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King Philip II

King Philip II (1527-1598)

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King Philip II of Spain

Philip II ascended the Spanish throne in January 1556 on the abdication of his father, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.

He governed Spain through the so-called "Golden Age" but the decline of Spain was also part of his reign, with economic decline in the form of  several bankruptcies and the militarily disaster of the defeat of the Spanish Armada.

Philip II married four times to 1) Maria Manuela of Portugal 2) Mary Tudor of England 3) Elizabeth of Valois and 4) to Anne of Austria.

he embodiment of the hard-working civil servant and bureaucrat, he sought to directing a world empire from the seclusion of his cabinet and devoting infinite time and pains to the minutest administrative details. He did not trust even his ablest and most loyal servants, and partly as a result his court was riddled with factions.

Philip lived and died in his strange court at the Escorial and was eventually succeeded by Philip III, his son by his fourth wife, Anne of Austria.

 21 May 1527  CEPhilip II of Spain was born.
   Jul 1545  CEMaria of Portugal, wife of Philip II of Spain, dies in childbirth, when the King's son Don Carlos (1545-1568) was born.
   Jul 1554  CEPhilip II of Spain, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, married Queen Mary I. This was his second marriage.
   Jan 1556  CEPhilip II, son of Charles V, is crowned King of Spain after Charles V abdicates.
  5 Feb 1556  CEHenry II of France and Philip II of Spain signed the truce of Vaucelles.
    1556  CECharles V, King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor, abdicated, and ended his days in a Spanish monastery. He bequeathed Spain to his son Philip II, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother Ferdinand I. A few years of peace in Europe followed.
 10 Aug 1557  CESpanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin. French troops were defeated by Emmanuel Philibert's Spanish army at St. Quentin, France.
    1557  CEPhilip II of Spain, went bankrupt for the first time.
  3 Apr 1559  CEPhilip II of Spain and Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending a long series of wars between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties.
    1559  CEThe Escorial, an enormous palace built on a grid plan for Philip II, was begun in Madrid.
   Jan 1560  CESpanish King Philip II marries his thrid wife, Elisabeth van Valois. This cemented the peace of Cateau-Cambresis between Spain and France which was signed the previous year.
    1560  CEPhilip II of Spain, went bankrupt for the second time.
 23 Sep 1561  CEPhilip II of Spain gave orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida. The French took advantage of the opportunity.
    1561  CEPhilip II moved his court to Madrid, which was but a village until this time, and proclaimed Madrid as capital of Spain.
    1562  CETitian completed the 'Rape of Europa' for Philip II of Spain. It is the most celebrated of his erotic mythologies.
   Mar 1563  CELeague of High Nobles' second protest against King Philip II.
    1564  CEPhilip II routes cardinal Granvelle to Franche-Comte.
    1566  CEThe first stages of the revolt in the Spanish Netehrlands.
   Jan 1567  CEThe reform of Moriscan habits were published in Spain. This stated that the converted Moors living in Spain could not use Arabic, could not wear traditional Arabic drsss and had to 'abandon their traditional habits' (a referece to their alleged sexual habits).
    1567  CEThe Duke of Alva, a military commander under Philip II of Spain, arrived in the Netherlands as a military governor and began a reign of terror. Margaret of Parma resigned the regency.
    1568  CEAn eighty year war of independence from Spain was carried on by the Calvinist and predominantly mercantile Dutch provinces.
    1568  CEThe revolt of the Moriscos in Spain. The Moriscos were Moors who had converted to Christinaity who revolted against reform of Moriscan habits introduced in 1567.
    1569  CEKing Philip II forms an inquistion in South America.
    1570  CEKing Philip II bans foreign Dutch students.
    1573  CEDon John captured Tunis from the Turks for Spain.
    1576  CEPhilip II of Spain went bankrupt for the thid time.
    1579  CEThe Peace of Arras ensured that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were reconciled to Philip II.
    1580  CESpanish king Philip II puts 25,000 gold coins on the head of Prince Willem of Orange.
    1580  CEKing Henry of Portugal died leaving no children. The Duke of Alba invaded Portugal and put it under Spain's rule. Philip II of Spain was proclaimed King of Portugal and united the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal.
    1581  CEIn a series of letters sent from Portugal (1581-1583) Philip II of Spain wrote to his two daughters about the love of plants and gardening describing a 'sweet lime' (an orange).
    1581  CEPhilip II, King of Spain, becomes King of Portugal.
    1581  CEThe seven northern provinces of the Netherlands (Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Friesland, and Groningen) renounced their allegiance to Philip II of Spain.
    1586  CEKing Philip II of Spain decides to invade England.
    1587  CEPope Sixtus V proclaimed a Catholic crusade for the invasion of England. Philip II prepared an invasion fleet but was interrupted by Francis Drake, who 'singed the king's beard' by burning 10,000 tons of shipping in Cadiz harbor.
  8 Aug 1588  CEThe Spanish Armada was destroyed. It was shattered around the coasts of the English Isles by an English fleet under the command of Lord Howard of Effingham with the help of Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and a violent storm.
   Oct 1591  CEPhilip II of Spain sent 12,000 men under Alonso de Vargas to quash the revolt of Aragon led by Lanuza.
   Dec 1591  CEPhilip II of Spain had Lanuza, the leader of the revolt of Aragon, beheaded.
    1591  CEPhilip II of Spain bought the Hieronymus Bosch painting 'the Garden of Earthly Delights'. It hung in the Escorial from this time to 1939 when it was moved to the Prado.
    1595  CEKing Philip II names Albrecht of Austria land guardian of Netherlands.
    1596  CEPhilip II of Spain went bankrupt for the fourth time.
 19 Aug 1597  CEDon Lorenzo Garcia took posession a land grant, issued by King Philip II, to start the first official winery for the new world at the San Lorenzo Hacienda in Mexico.
 13 Sep 1598  CEPhilip II of Spain, died.
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