diamond Sutra' becomes the world's first known woodblock-printed book on paper when it is produced in China, althogh the method was in use much earlier.
    1280  CEEyeglasses are invented and later improved in the late medieval period.
    1492  CELeonardo da Vinci drew a flying machine.
    1495  CELeonardo da Vinci sketched a design of a parachute.
c.    1500  CE(Between 1500s) Holland and Saxony began to protect the rights of inventors to their creations.
    1502  CEIn Germany, Peter Henlein of Nuremberg used iron parts and coiled springs to build a portable timepiece, the forerunner of the pocket watch.
    1504  CEVenetian ambassadors proposed to Turkey the construction of a Suez Canal.
    1509  CEPeter Henlein, Nuremberg inventor, invented the watch, nicknamed the Nuremberg egg.
    1510  CEThe wheel-lock firearm was introduced in Nurnberg, Germany.
    1510  CELeonardo da Vinci designed the horizontal water wheel that was the forerunner of the modern water turbine.
    1515  CELeonardo Da Vinci makes progress in mechanics and aerodynamics and hydraulics.
    1515  CEThe first nationalized French factories were set up in the manufacture of tapestries and arms.
    1519  CEA mass-production technique for casting brass objects was used in Italy.
    1530  CEGeorgius Agricola, German mineralogist and scholar, published 'De Re Metallica', the first systematic book on mineralogy.
    1530  CEThe carpenter's bench and vice first come into use.
    1537  CEGerhardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, surveyed and drew a map of Flanders that was so accurate that Charles V made him his geographer.
    1537  CENicccolo Fontana founded the science of ballistics when he outlines the trajectory of a bullet.
    1538  CEThe earliest reference to a diving bell was made at Toledo, Spain.
    1539  CEThe first form of a flintlock was recorded in Sweden.
    1551  CEGirolamo Cardano completes studies of falling bodies.
    1553  CEGiambattista Benedetti proposed the equality of fall rates.
    1556  CEA German mineralogist described the hazards of mining, including occupational diseases such as 'difficulty in breathing and destruction of the lungs'.
    1560  CEGiovannin Battista della Porta founded the first scientific society in Naples.
    1570  CEGeorge Owen wrote his 'History of Pembrokeshire', wherein he clearly set forth the orderly principle of geological stratigraphy; but the work was not published until 1796.
c.    1570  CEChristian Huygens built the first pendulum clock.
    1581  CEGalileo Galilei describes the constancy timekeeping property of the period of a pendulum.
    1581  CERobert Norman discovers that the dip of compass shows that Earth is a magnet.
    1581  CEJames Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, was born. He stated the age of the Earth based on the bible.
    1583  CEGalileo discovered the parabolic nature of trajectories.
    1585  CEGiovanni Benedetti develops impetus theory which is better than Aristotle's physics.
    1585  CESimon Stevin describes the law of equilibrium.
    1585  CEBartholomew Newsam built the earliest surviving English spring-driven clocks.
    1586  CESimon Stevin describes pressure in a column of liquid.
    1586  CESimon Stevin verifies the equality of fall rates.
    1589  CEGalileo Galilei uses balls rolling on inclined planes to show that different weights fall with the same acceleration independent of mass.
    1589  CEWilliam Lee, English clergyman, invented the stocking frame, the first knitting machine.
    1589  CESir John Harrington, Elizabethan poet, designed the first water closet and installed it at his country house near Bath. In 1596 he installed one at the palace of his godmother Queen Elizabeth I.
    1590  CEZacharias Janssen invents the microscope.
    1592  CEGalileo Galilei builds a crude thermometer using the contraction of air to draw water up a tube.
    1592  CEGalileo Galilei suggests that the physical laws of the heavens are the same as those on Earth.
    1593  CEJohannes Kepler related planets to platonic solids.
    1600  CEGalileo Galilei made a study of sound and vibrating strings.
    1600  CERudolph II, King of the Holy Roman Empire, ruled from Prague and lured the astronomer, Tycho Brahe, from Denmark as well as his student Johannes Kepler.
    1602  CEOtto von Guericke (1602-1686), was born. He helped to overthrow the guesswork physics of Aristotle through experiments with air pressure.
    1603  CEGalileo invented the thermometer.
    1604  CEGalileo Galilei discovered that distance for falling object increases as square of time.
    1604  CEJohannes Kepler describes how the eye focuses light.
    1608  CEPrototype of modern reflecting telescope completed by Jan Lippershey offered to the Dutch government.
    1609  CEJohannes Kepler develops the notion of energy.
    1609  CELippershey and Janssen invent the compound microscope.
    1611  CEJohannes Kepler discovers a small angle refraction law.
    1611  CEJohannes Kepler discovers thin lens optics.
    1611  CEJohannes Kepler discovers total internal reflection.
    1611  CEJohannes Kepler outlined the principles of the astronomical telescope.
    1611  CEMarco de Dominis developed an explanation of how a rainbow is formed in 'De Radiis Visus et Lucis' .
    1613  CEGalileo Galilei outlined the principle of inertia.
    1616  CEGalileo was forbidden from continuing his scientific work by the Roman Catholic Church.
  8 Mar 1618  CEJohannes Kepler devised his Third Law of Planetary Motion.
 15 May 1618  CEJohannes Kepler discovers his harmonics law.
    1619  CEJohannes Kepler postulates a solar wind to explain the direction of comet tails.
    1619  CEJohannes Kepler states his third empirical law of planetary motion.
    1620  CEFrancis Bacon published his 'Novum Organon'. He noted the striking fit of the opposing coastlines of South America and Western Africa on opposite shores of the Atlantic Ocean.
    1620  CEFrancis Bacon stated that heat is motion.
    1620  CEFrancis Bacon's call for empirical method in scientific inquiry in his 'Novum Organum' prompted a new spirit of investigation that acknowledged the value of observation.
    1620  CEJan Baptista van Helmont introduces the word 'gas'.
    1620  CEIn England Dutch-born Cornelius Drebbel tested a submarine which cruised 15 feet under the Thames.
    1621  CEWillebrord Snell outlines the sine law of refraction now known as Snell's Law.
    1624  CEGalileo Galilei developed the theory of tides.
  8 Jun 1625  CEGiovanni Domenico Cassini, discoverer of four satellites of Saturn, was born in Italy. He was an astrologer and then became an astronomer and was known in France as Jean-Dominique Cassini. At the Paris observatory he discovered the wide gap in the rings of Saturn now called the Cassini division, as well as four of the planet's moons.
    1626  CEGodfried Wendilin verified Kepler's laws for moons of Jupiter.
    1630  CECabaeus describes attraction and repulsion of electric charges.
    1632  CEItalian astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) develops Galilean relativity.
    1632  CEGalileo Galilei develops support for Copernicus' heliocentric theory.
    1632  CEJohn Ray invents the water thermometer.
    1632  CEGalileo's book 'Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems' was published with the full backing of the church censors. It was soon recognized to support Copernican theory and Galileo was put under house arrest for life.
 13 Feb 1633  CEItalian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before the Inquisition.
    1633  CERene Descartes wrote 'Le Monde' in which he upheld the theories of Copernicus but halted publication to prevent conflict with the Church.
 
  1633  CEGalileo's trial for heresy.
 
 
  1635  CERobert Hooke (1635-1703), English scientist, was born. A friend of Newton, he suggested that the properties of matter, especially gases, could be understood in terms of the motion and collision of atoms.
 
 
  1636  CEG. Pers de Roberval states that gravitational forces are mutual attraction.
 
 
  1637  CERene Descartes describes inertia in mechanistic physics.
 
 
  1637  CERene Descartes quantitatively and derives the angles at which primary and secondary rainbows are refracted with respect to the angle of the Sun's elevation.
 
 
  1638  CEGalileo Galilei describes motion and friction.
 
 
  1638  CEGalileo Galilei publishes 'Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences'.
 
 
  1638  CEGalileo smuggled out his book 'Two New Sciences' to a publisher in Holland.
 
 
  1640  CEChemical lighters came out in London that used phosphorus and sulfur.
 
 
  1641  CEFerdinand II develops the sealed thermometer.
 
 
8 Jan 1642  CEAstronomer Galileo Galilei died in Arcetri, Italy. Galileo had 2 daughters consigned to a nunnery and one son, whom he got married into a rich Florentine family.
 
 
4 Jan 1643  CESir Isaac Newton (1643-1727), the scientist who developed the laws of gravity, was born in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England.
 
 
  1643  CEItalian Evangelista Torricelli invents the mercury barometer.
 
 
  1644  CEItalian Evangelista Torricelli (1608-1647) developed the first artificial vacuum.
 
 
  1644  CEJohan Baptista von Helmont, Flemish alchemist and physician, had a manuscript published post mortem where he described invisible spirits bubbling from flasks in his laboratory. He coined the word 'Gas' from the Greek word for chaos to describe the invisible spirits. One of the gases he studied was carbon dioxide which he called gas sylvestris, or spirit of wood.
 
 
  1645  CEOtto von Guericke builds the first vacuum pump.
 
 
  1648  CEBlaise Pascal explains barometer as a result of atmospheric pressure.
 
 
  1650  CEOtto von Guericke performs a demonstration of the power of vacuum using two large hemispheres and 8 horses.
 
 
  1654  CEFerdinand II develops the sealed thermometer.
 
 
  1654  CEJacob Bernouilli (1654-1705), Swiss mathematician and physicist, was born. The Bernouilli effect is named after him.
 
 
  1655  CEJohn Wallis writes 'Arithmetica Infinitorum'.
 
 
  1655  CEIn Bologna Domenico Cassini persuaded the builders of the Basilica of San Petronio that they should include a major upgrade of Danti's old meridian with a new entry hole for daylight to track the projected sun on the cathedral floor. Sassini was able to use the observatory to confirm Kepler's version of the Copernican theory.
 
 
  1656  CEDutch physicist Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) built the first accurate pendulum clock.
 
 
  1657  CEPierre de Fermat introduces Fermat's principle of least time into optics.
 
 
  1657  CEA pendulum clock was designed by Christian Huygens and built by Solomon Coster. It is on exhibit at the Time Museum in Rockford, Ill.
 
 
  1660  CEOtto von Guericke develops an electrostatic machine.
 
 
  1660  CERobert Boyle states that sound will not travel in a vacuum.
 
 
  1660  CEThe Dutch crafted an early version of a boat they called a 'yacht'.
 
 
  1661  CERobert Boyle carefully experimented with increase in plant biomass in an effort to determine what had happened to the water taken up by plants.
 
 
  1661  CEIrish chemist Robert Boyle develops the corpuscular theory of matter postulating the exitence of atoms.
 
 
3 May 1662  CEJohn Winthrop the Younger, the son of the first governor of Massachusetts was honored by being made a fellow of the Royal Society, England's new scientific society. Winthrop gained a new charter from the king, uniting the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven.
 
 
  1662  CEBlaise Pascal invents a horse-drawn public bus which has a regular route a schedule and a fare system.
 
 
  1662  CEIrish chemist Robert Boyle develops Boyle's law for ideal gases relating volume to pressure.
 
 
  1663  CEHuygens, Wallace and Wren describe the laws of elastic collisions.
 
 
  1663  CERobert Hooke sees cells in cork using a microscope.
 
 
  1664  CERene Descartes published support for the Copernican theory.
 
 
  1665  CEFrancesco Grimaldi publishes his wave theory of light.
 
 
  1665  CEHooke and Huygens show how the colours of oil film is explained by wave theory of light and interference.
 
 
  1665  CEIsaac Newton deduces the inverse-square gravitational force law from the 'falling' of the Moon.
 
 
  1665  CEIsaac Newton invents his calculus.
 
 
  1665  CEPhilosophical Transactions of Royal Society starts publishing.
 
 
  1666  CEIsaac Newton begins work on the laws of mechanics and gravitation.
 
 
  1668  CEJohn Wallis suggests the law of conservation of momentum.
 
 
  1669  CEErasmus Bartholin describes double refraction caused by polarisation effects of Iceland feldspar.
 
 
  1669  CEGottfreid Leibniz describes the first concepts of action.
 
 
  1669  CEWhile Mount Etna erupted, German scholar Athanasius Kircher was busy devising a machine that would clean out volcanoes the way a chimney sweep cleaned out clogged chimneys.
 
 
  1669  CENils Steensen's 'Prodromus' was first published in Italy and translated to English two years later. It explained the authors determination of the successive order of the earth strata.
 
 
  1670  CEMinute hands on watches first appeared.
 
 
  1672  CEIsaac Newton suggests that the variation of a pendulum is due to equatorial bulge.
 
 
  1672  CEJean Richer and Giovanni Cassini measure the astronomical unit (AU) to be about 138,370,000 km. This is the distance from the Earth to the the Sun.
 
 
  1672  CEJean Richer observes that the period of a pendulum varies with latitude.
 
 
  1672  CEIsaac Newton reads the first optics paper before Royal Society in London.
 
 
  1673  CEChristiaan Huygens develops laws of centripetal force.
 
 
  1673  CEIgnace Pardies develops a wave explanation for refraction of light.
 
 
  1673  CEScientific research began in Cuba.
 
 
  1674  CEAnton van Leeuwenhoek invents the compound microscope.
 
 
  1674  CERobert Hooke attempted to explain planetary motion as a balance of centfifugal force and gravitational attraction.
 
 
  1675  CEIsaac Newton delivers his theory of light.
 
 
  1675  CEOle Romer uses the orbital mechanics of Jupiter's moons to estimate that the speed of light is about 227,000 km/s.
 
 
  1676  CEEdme Mariotte shows that pressure is inversely proportional to volume (Boyle's law) and height of atmosphere.
 
 
  1676  CERobert Hooke develops the law of elasticity and springs.
 
 
  1677  CEStephen Hales (1677-1761), English botanist and chemist, was born.
 
 
  1678  CEChristian Huygens states his principle of wavefront sources in light.
 
 
  1678  CERobert Hooke develops the inverse square law of gravity.
 
 
  1679  CEChristiaan Huygens describes polarisation of light.
 
 
  1680  CEIsaac Newton demonstrates that inverse square law implies eliptical orbits.
 
 
16 Apr 1682  CEJohn Hadley (1682-1744), was born, in in Enfield Chase (near East Barnet, now in London), Hertfordshire, in England.
 
 
14 May 1686  CEGabriel Daniel Fahrenheit German physicist and instrument maker, was born. He invented the thermometer.
 
 
  1686  CEEdmund Halley establishes the relationship between barometric pressure and height above sea level.
 
 
  1686  CEEdmund Halley presents a systematic study of the trade winds and monsoons and identifies solar heating as the cause of atmospheric motions.
 
 
  1686  CEIsaac Newton uses a fixed length pendulum with weights of varying composition to test the weak equivalence principle.
 
 
  1686  CEThe first volume of Isaac Newton's 'Principia' published.
 
 
  1687  CEIsaac Newton publishes his analysis of sound propagation.
 
 
  1687  CEIsaac Newton publishes his laws of motion and gravitation.
 
 
  1687  CENewton declared that time is absolute... 'It flows equably without relation to anything external'. This view was held until Einstein's relativity in 1905.
 
 
  1687  CEClocks began to be made with 2 hands for the first time
 
 
  1690  CEGiuseppe Ghezzi found the Codex Leicester, a notebook of Leonardo da Vinci in Rome. It was primarily a treatise on the nature of water in all its properties, manifestations and uses.
 
 
  1691  CEJohann (James) Bernoulli shows that a chain freely suspended from two points will form a catenary curve which has the lowest possible center of gravity.
 
 
31 Mar 1693  CEJohn Harrison (1693-1776), Englishman who invented the chronometer, was born.
 
 
  1697  CEIsaac Newton receives Jean Bernoulli's 6 month time-limit problem, solves problem before going to bed that same night.
 
 
  1698  CEEnglish engineer, Thomas Savery (1650?-1715) builds a steam-powered water pump for pumping water out of mines.
 
 
  1702  CEFrancis Hauksbee observes rarified air glows during electrical discharge.
 
 
  1704  CESir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) publishes 'Optiks' which contains the corpuscular theory of light and colour.
 
 
  1705  CEQueen Anne of England knights Isaac Newton at Trinity College in Cambridge.
 
 
  1709  CEDaniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) invents the alcohol thermometer.
 
 
  1709  CEAbraham Darby extracts coke from bituminous coal.
 
 
  1712  CEThe First Industrial Revolution begins when Newcomen's Steam Engine is installed at the Dudley Castle Coal Mine.
 
 
  1712  CEThomas Newcomen builds a piston-and-cylinder steam-powered water pump for pumping water out of mines.
 
 
  1714  CEBrook Taylor derives the fundamental frequency of a stretched vibrating string in terms of its tension and mass per unit length by solving an ordinary differential equation.
 
 
  1714  CEGabriel Fahrenheit invents the mercury in glass thermometer.
 
 
  1714  CEGottfreid Leibniz rejects the concepts of absolute space and time.
 
 
  1714  CEHenry Mill receives patent in England for a typewriter, which is not built until years later.
 
 
  1715  CEFrench manufacturer debuts the first folding umbrella in Paris.
 
 
  1716  CEEdmund Halley builds a diving bell.
 
 
  1716  CEThe first lighthouse in America is lit in Boston Harbor.
 
 
  1716  CEJohn Hadley (1682-1744), became a Fellow of the Royal Society.
 
 
  1718  CEJames Puckle, a London lawyer, patents the world's first machine gun.
 
 
  1721  CEJohn Hadley (1682-1744), built the first Newtonian reflecting telescope.
 
 
  1722  CEAbraham De Moivre states De Moivre's theorem.
 
 
  1724  CEGabriel Fahrenheit demonstrates supercooling of water.
 
 
  1727  CEStephen Hales (1677-1761) makes Oxygen.
 
 
  1727  CESchulze begins science of photochemistry.
 
 
  1728  CEJames Bradley discovers the aberration of starlight and uses it to determine that the speed of light is about 283,000 km per second.
 
 
  1730  CEJames Stirling publishes 'The Differential Method'.
 
 
  1730  CEJohn Hadley (1682-1744), invents a quadrant which measured the altitude of the Sun or of a star. This design later became the sextant.
 
 
  1731  CEJohn Hadley (1682-1784), showed his new quadrant to the Royal Society. After the addition of a magnigying glass to read the scale and a telescope to take the bearing, it later became the sextant.
 
 
  1731  CERene Reaumur invents the alcohol/water thermometer.
 
 
  1733  CECharles Du Fay recognises the distinction between positive and negative electric charge.
 
 
  1733  CEDaniel Bernoulli derives the fundamental frequency and harmonics of a hanging chain by solving an ordinary differential equation.
 
 
  1733  CEJohn Kay invented and patented the flying shuttle loom which enabled broader cloth could be woven at a quicker rate.
 
 
  1734  CEDaniel Bernoulli solves the ordinary differental equation for the vibrations of an elastic bar clamped at one end.
 
 
  1736  CELeonhard Euler solves the Koenigsberg bridge problem.
 
 
  1737  CEJohn Harrison invents the first stable nautical chronometer (clock), thereby allowing for precise longitude determination while at sea.
 
 
  1738  CEDaniel Bernoulli develops the kinetic theory of gas.
 
 
  1738  CEDaniel Bernoulli examines fluid flow in Hydrodynamica.
 
 
  1739  CELeonhard Euler solves differential equation for a forced harmonic oscillator and notices the resonance phenomenon.
 
 
  1740  CEJacques de Vaucanson demonstrates his clockwork powered carriage.
 
 
  1741  CEJethro Tull (1674-1741), English agriculturalist, perfeced a machine drill for sowing seed and advocates turning the soil around plants to increase productivity.
 
 
  1742  CEAnders Celsius develops the reverse centigrade temperature scale, with 0 for the boiling point of water and 100 for the freezing point.
 
 
  1742  CEColin Maclaurin discovers his uniformly rotating self-gravitating spheroids.
 
 
  1743  CEJean Christin develops the Celsius temperature scale.
 
 
  1744  CEJean d'Alembert develops a theory of fluid dynamics.
 
 
  1744  CEMikhail Lomonosov postulates that heat is a form of motion.
 
 
  1744  CEPierre de Maupertuis develops the principle of least action.
 
 
  1744  CERubber was first introduced to Europe by Charles Marie de la Condamine.
 
 
  1745  CEvon Kleist and van Musschenbroek develop the Leyden jar for electric charge storage.
 
 
  1746  CELeonhard Euler develops the wave theory of light refraction and dispersion.
 
 
  1747  CEd'Alembert and Euler develop a solution of equations for vibrating strings.
 
 
  1747  CEPierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis applies minimum principles to mechanics.
 
 
  1748  CEMikhail Lomonosov describes conservation of mass and energy.
 
 
  1749  CEThomas Melvill performs early spectrscopy and discovers the yellow line of sodium in salt.
 
 
  1750  CEBenjamin Franklin describes a theory of electricity and lightning.
 
 
  1751  CEBenjamin Franklin shows that electricity can magnetise needles.
 
 
  1752  CEBenjamin Franklin's kite is struck by lightning, proving that lightning is electricity and so inveted the lightning rod.
 
 
  1753  CEBenjamin Franklin is awarded the Coply gold medal of the Royal Society for his experiments with electricity.
 
 
  1755  CEThe first steam engine in America is installed to pump water from a mine.
 
 
  1756  CEMikhail Lomonosov completes work that supports wave theory of light.
 
 
  1756  CEWilliam Cullen shows that evaporation causes cooling.
 
 
  1758  CEJohn Dolland reinvents the achromatic lens.
 
 
  1759  CELeonhard Euler solves the partial differential equation for the vibration of a rectangular drum.
 
 
  1761  CEThe construction of the Bridgewater Canal (1759-1761), in England, was completed.
 
 
  1761  CEJoseph Black discovers and measures latent and specific heats when he observes that ice absorbs heat without changing temperature when melting .
 
 
  1761  CEThomas Bayes proves Bayes' theorem.
 
 
  1762  CEIn Scotland cast iron is converted into malleable iron for the first time at the ironworks in Stirlingshire.
 
 
  1764  CEJames Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny, which meant that more than one thread could be produced at a time.
 
 
  1766  CEJoseph Priestley proposes an inverse square law for electric charge.
 
 
  1766  CEThe first fire escape patented, wicker basket on a pulley and chain.
 
 
  1769  CEScottish inventor James Watt patents an inproved condenser for a practical steam engine
 
 
  1769  CEThe first working automobile in history was a steam tractor used to pull artillery for the French Army.
 
 
  1769  CERichard Arkwright invents a spinning frame to mechanize cotton weaving.
 
 
  1769  CEJames Watt patents his first improved steam engine.
 
 
  1770  CEJoseph Priestly coined the name 'rubber' for the natural latex of the South American tree 'Hevea brasiliensis'.
 
 
  1771  CEJoseph Priestly discovers that plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.
 
 
  1774  CEAndrew Becker demonstrates a diving suit.
 
 
  1777  CEThe construction of Grand Trunk Canal (1766-77) was completed.
 
 
  1779  CESamuel Compton's Mule allowed the spinning of finer cloths.
 
 
  1779  CECharles Augustin de Coulomb develops Coulomb's law of friction.
 
 
26 Dec 1780  CEMary Fairfax Somerville (1780-1872) was born in Jedburgh Scotland, the daughter of Margaret Charters and Lieutenant William George Fairfax, a vice admiral in the British Navy.
 
 
  1782  CEJoseph and Etienne Montgolfier develop the hot air balloon
 
 
  1783  CERene Hauy explains the nature of crystals.
 
 
  1784  CEPierre Laplace develops the concept of electrostatic potential.
 
 
  1785  CECharles Augustin de Coulomb introduces the inverse-square law of electrostatics stating that electric force proportional to product of charges and inverse square of distance.
 
 
  1785  CEBenjamin Franklin announces his invention of bifocals spectacles.
 
 
  1786  CEEdmund Cartwright's Power Loom completed the mechanisation of the weaving process.
 
 
  1787  CEJacques-Alexander Charles postulates a law of gas expansion with temperature, now known as 'Charles Law'.
 
 
  1787  CEJohn Fitch's steamboat completes its tests, years before Fulton.
 
 
  1788  CEJoseph Lagrange presents Lagrange's equations of motion in 'Mecanique Analytique'. This is now known as 'Lagrangian Mechanics'.
 
 
  1788  CEThe first American steamboat patent issued, by Georgia to Briggs & Longstreet.
 
 
  1790  CEThe definition of the metric system took place in France.
 
 
  1790  CEThe first successful US cotton mill to spin yarn in Pawtucket, RI.
 
 
  1791  CEJohn Fitch is granted a US patent for his working steamboat.
 
 
  1791  CEJohn Stone of Concord, Massachusetts, patents a pile driver.
 
 
  1792  CEA mechanical semaphore signaler was built in France.
 
 
  1793  CEClaude Chappe establishes the first long-distance semaphore telegraph line.
 
 
4 Mar 1794  CEEli Whitney patents the cotton gin, radically increasing cotton productivity
 
 
  1794  CEJosiah Pierson patents a 'cold-header' (rivet) machine.
 
 
  1794  CEThe first American textile machinery patent granted, to James Davenport, Philadelphia, PA.
 
 
  1795  CEPierre Laplace discusses classical bodies which have escape velocities greater than the speed of light.
 
 
  1796  CEAlessandro Volta invents chemical batteries and the concept of voltage.
 
 
  1796  CEKarl Gauss presents a method for constructing a heptadecagon using only a compass and straightedge. he also shows that only polygons with certain numbers of sides can be constructed.
 
 
  1796  CEJames S McLean patents his piano.
 
 
  1797  CEHenry Cavendish measured the gravitational constant with a torsion balance.
 
 
  1797  CECharles Newbold patents first cast-iron plow. He could not sell it to farmers because of thire fear of the effects of iron on soil.
 
 
  1797  CENathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire patents a washing machine.
 
 
  1798  CECount Benjamin Rumford completes experimental relation between work done and heat generated and shows that heat is a form of energy.
 
 
  1798  CEFrenchman Nicholas Robert invented the first machinery to manufacture paper.
 
 
  1798  CEDavid Wilkinson of Rhode Island patents a nut and bolt machine.
 
 
  1799  CEEli Whitney received a US government contract for 10,000 muskets.
 
 
  1800  CEItallian Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic cell (the electric battery).
 
 
  1801  CEBritish engineer Richard Trevithick built a steam coach.
 
 
  1801  CEFrench textile manufacturer Joseph Marie Jacquard developed an automatic loom controlled by punch cards.
 
 
  1801  CEFrench textile manufacturer Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents the Jacquard punched card loom.
 
 
  1801  CERichard Trevithick builds a prototype steam powered railroad locomotive.
 
 
  1801  CERobert Fulton builds the first submarine.
 
 
  1804  CERichard Trevithick built the first steam locomotive and ran it on a track at the Pen-y-darren ironworks in South Wales.
 
 
  1804  CEJohn Dalton develops Dalton's Law of partial pressures.
 
 
  1807  CEThe first sucessful steamboat sailed between New York and Albany.
 
 
  1807  CESweedish chemist Jons Berzelius proposed that chemicals produced by living creatures should be termed 'organic'.
 
 
  1807  CEIsaac de Rivas makes a hydrogen gas powered vehicle.
 
 
  1807  CELondon's Pall Mall is the first street to be lit by gaslight.
 
 
  1807  CERobert Fulton's steamboat Clermont begins the first trip up Hudson River.
 
 
  1807  CEThe first railway passenger service began in England.
 
 
  1808  CEThe first practical typewriter finished by Italian Pellegrini Turri. He buit it for a blind contessa.
 
 
  1808  CEAnthracite coal first burned as a fuel, experimentally, by Wilkes-Barre of Pennsilvania.
 
 
  1808  CEPellegrino Turri invented a typewriting machine in Italy. Since 'black paper' was essential for the operation of his machine, he must have perfected his form of carbon paper at virtually the same time as Wedgwood who issued a patent in 1806.
 
 
  1809  CEEtienne Malus publishes the law of Malus which predicts the light intensity transmitted by two polarizing sheets.
 
 
  1809  CESimeon-Denis Poisson develops Poisson brackets in mechanics.
 
 
  1809  CEMary Kies is first woman to be issued with a US patent (for weaving straw).
 
 
  1809  CEPeregrine Williamson of Baltimore patents a steel pen.
 
 
  1809  CERobert Fulton patents the steamboat.
 
 
  1809  CEThe first US steamboat to a make an ocean voyage leaves New York for Philadelphia.
 
 
  1810  CEAn electro-chemical telegraph is constructed in Germany.
 
 
  1811  CEFrancois Arago discovers that some quartz crystals will continuously rotate the electric vector of light.
 
 
  1811  CEJean-Baptiste Fourier develops harmonic analysis.
 
 
  1812  CEDavid Brewster describes behaviour of polarised light.
 
 
  1812  CEPeter Gaillard of Lancaster, Pennsilvania, patents a horse-drawn mower.
 
 
  1813  CEDavid Melville, of Newport, Rhode Island, patents an apparatus for making coal gas.
 
 
  1813  CERubber is patented.
 
 
  1813  CEThe first US raw cotton-to-cloth mill is founded in Waltham, Massachusetts.
 
 
  1814  CEGeorge Stephenson builds the first practical steam powered railroad locomotive.
 
 
  1814  CEJoseph von Fraunhofer invents the spectroscope.
 
 
  1814  CEIn England, a steam-powered rotary press is used to print 'The Times'.
 
 
  1815  CEWilliam Smith showed how rock strata can be identified on the basis of the fossils found in them.
 
 
  1815  CEAugustin Fresnel develops the theory of light diffraction.
 
 
  1816  CEDavid Brewster discovers stress birefringence.
 
 
  1816  CEJoseph von Fraunhofer first observes absorption lines in sun's spectrum.
 
 
  1816  CEThe first double decked steamboat, the Washington, arrived in New Orleans.
 
 
  1816  CEThe single-wire telegraph is introduced.
 
 
  1817  CEYoung and Fresnel explain the transverse nature of light.
 
 
  1817  CEThe first Mississippi showboat leaves Nashville on its maiden voyage.
 
 
  1817  CEBaltimore becomes the first US city to be lit by gas lights.
 
 
  1817  CEThe first US gas company is incorporated in Baltimore. It made coal gas for street lights.
 
 
  1818  CEAugustin Fresnel states that 'the ether' is an absolute rest frame.
 
 
  1818  CEFrancois Arago verifies the existence of the Poisson bright spot at the center of the shadow of a circular opaque obstacle.
 
 
  1818  CESimeon Poisson predicts the Poisson bright spot at the center of the shadow of a circular opaque obstacle.
 
 
  1818  CEIn Sweden, Berzelius isolates selenium a material whose electrical conductivity changes with light.
 
 
  1818  CEBaron Karl von Drais de Sauerbrun patents the 'draisine' which ia an early type of bicycle.
 
 
  1818  CEThe first steam-vessel to sail Great Lakes is launched.
 
 
  1819  CEHand Oersted discovered electromagnetism.
 
 
  1819  CEAugustus Siebe invents a diving suit which receives air pumped down from the surface.
 
 
  1819  CESavannah becomes first steamship to cross any ocean (the Atlantic) leaving from Savannah, Georgia.
 
 
  1819  CEThe first bicycles (swift walkers) in the US were introduced in New York City.
 
 
  1820  CEAndre Ampere observes force on an electric current in a magnetic field.
 
 
  1820  CEBiot and Savart develop the force law between an electric current and a magnetic field.
 
 
  1820  CEHans Christian Oersted observed that an electric current deflects a magnetised needle hence discovering electromagnetism
 
 
  1821  CEEnglish pysicist and chemist Michael Faraday described the dynamo principle.
 
 
  1821  CEGerman physicist Thomas Seebeck invented the thermocouple and hence thermoelectricity.
 
 
  1821  CEJoseph von Fraunhofer performs experiments with a diffraction grating.
 
 
  1821  CEMichael Faraday invents the first electric motor.
 
 
  1821  CEMichael Faraday plotted the magnetic field around a conductor.
 
 
  1821  CEIn England, Wheatstone reproduces sound.
 
 
  1821  CEJames Boyd patents the Rubber Fire Hose.
 
 
  1822  CEFrench physicist Andre Ampere established the laws of electrodynamics. He showed that two wires with electric currents attract each other.
 
 
  1822  CEFriedrich Mohs introduced a scale for specifing mineranl hardness in Germany.
 
 
  1822  CECharles M Graham of New York patents artificial teeth (false teeth).
 
 
  1823  CECharles MacIntosh of Scotland found that fabrics could be made waterproof by treating with natural rubber and so begins selling raincoats.
 
 
  1823  CEJohann Schweigger develops the galvanometer.
 
 
  1823  CEJohn William Herschel suggests the identification of the chemical composition of a smaple from its spectrum.
 
 
  1823  CEWilliam Sturgeon invents the electromagnet.
 
 
  1823  CEIn England, Ronalds builds a telegraph in his garden but it attracts no interest at the time.
 
 
  1823  CEThe first steamboat to navigate the Mississippi River arrives at Fort Snelling.
 
 
  1823  CERobert Stephenson joined with George Stephenson and Edward Pease to form a company to make locomotives. Robert Stephenson & Company, at Forth Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, became the world's first locomotive builder.
 
 
  1824  CEFrench scientist Sadi Carnot proposed Thermodynamics as a branch of Physics.
 
 
  1824  CESadi Carnot shows that heat transfer goes from hot body to cold body.
 
 
  1824  CESadi Carnot scientifically analyzes the efficiency of steam engines.
 
 
  1824  CEWashing machine patented by Noah Cushing of Quebec.
 
 
  1825  CEGeorge Stephenson built the first public railway to carry steam trains between Stockton and Darlington
 
 
  1825  CEAugustin Fresnel phenomenologically explains optical activity by introducing circular birefringence.
 
 
  1825  CEPierre Laplace completes his study of gravitation, the stability of the solar system, tides, the precession of the equinoxes, the libration of the Moon and Saturn's rings in 'Mécanique Céleste' (Celestial Mechanics).
 
 
  1825  CEEzra Daggett and his nephew Thomas Kensett patent food storage in tin cans.
 
 
  1825  CEMary Fairfax Somerville's scientific investigations began, when she carried out experiments on magnetism.
 
 
  1826  CEGerman physicist Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854) establishes Ohm's Law of electrical resistance.
 
 
  1826  CEGranite Railway, the first chartered railway in the US, begins operations.
 
 
  1827  CEJohn Walker invented phosphorous matches.
 
 
  1827  CEIn London, Wheatstone constructs a microphone.
 
 
  1827  CEThe first commercial railroad in US, Baltimore & Ohio (B&O) is chartered.
 
 
  1829  CEThomas Graham established the Law of Gaseous Diffusion.
 
 
  1829  CEStephenson designed his locomotive 'Rocket'.
 
 
  1829  CERussian Nikolai Lobachevski publishes his work on hyperbolic non-Euclidean geometry.
 
 
  1829  CEThomas Graham deveolps the gas diffusion law.
 
 
  1829  CEBurt is awarded the first US patent for a typewriter.
 
 
  1829  CEThe 'Stourbridge Lion' locomotive goes into service.
 
 
  1830  CEScottish geologist Charles Lyell published the first volume of The Principles of Geology. This described the earth as being several hundred million years old.
 
 
  1830  CEStephenson completed the Liverpool and Manchester Railway the first steam passenger line.
 
 
  1830  CEEnglish textile-mill engineer Edwin Budding develops the first machine for cutting lawns (a lawnmower) and signs an agreement to manufacture them.
 
 
  1830  CEA horse beats the first US-made locomotive near Baltimore.
 
 
  1830  CEThe Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company begins carrying revenue traffic. The frst US Railroad Station is built at Baltimore.
 
 
  1830  CEThe first passenger rail service in the US begins. It runs between Baltimore and Elliots Mill in Maryland.
 
 
  1830  CEThe first to be run-over by a railroad train (William Huskisson, England).
 
 
  1831  CEFaraday discovered electromagnetic induction.
 
 
  1831  CEJoseph Henry proposes and builds an electric telegraph.
 
 
  1831  CEMichael Faraday observes that a moving magnet induces an electric current.
 
 
  1831  CEMichael Faraday discovers magnetic lines of force.
 
 
  1831  CEMichael Faraday invents the electric dynamo.
 
 
  1831  CEMichael Faraday invents the electric transformer.
 
 
  1831  CEMichael Faraday states his law of induction.
 
 
  1831  CEThe first practical US coal-burning locomotive train makes The first trial run in Pennsylvania.
 
 
  1831  CEThe first US steam engine train ran from Albany to Schenectady, New York.
 
 
  1832  CEFaraday expounded the Laws of Electrolysis and adopted the term 'ion' for the particles belived to be responsible for carrying current.
 
 
  1832  CEPassenger trams came into use in New York.
 
 
  1832  CEMichael Faraday states his laws of electrolysis.
 
 
  1832  CEThe Phenakistoscope in Belgium and the Stroboscope in Austria point the way to the technology for motion pictures.
 
 
  1833  CEGlass production improved making manufacture of sheet glass up to 1.8m long possible. Prior to this, the largest size available was 1.2m in broad glass or 1.5m in crown glass.
 
 
  1833  CEHeinrich Lenz states that an induced current in a closed conducting loop will appear in such a direction that it opposes the change that produced it.
 
 
  1833  CEJoseph Henry observes self inductance.
 
 
  1833  CEMichael Faraday develops the laws of electrolysis.
 
 
  1833  CEIn Germany, a telegraph was running over nearly two miles.
 
 
  1833  CEJohn Deere makes first steel plow
 
 
  1833  CEa US Patent ia granted for first soda fountain.
 
 
  1834  CEBlind since the age of three, Louis Braille invents a system of raised dot writing that will enable the blind to 'read'.
 
 
  1834  CEBenoit-Pierre Clapeyron presents a formulation of the second law of thermodynamics.
 
 
  1834  CECarl Jacobi discovers 'uniformly rotating self-gravitating ellipsoids'.
 
 
  1834  CEEmile Clapeyron develops the concept of entropy.
 
 
  1834  CEHeinrich Lenz develops the Law of electromagnetic forces.
 
 
  1834  CEHermann Helmholtz proposes gravitational contraction as the energy source for the Sun.
 
 
  1834  CEJohn Russell observes a nondecaying solitary water wave in the Union Canal near Edinburgh. He then uses a water tank to study the dependence of solitary water wave velocities on wave amplitude and water depth.
 
 
  1834  CECyrus Hall McCormick patents a reaping machine.
 
 
  1834  CEThe hardhat diving suit is patented by Leonard Norcross of Dixfield, Maine.
 
 
  1834  CEJoseph Hansom of London receives patent for Hansom cabs.
 
 
  1834  CESandpaper patented by Isaac Fischer Jr of Springfield, Vermont.
 
 
  1834  CEThe first railroad tunnel in the US is completed, in Pennsylvania. It is 275 meters long.
 
 
7 Dec 1835  CEThe first German passenger rail service opened between Furth and Nuremburg as Germany pioneered steam railways in europe using 'Der Adler' a locomotive built by Stephenson.
 
 
  1835  CETetrachloroethene (vinyl chloride) was first prepared.
 
 
  1835  CEGaspard de Coriolis examines motion on a spinning surface deduces the Coriolis effect.
 
 
  1835  CEWhen professor of arts and design at New York University, Samuel Morse proved that signals could be transmitted by wire and hence develops the Morse code. He used pulses of current to deflect an electromagnet which moved a marker to produce written codes on a strip of paper.
 
 
  1835  CEHenry Burden patents a horseshoe manufacturing machine in Troy, New York.
 
 
  1835  CEKing Leopold opens the Brussels-Mechelen railway.
 
 
2 Jul 1836  CEThe first Canadian railway opens, linking Laprairie and Saint Johns.
 
 
  1836  CEFrancis Pettit patented the screw propeller in Britain.
 
 
  1836  CEDanish archaeologist Christian Thomsen devised the Stone Bronze and Iron Age classification.
 
 
  1836  CETheodor Schwann discovers pepsin in extracts from the stomach lining, the first isolation of an animal enzyme.
 
 
  1836  CEThe Coin Press is invented by Franklin Beale.
 
 
  1836  CESamuel Colt patents first revolving barrel multishot firearm.
 
 
  1836  CEThe match is patented.
 
 
  1837  CEIllinois blacksmith John Deere melded a steel share to a moldboard of wrought-iron to create a plow that cut the prairie soils.
 
 
  1837  CELouis Agassiz begins his glaciation studies which eventually demonstrate that the Earth has had at least one Ice Age.
 
 
  1837  CETheodor Schwann shows that heating air will prevent it from causing putrefaction (rotting).
 
 
  1837  CEC Wheatstone and W Cooke patent an electric telegraph in England
 
 
  1837  CESamuel F. B. Morse exhibits an electric telegraph in the US.
 
 
  1837  CECharles Goodyear obtains his first rubber patent.
 
 
  1838  CEThe steam ship the 'Great Western', built by British engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, sailed from Bristol to New York in 15 days.
 
 
  1838  CEThomas Henderson, Friedrich Struve and Friedrich Bessel make the first measurements of the distance to stars using the parallax method.
 
 
  1838  CESamuel F. B. Morse made first public demonstration of the telegraph.
 
 
  1838  CEThe first telegraph message sent using dots and dashes, in New Jersey.
 
 
  1838  CEJohn Ericsson develops the screw propeller
 
 
  1839  CEKirkpatrick Macmillan designed the first treadle powered bycycle.
 
 
  1839  CECharles Goodyear invents vulcanized rubber.
 
 
  1839  CEAnthracite coal first used to smelt iron, at Mauch Chunk in Pennsilvania.
 
 
  1839  CEThe Steam shovel is patented by William Otis in Philadelphia.
 
 
  1840  CEThe US palaeontologist Louis Agassiz established that there had been ice ages in the past.
 
 
  1840  CEJohn Dresser of Stockbridge in Massachusetts devised a hand powered veneer lathe.
 
 
  1840  CEJoule and Helmholtz state that electricity is a form of energy.
 
 
  1840  CERive Marcet describes the anomolous specific heat of diamond.
 
 
  1840  CEThe Housatonic Railroad opens.
 
 
  1841  CEKarl Weierstrass discovers, but does not publish, the Laurent expansion theorem.
 
 
  1841  CEThe first US steam-powered fire engine is tested, New York.
 
 
  1842  CEChristian Doppler examines the Doppler shift of sound.
 
 
  1842  CEJustin von Mayer described conservation of heat and mechanical energy.
 
 
  1842  CEThe first known sewing machine is patented in the US by John Greenough, Washington DC.
 
 
  1842  CEThe first US wire suspension bridge for general traffic opens in Pennsylvania.
 
 
  1843  CEHoward Aiken constructs first mechanical programable calculator.
 
 
  1843  CEJames Joule experimentally finds the mechanical equivalent of heat.
 
 
  1843  CEPierre-Alphonse Laurent discovers and presents the Laurent expansion theorem.
 
 
  1843  CESamuel Morse starts building the first long distance electric telegraph line when the US Congress granted $30,000 to fund the construction of a 40 mile experimental telegraph line from Washington to Baltimore.
 
 
  1843  CEThe photographic enlarger is invented in the US.
 
 
1 May 1844  CESamuel Morse's incomplete Washington to Baltimore telegraph, transmitted a message that was hand-carried from Baltimore to Annapolis Junction where Alfred Vail sent it to Washington.
 
 
24 May 1844  CESamuel F. B. Morse's Washington to Baltimore telegraph is completed.
 
 
24 May 1844  CEUsing the completed Washington to Baltimore telegraph, Samuel F. B. Morse taps out 'What hath God wrought' from Supreme Court chamber in Washington to his partner Alfred Vail in Baltimore.
 
 
  1844  CEGoodyear patents vulcanization of rubber.
 
 
  1845  CEThe first clipper ship the 'Rainbow' was launched in the USA.
 
 
  1845  CEThe 'Great Britain' built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, became the first propeller-driven iron ship to cross the Atlantic from Liverpool to New York.
 
 
  1845  CEChristopher Buys-Ballet confirms the Doppler effect for sound using trumpeters on a train.
 
 
  1845  CEMichael Faraday observes the rotation of polarised light by magnetism.
 
 
  1845  CEMichael Faraday discovers that light propagation in a material can be influenced by external magnetic fields.
 
 
  1845  CEThe typewriter ribbon is invented.
 
 
  1845  CEJoseph Francis, New York, patents a corrugated sheet-iron lifeboat.
 
 
  1845  CEThe Rubber band patented by Stephen Perry of London.
 
 
  1845  CEThe Utrecht-Arnhem Railway opens.
 
 
  1846  CEIrish physicist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) estimated that the earth was 100 million years old by using the temperature of the Earth.
 
 
  1846  CEScottish chemist Thomas Graham expounded his law of diffusion of gases and liquids.
 
 
  1846  CEGerman chemist Christian Schonbein discovered that a mixture of sulfuric acid and saltpeter (usually potassium nitrate) could dissolve cotton fabric. This was found to be explosive when it dried. By 1885 Joseph Swan had tested strands of cellulose nitrate for use as elements in electric light bulbs.
 
 
  1846  CEGustav Kirchhoff develops Kirchoff's laws of electrical networks.
 
 
  1846  CEWilliam Thomson (Kelvin) incorrectly estimates Earth to be 100 million years old by heat.
 
 
  1846  CEIn Germany, Zeiss begins manufacturing lenses.
 
 
  1846  CEC.F. Schoenbein obtains patent for cellulose nitrate explosive.
 
 
  1846  CEElias Howe patents the sewing machine.
 
 
  1846  CERobert Thomson obtains an English patent on a rubber tire.
 
 
  1846  CEThe Saxophone is patented by Antoine Joseph Sax.
 
 
  1847  CEJames Joule described the mechnaical eqivalent of heat.
 
 
  1847  CEHermann von Helmholtz states laws of conservation of energy in Newtionian mechanics and gravity.
 
 
  1847  CEIn England, Bakewell constructs a 'copying telegraph'.
 
 
  1847  CEBunson invents a gas burner for use in chemical laboratories.
 
 
  1847  CENew York and Boston are linked by telegraph wires.
 
 
  1847  CERobert Thompson patents the rubber tire.
 
 
  1847  CEThe Rotterdam-Hague Railway opens.
 
 
  1847  CEThe first Dutch public telegram.
 
 
  1847  CEThe first US telegraph company is established in Maryland.
 
 
  1848  CEJames Joule determines the average velocity of gas molecules from kinetic theory.
 
 
  1848  CELord Kelvin discovers the absolute zero point of temperature and hence invents the Kelvin temperature scale.
 
 
  1848  CENew Haven Railroad opens.
 
 
  1849  CEArmand Fizeau first accurate measurement of the velocity of light in the laboratory using a toothed wheel and found it to be about 298000 km/s.
 
 
  1849  CEGeorge Stokes shows that solitary waves can arise from a combination of periodic waves.
 
 
  1849  CEAbraham Lincoln patents a lifting and buoying device for vessels. He is the only US President to apply for a patent.
 
 
  1849  CEGas mask patented by Lewis Haslett of Louisville in Kentucky.
 
 
  1849  CEJoseph Couch patents a steam-powered percussion rock drill.
 
 
  1849  CEM Jolly-Bellin discovers dry-cleaning, when he accidentally upset a lamp containing turpentine and oil on his clothing and observes the cleaning effect.
 
 
  1849  CEA patent granted for an envelope-making machine.
 
 
  1849  CESafety pin patented by Walter Hunt of New York City. He later sold the rights for $100.
 
 
  1850  CEUS navel officer Matthew Fontaine Maury mapped the Atlantic Ocean noting that it is deeper at the edges than at the centre.
 
 
  1850  CEGeorge Stokes proves Stokes' theorem.
 
 
  1850  CEJean Foucault proves that light travels slower in water than in air.
 
 
  1850  CERudolf Clausius generalised the second law of thermodynamics.
 
 
  1850  CEThe Brett brothers laid their first cable across the English Channel from Britain to France. It was a copper wire covered only with gutta percha and broke within a few hours and could not be repaired.
 
 
25 Sep 1851  CEElectical comminication accross the English Channel began using a cable laid by the Brett brothers. It containing four separate copper conductors.
 
 
  1851  CEFrench physicist Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau (1819-1896) develops an experimental method of measuring velocity of light in moving medium. Rtaher than by looking at stars his method enabled measument on Earth.
 
 
  1851  CEFranz Neumann develops the laws of electric-magnetic induction.
 
 
  1851  CEJean-Bernard Foucault shows the Earth's rotation with a huge pendulum.
 
 
  1851  CEThe Crystal Palace designed by Joseph Paxton as the centerpiece of the first British Great Exhibition was opened.
 
 
  1851  CEWilliam Thomson (Lord Kelvin) postulates absolute zero temperature.
 
 
  1851  CEWilliam Thomson (Lord Kelvin) postulates the dynamical theory of heat.
 
 
  1851  CEThe Amsterdam-Nieuwediep telegraph connection is linked.
 
 
  1851  CEDr John Gorrie patents a 'refrigeration machine'.
 
 
  1851  CEIsaac Singer was granted a patent for his sewing machine.
 
 
  1851  CELinus Yale patents the 'Yale-lock'.
 
 
  1851  CEThe material 'ebonite', or 'hard rubber', was discovered. It was the first thermosetting material to be prepared and the first material that involved a distinct chemical modification of a natural material. However, ebonite was not exploited commercially for some years after its discovery.
 
 
  1852  CEFrench Inventor Henry Giffard flew in the first steam-powered airship over Paris.
 
 
  1852  CEGeorge Stokes defines the Stokes parameters of polarization.
 
 
  1852  CEJames Joule and Lord Kelvin demonstrate that a rapidly expanding gas cools.
 
 
  1852  CEJean Foucault invents the first gyroscope.
 
 
  1853  CEAlbert Kellogg and six colleagues established the California Academy of Sciences.
 
 
  1853  CEAnders Angstrom measured hydrogen spectral lines.
 
 
  1853  CEThe Envelope-folding machine is patented by Russell Hawes of Worcester, Massachusetts.
 
 
  1853  CEThe first train in Asia from Bombay to Tanna, over 36 km.
 
 
  1854  CEGeorge Airy estimated the Earth's mass by measuring underground gravity.
 
 
  1854  CEBourseul in France builds an experimental telephone.
 
 
  1854  CEAaron Allen of Boston patents a folding theater chair.
 
 
  1854  CEAllen Wilson of Conneticut patents a sewing machine that sews curving seams.
 
 
  1854  CECharles Miller patents first US sewing machine to stitch buttonholes.
 
 
  1854  CEMajor US streets are lit by coal gas for the first time.
 
 
  1854  CEA marine Telegraph from Fort Point to San Fransisco was completed.
 
 
  1854  CEDaniel Halladay patents the Self-governing windmill.
 
 
  1854  CEThe first street-cleaning machine in US was used in Philadelphia.
 
 
  1855  CEGerman Chemist Robert von Bunsen invented the 'Bunsen Burner'.
 
 
  1855  CEThe first steps were taken toward eventual production of rayon which is derived from cellulose extracted from wood chips.
 
 
  1855  CEJames Clerk Maxwell develops the mathematics of Faraday's lines of force.
 
 
  1855  CEAbraham Gesner patents kerosene.
 
 
  1855  CEThe Bessemer steelmaking process is patented.
 
 
  1856  CEWilliam Henry Perkin set up the first synthetic dye factory for the production of mauveine.
 
 
  1856  CEAlexander Parkes, years before its photographic potential was realized, invented celluloid as a 'transparent support for sensitive coating', but he never was able to use it photographically.
 
 
  1857  CEElisha Otis' first elevator is installed at 488 Broadway, New York City.
 
 
  1857  CEJames Gibbs of Virginia, patents a chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine.
 
 
  1857  CEA patent for reducing zinc ore is granted to Samuel Wetherill of Pennsylvania.
 
 
  1857  CEWilliam Francis Channing and Moses G Farmer patent the electric fire alarm.
 
 
  1858  CEBalfour Stewart develops theories equivalent to Kirchoff's law.
 
 
  1858  CEAlbert Potts of Philadelphia patents the US street mailbox.
 
 
  1858  CEBritain's Queen Victoria telegraphs President James Buchanan.
 
 
  1859  CESpectrographic analysis was first carried out in Germany by Robert von Bunsen and Gutav Kirchhoff.
 
 
  1859  CECrude oil is discovered in Titusville Pennsylvania USA and Ewin Drake drills the world's first oils well.
 
 
  1859  CEHittorf and Plucker discover 'cathode rays'.
 
 
  1859  CEJames Clerk Maxwell discovers the distribution law of molecular velocities.
 
 
  1859  CEThe ground is first broken in the construction of the Suez Canal.
 
 
  1859  CEThe first pullman sleeping car enters service.
 
 
  1860  CEJean Etienne Lenoir built the first gas-fuelled internal combustion engine
 
 
  1860  CEGustav Kirchhoff develops Kirchoff's Law and the black body problem.
 
 
  1860  CEGustav Kirchoff and Robert Bunsen discover that each element has its own distinct set of spectral lines and use this fact to explain the solar dark lines.
 
 
  1860  CESholes builds a functional typewriter in the US.
 
 
  1860  CEM L Byrn patents a 'covered gimlet screw with a T-handle' (a corkscrew).
 
 
  1861  CEVon Bunsen and Kirchhoff find that the elements Caesium and Rubidium are found in spectra.
 
 
  1861  CEThe steam elevator is patented by Elisha Otis.
 
 
  1861  CEThomas Crapper patents the flush toilet with seperate water tank and a pull chain.
 
 
1 May 1862  CEEnglishman Alexander Parkes won a bronze medal at the 1862 Great International Exhibition in London with a 'synthetic ivory' named 'pyroxlin', which he marketed under the trade name 'Parkesine'. It was made from cellulose nitrate vegatable oils treated with nitric acid and a camphor solvent and was the first known synthetic plastic.
 
 
  1862  CERichard J Gatling patented and manufactured the machine gun which was used against Native American Indians.
 
 
  1862  CEAdolphe Nicole of Switzerland patents the chronograph (the clock).
 
 
  1862  CEJean Joseph Etienne Lenoir builds the first gasoline-engine automobile.
 
 
  1863  CEGerman chemist J Wilbrand deiscovered the explosive TNT (Tri Nitro Toluene).
 
 
  1863  CEThe first US fire extinguisher patent granted to Alanson Crane of Virginia.
 
 
  1863  CEThe first underground railway opens in London.
 
 
  1863  CEThomas Crapper pioneers one-piece pedestal flushing toilet.
 
 
  1863  CEUS Congress authorizes track width of 4'8½ inches for Union Pacific Railroad.
 
 
  1863  CEJohn Wesley Hyatt, an American printer and amateur inventor, introduced a new 'plastic' material. He used camphor as a solvent with cellulose to synthesise a new material, that he named 'celluloid'.
 
 
  1864  CEWillima Siemens and Pierre Emile Martin developed the Siemenns-Martin Process or 'open hearth method' for the production of steel.
 
 
  1864  CEAntoine Becquerel suggests an optical pyrometer.
 
 
  1864  CEJames Clerk Maxwell develops equations for electromagnetic wave propagation in the ether.
 
 
  1864  CEJames Clerk Maxwell publishes his papers on a dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field.
 
 
  1864  CECharing Cross Station opens in London.
 
 
  1865  CERudolf Clausius introduces the term entropy.
 
 
  1865  CEAn Atlantic cable ties Europe and US for instant communication.
 
 
  1865  CEJames H Mason of Massachusetts patents the first US coffee percolator.
 
 
  1866  CEAndrew Rankin patents the urinal.
 
 
  1866  CEThe Chicago water supply tunnel, 3,227m into Lake Michigan ,is completed.
 
 
  1866  CEPierre Lalemont patents rotary crank bicycle.
 
 
  1866  CEThe first US company to make sewing needles by machine is incorporated in Connecticut.
 
 
  1866  CETransatlantic cable laid and Former US President Buchanan communicates over it to Britain's Queen Victoria.
 
 
  1866  CEWork begins on the first US underwater highway tunnel in Chicago.
 
 
  1866  CEAlfred E Nobel invents dynamite.
 
 
  1866  CEJohn Wesley Hyatt, an American, upon spilling a bottle of collodion in his workshop, discovered that the material congealed into a tough, flexible film. This material, with the addition of cmphor, eventually became what know today as the plastic 'celluloid'.
 
 
  1867  CEDynamite was patented by Alfred E Nobel
 
 
  1867  CEJames Clerk Maxwell develops statistical physics and thermal equilibrium.
 
 
  1867  CESholes builds a functional typewriter in the US.
 
 
  1867  CESarah Breedlove becomes the first self-made millionairess (hair straightener).
 
 
  1867  CEThe first ship passes through Suez Canal.
 
 
  1868  CEGeorge Westinghouse invents the compressed air locomotive brake.
 
 
  1868  CEChristopher Latham Sholes patents 'Type-writer'.
 
 
  1868  CEThe 'refrigerator car' is patented by William Davis, a fish dealer in Detroit.
 
 
  1868  CEThe Stapler is patented in England by C H Gould.
 
 
10 May 1869  CEThe first US transcontinental railway was completed at Promontary Utah when the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific railroads met with driving of the 'Golden Spike'.
 
 
17 Nov 1869  CEThe Suez Canal is complted and is officially inaugurated by Khedive Ismai, opening shipping in Egypt.
 
 
  1869  CEJoseph Lockyer starts the scientific journal 'Nature'.
 
 
  1869  CEIves W McGaffey of Chicago patents first vacuum cleaner.
 
 
  1869  CEJames Oliver invents the removable tempered steel plow blade.
 
 
  1869  CEA voting Machine is patented by Thomas Edison.
 
 
  1870  CEThe construction of the Brooklyn Bridge began. It was completed in 1883.
 
 
  1870  CEE J DeSemdt patents asphalt pavement.
 
 
  1870  CEThe first New York City subway line opens. It was pneumaticly powered.
 
 
  1870  CETranscontinental Railway is actually completed.
 
 
  1870  CEThe trademark 'celluloid' was registered in the United States and Great Britain by John Wesley Hyatt of the Celluloid Manufacturing Company, who had for some years been persuaded by John Carbutt to manufacture thin sheets.
 
 
  1871  CELudwig Boltzmann develops the classical explanation of Dulong-Petit specific heats.
 
 
  1871  CETyndall and Lord Rayleigh explain light scattering and why the sky is blue.
 
 
  1871  CEMoses Gale patents a cigar lighter.
 
 
  1871  CEThe first cable car is patented, by Andrew S Hallidie. It began service in 1873.
 
 
  1872  CELudwig Boltzmann develops the H-theorem.
 
 
  1872  CELudwig Boltzmann states the Boltzmann equation for the temporal development of distribution functions in phase space.
 
 
  1872  CESimultaneous transmission of signals from both ends of a telegraph wire began.
 
 
  1872  CEThe Hydraulic electric elevator is patented by Cyrus Baldwin.
 
 
  1872  CELuther Crowell patents a machine that manufactures paper bags.
 
 
  1872  CEMahlon Loomis patents wireless telegraphy.
 
 
  1872  CEIn the US, Metropolitan Gas Company first provides gas lamps for lighting.
 
 
  1872  CEThomas J Martin patents a fire extinguisher.
 
 
  1872  CEThe development of the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first for practical commercial office use, causes an increase in the demand for carbon paper.
 
 
  1873  CEJohannes van der Waals postulates intermolecular forces in fluids.
 
 
  1873  CEJohannes van der Waals introduces the idea of weak attractive forces between molecules.
 
 
  1873  CERemington starts manufacturing Sholes' typewriters when they get the get the 'QWERTY' pseudo-scientific keyboard.
 
 
  1873  CEThe first trial run of San Francisco cable car, Clay Street between Kearny and Jones.
 
 
  1874  CEGeorge Stoney estimates the unit of charge and named it the 'Electron'.
 
 
  1874  CELord Kelvin formally states the second law of thermodynamics.
 
 
  1874  CEJoseph F Glidden patents barbed wire.
 
 
  1875  CEJames Clerk Maxwell states that atoms must have a structure.
 
 
  1875  CEJohn Kerr discovers the electrically induced birefringence of some liquids.
 
 
  1875  CEEdison invents the mimeograph.
 
 
  1875  CECarey designs a selenium mosaic to transmit a picture in the US.
 
 
  1875  CEElectric dental drill is patented by George F Green.
 
 
18 Jun 1876  CEAlexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson exhibit the first electric telephone at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. The first 2-way telephone conversation takes place over outdoor wires.
 
 
  1876  CEJosiah Gibbs begins a two-year long series of papers which discusses 'phase equilibria'. This is concept that free energy is the driving force behind chemical reactions and chemical thermodynamics in general.
 
 
  1876  CENikolaus Otto develops the four-stroke internal-combustion engine
 
 
  1876  CEWilliam Clifford suggests that the motion of matter may be due to changes in the geometry of space.
 
 
  1876  CEAlexander Graham Bell & Elisha Gray apply separately for telephone patents - the US Supreme Court eventually rules Bell rightful inventor
 
 
  1876  CEThe Amersfoort to Zutphen railway opens.
 
 
  1876  CESouthern Pacific rail road line from Los Angeles to San Francisco is completed.
 
 
  1877  CEJohann Loschmidt questions validity of second law for time symmetric dynamics.
 
 
  1877  CELudwig Boltzmann develops Boltzmann's probability equation for entropy.
 
 
  1877  CEIn France, Charles Cros invents the phonograph at the same time as Edison in America.
 
 
  1877  CEIn America, Edison invents the Phonograph at the same time as Cros in France.
 
 
  1877  CEThe 'color organ', for light shows, is patented by Bainbridge Bishop.
 
 
  1877  CEEdwin T Holmes installs first telephone switchboard burglar alarm.
 
 
  1877  CEThe first cantilever bridge in the US is completed at Harrodsburg, Kentucky.
 
 
  1877  CEThe first news dispatch by telephone, between Boston and Salem in the US.
 
 
  1877  CEThomas Edison demonstrates the hand-cranked phonograph.
 
 
  1877  CEThomas Edison invents the Edisonphone, a sound recording device.
 
 
19 Feb 1878  CEThomas Alva Edison patented the Phonograph (the gramophone).
 
 
  1878  CEThe Cathode ray tube is invented by Crookes an English chemist.
 
 
  1878  CEThe dynamic microphone is invented in the US and Germany.
 
 
  1878  CEDavid Edward Hughes invents the carbon microphone which was was essential to the development of telephony.
 
 
  1878  CEThe Edison Electric Light Company is incorporated.
 
 
  1878  CEGeorge W Coy is hired as the first full-time US telephone operator.
 
 
  1878  CEThe Phonograph (gramophone) is shown for first time at the Grand Opera House.
 
 
  1878  CEThe first telephone exchange opens in New Haven, Connecticut.
 
 
  1878  CEA US store in Philadelphia becomes the first to install electric lights.
 
 
  1878  CEThe first White House telephone is installed.
 
 
  1879  CEAlbert Michelson improved the measurement of the speed of light.
 
 
  1879  CEJosef Stefan makes the empirical discovery of total radiation law (Stefan's law). This stetes that the total radiant flux from a black body is proportional to the fourth power of its temperature.
 
 
  1879  CEThomas Alva Edison patents the carbon filament incandescent lamp (the forrunner of the light bulb).
 
 
  1879  CEWillaim Crookes states that cathode rays may be negatively charged particles.
 
 
  1879  CEThe Baldwin steam motors tram is first tried in Sydney, Australia.
 
 
  1879  CEThomas Edison gives the first public demonstration of his incandescent lamp.
 
 
  1879  CEGeorge Selden files for the first patent for a gasoline-driven automobile.
 
 
  1879  CEJames Ritty and John Ritty patent the first cash register to combat stealing by bartenders in their Dayton, Ohio saloon.
 
 
  1879  CEJoseph Swan demonstrates a light bulb using carbon glow.
 
 
  1879  CEThe first automatic telephone switching system is patented.
 
 
  1879  CEThe first US electric arc light is used, in a California Theater.
 
 
  1879  CEThe first electric railway opens at Berlin Trades Exposition.
 
 
  1879  CETomas Edison privately demonstrated incandescent light at Menlo Park
 
 
  1880  CEJohn Milne invents the seismograph.
 
 
  1880  CEPierre and Jacques Curie observe piezoelectricity.
 
 
  1880  CEFrance's Leblanc theorizes transmitting a picture in segments.
 
 
  1880  CEThe Building of the Panama Canal begins.
 
 
  1880  CEFlour rolling mill patented by John Stevens of Wisconsin.
 
 
  1880  CEGeo Ligowsky patents a device to throw clay pigeons for trapshooters.
 
 
  1880  CEThe Gotthard railway tunnel, between Switzerland and Italy, opens.
 
 
  1880  CENew York's Broadway is lit by electricity and becomes known as the 'Great White Way'.
 
 
  1880  CEWabash, Indianna, becomes the first US town to be completely illuminated by electric lighting.
 
 
  1880  CEThe first US sewage disposal system which is separate from the storm drains, becomes operational in Memphis Tennasee.
 
 
  1880  CEThomas Edison patents the electric incandescent lamp.
 
 
  1881  CEAlbert Michelson invents the light interferometer and observes the absence of ether drift.
 
 
  1881  CEJohn Boyd Dunlop acquired the patent for a hollow tire made of rubber and cloth. From this point tires became the major use of natural rubber.
 
 
  1881  CEDe Lesseps' Company begins work on the Panama Canal.
 
 
  1881  CEWorld's first electric tram goes into service in Lichterfelder near Berlin.
 
 
  1882  CEFelix Klein invents the Klein bottle.
 
 
  1882  CEThe electric iron is patented by Henry W. Seely of New York City.
 
 
  1882  CEThe St Gotthard railroad tunnel between Switzerland and Italy opens.
 
 
  1882  CENew York's Pearl Street Station becomes the first US district to be lit by electricty.
 
 
24 May 1883  CEThe Brooklyn Bridge is opened by President Arthur and Governor Cleveland.
 
 
  1883  CEIvan Puluy makes a prior discovery of X-rays.
 
 
  1883  CEThomas Edison observes thermionic emission which became known as the 'Edison effect'.
 
 
  1883  CEThe International cantilever railway bridge opens at Niagara Falls.
 
 
  1883  CEJan Matzeliger invents first machine to manufacture entire shoes.
 
 
  1883  CELouis Waterman begins experiments which later result in the invention of the fountain pen.
 
 
  1883  CENorthern Pacific RailRoad is completed when the last spike is driven at Independence Creek, Montana.
 
 
  1883  CEThe Orient Express' first run, linking Turkey to Europe by rail.
 
 
  1883  CEOscar Hammerstein patents the first cigar-rolling machine.
 
 
  1883  CEThe Chicago El becomes the first US commercial electric railway line to begin operation.
 
 
  1883  CEUtrecht begins construction of its water pipe system.
 
 
  1884  CEEmil Fischer begins his detailed analysis of the compositions and structure of sugars.
 
 
  1884  CELudwig Boltzmann derives the Stefan-Boltzmann black body radiant flux law of thermodynamics.
 
 
  1884  CEThe Nipkow scanning disc, an early version of television, is developed in Germany.
 
 
  1884  CEWaterman's fountain pen replaces earlier versions.
 
 
  1884  CEThe 6.2 mile Arlberg railroad tunnel is completed in Austria.
 
 
  1884  CEThe Comte de Chardonnay, a French chemist, introduced a cellulose-based fabric that became known as 'Chardonnay silk'. It was an attractive cloth, but like celluloid it was very flammable, a property completely unacceptable in clothing. After some terrible accidents, Chardonnay silk was taken off the market.
 
 
  1885  CEJames Dewar invents the vacuum flask.
 
 
  1885  CEJohann Balmer finds a mathematical expression for observed hydrogen spectoral line wavelengths.
 
 
  1885  CEWilliam Stanley invents the alternating current transformer.
 
 
  1885  CECanadian Pacific Railway is completed at Craigellachie.
 
 
  1885  CEGottlieb Daimler receives a German patent for a motorcycle.
 
 
  1885  CEKarl Benz builds the first practical car
 
 
  1886  CEThe introduction the graphophone wax cylinder and sapphire stylus.
 
 
  1886  CEThe Aluminum manufacturing process is developed.
 
 
  1886  CEGeorge K Anderson of Memphis, Tennessee patents the typewriter ribbon.
 
 
  1886  CEThe first successful gasoline-driven car is patented by Karl Benz, Karlsruhe.
 
 
  1886  CEThe first US alternating current power plant starts, Great Barrington, Massachusetts.
 
 
  1886  CEThe first US commercially successful AC electric power plant opens in Buffalo.
 
 
  1887  CEHeinrich Hertz discovers transmission, reception and reflection of electromagnetic radio waves.
 
 
  1887  CEHeinrich Hertz and Hallwachs discover the photoelectric effect.
 
 
  1887  CEMichelson and Morley observe the absence of ether drift.
 
 
  1887  CEMichelson and Morley observe the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum.
 
 
  1887  CEWoldemar Voigt anticipated the Lorentz transform to derive Doppler shift.
 
 
  1888  CENikola Tesla patents the induction motor.
 
 
  1888  CEEdison's phonograph is manufactured for sale to the public.
 
 
  1888  CEThe first ballpoint pen patented.
 
 
  1888  CEThe first wax drinking straw is patented, by Marvin C Stone in Washington DC.
 
 
  1888  CEWilliam Bundy patents the timecard clock.
 
 
  1889  CEAlmon Strowger patents the direct dial telephone.
 
 
  1889  CEGeorge Fitzgerald develops the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction theory. This effect increses at near-light speeds.
 
 
  1889  CERolond von Eotvos uses a torsion balance to test the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass.
 
 
  1889  CEDaniel Stover and William Hance patent bicycle with back pedal brake.
 
 
  1889  CEThe first dishwashing machine is marketed in Chicago.
 
 
  1890  CEAlbert Michelson proposes the stellar interferometer.
 
 
  1890  CEJohannes Rydberg develops the empirical formulae for spectral lines and formulates the Rydberg constant.
 
 
  1891  CEZ.F. Wroblewski condenses experimentally useful quantities of liquid air.
 
 
  1891  CEBritain is linked to the European continent by Telephone.