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The Printed Legacy

The Printed Legacy (0047-1960)

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The development of man's ability to record his knowledge on on the printed page.

From the invention of paper by the Chinese in 105, people have been able to easily record their thoughts and the events that took  place around them. For centuries man struggled with the manual task of writing by hand, until 1450 when the first printing press was developed in Germany.

From that point onwards, it became possible to mass-produce the written word which had enormous consequences for religious texts, works of art and the dissemination of both local news and news from around the world. It became affordable for the average person to gain access to written material.  Assuming, of course, that they could read.

    0047  CEThe great Library of Alexandria was damaged by fire when Julius Caeser besieged the city. It was said at one time to contain copies and translations of all known books (scrolls). It was later ravaged by civil war in the late 200s AD and by 400, nothing was left.  
    0100  CERoman couriers carry government mail across the empire 
    0100  CEBibliotheca Ulpia founded by Trajan which also served as an emperial archive.
c.    0100  CEThe first Chinese dictionary was compiled.
    0104  CEPapermaking discovered in China by Ts'ai Louen (or Ts'ai Lun) using materials such as plant bark, discarded cotton and old fishnets 
c.    0105  CETs'ai Lun, of China 'invented' paper and held the monopoly untill 751, the earliest extant papers being c100bce from Sian (discovered 1957), 49bce from Sinkiang (discovered 1933).
    0105  CETs'ai Lun, a Chinese government official, is credited with the discovery of paper. By the end of the second century, the Chinese were printing books on rag paper using wooden type.
    0175  CEChinese classics are carved in stone which will later be used for rubbings.
    0191  CEPalatine library destoyed by fire  
    0250  CEPaper use spreads to central Asia. 
    0350  CEParchment book of Psalms bound in wood covers in Egypt.
    0370  CEIn this year there were said to be 28 public libaries in Rome. 
    0391  CEThe Alexandrian Library was destroyed under the direction of Archbishop Theophilus of Antioch.
    0450  CEInk on seals is stamped on paper in China and is evidence of true printing.
    0524  CEBoethius (480-524), the last learned Roman to study the language and literature of Greece, wrote his 'De Consolatione Philosophiae' (The Consolation of Philosophy) while awaiting his execution. It is a dialogue of 39 short poems in 13 different meters that paid tribute to the ancient authors and philosophers and is an expression of neo-Platonic and Stoic thought.
    0590  CEThe Luxeuil Monastery founded by Columban was the first monastery in Gaul where Irish Monks brought along numerous manuscripts.
    0600  CEBooks printed in China.
    0637  CECaesarea Library destroyed by Arabs conquering Palestine. It was orignally founded by church father Origen who died in 309. 
    0687  CEA manuscript copy of the Gospel of St.John that was buried with the body of St. Cuthbert the bishop near Lindesfarne which was exhumed two two hundred years later in 887 by Danish invaders. 
    0700  CESizing agents are used to improve paper quality. 
    0700  CELindisfarne Gospels were written on 258 leaves.
    0715  CECodex Amitinus, manuscript of the Vulgate, was written in Northumbrian uncial.
    0716  CEThe Codex Amiatinus was made at the scriptorium of the twin monasteries Wearmouth and Jarrow near Newcastle in Northumbria and brings together the entire old and new testament in 1,030 folios in a single binding.
c.    0750  CEWillibrord Gospels were made, probably by the artists of the Book of Durrow. 
    0750  CECanterbury School of manuscript illumination was active [until 13th century].
    0750  CECodex Aureaus was written, probably at Canterbury.
    0751  CEBattle of Talas. Arabs learn papermaking from Chinese prisoners of war thus introducing papermaking into the Islamic world.
    0751  CEDuring a raid into central Asia, the Abbasids captured some Chinese artisans skilled in paper making.
    0765  CEPicture books printed in Japan.
    0800  CEMarbling was developed in Japan.
    0800  CEThe Book of Kells was written and painted at the Columbian monastery of Iona or at the Abbey of Kells in Ireland and 340 folia survived (since 1661 they have been hed at Trinity College Dublin).
    0868  CEThe Buddhist script 'The Diamond Sutra' becomes the world's first known woodblock-printed book on paper when it is produced in China, althogh the method was in use much earlier.
    0887  CEDanish invaders sacked a holy compound carrying with them the remains of St Cuthbert and later in 1104 a carved wooden casket buried with the body was opened and found to contain a copy of the Gospel of St John.
    0896  CEThe oldest known manuscript colophon - in Books of the Prophets written by Moses ben Asher in Tiberias. 
    0950  CEPaper use spreads west to Spain.
    0950  CEFolded books appear in China in place of rolls.
c.    0950  CEPaper making reached Damascus and Cairo.
    0950  CEWinchester School began (950-1100) which had a characteristic style of manuscript illumination.
    0954  CEThe Abingdon Monastery was founded by Aethelwold and the monks were famous for manuscript illumination, Winchester School.
    1000  CEThrough the Arab conquest of North Africa and Southern Spain paper making first reached the Moorish parts of Spain in the 11th century.
    1000  CEMayas in Yucatan in Mexico make writing paper from tree bark.
    1035  CEJapanese use waste paper to make new paper.
    1049  CEPi Sheng fabricates movable type using clay. 
    1068  CEThe Library of the Fatimite family in Cairo was destoyed by the Turks.
    1085  CEPapermaking was known in Jativa Spain.
    1100  CEA paper mill was recorded at Fez in Morocco.
    1104  CEThe carved wooden casket that was with the remains of St Cuthbert was opened and a manuscript copy of the Gospel of St. John written in uncial was found perfectly preserved.
    1116  CEChinese sew pages to make stitched books.
    1140  CE(1140-1190) The Winchester Bible, with English late Romanesque illuminations. 
    1140  CECloth is stripped from mummies to make paper in Egypt.
    1147  CEA copy of the Utrecht Psalter an example of Canterbury Romanesque was written at Christchurch by Psalter Eadwine.
    1147  CEAccording to a legend - a Crusader taken prisoner returns with papermaking skills.
    1151  CEThe first papaer mill on the Spanish mainland at Xativa was recorded.
    1155  CEA map of western China was printed and is the oldest known printed map.
    1238  CEPapermaking mill established in Capellades in Catalonia. 
    1241  CEIn Korea, metal type was used for printing.
    1250  CEThe first Fore Edge Painting on French psalter manuscript.
    1250  CEThe first record of block printing in Egypt.
    1276  CEFirst papermill established in Italy.
    1276  CEThe important invention of watermarking was made at one of the Fabriano Mills in Tuscany and there exists a remarkable archive of Fabriano watermarks going back to the first one in 1276 showing a mark for each year until modern times.
    1282  CEWatermarks are added to paper in Italy.
    1283  CEThe first Italian papermill was established in Fabriano which is still the name of an Italian handmade paper.
    1290  CEElder Edda (Saemundar Edda) was written and presented to King Frederik III by the Icelandic bishop Brynjolfur Sveinsson.
    1298  CEMarco Polo describes use of paper money in China.
    1300  CEWooden type found in central Asia. 
    1309  CEPaper is used in England.
    1325  CEBelleville Breviary by Jean Pucelle a Parisian manuscript painter.
    1325  CEBiblia Pauperum made in Klosterneuburg near Vienna.
    1329  CEIn Korea a foundry was used to print books with metal type.
    1338  CEThe oldest known papermill in France.
    1340  CEJean duc de Berry was born (1340-1416), and later produced 'Les Tres Riches Heures'. 
    1373  CEBibliotheque Nationale was founded probably by Charles V and the 1373 catalogue of his library lists about 1,000 volumes.
    1392  CEKoreans have a type foundry to produce bronze characters.
    1399  CEJohann Gutenberg (1399-1468) was born in Mainz as Johann Gensfleisch zum Gutenberg.
    1400  CEPaper making reached Southern Italy in the 13th century and untill quite recently some of the oldest handmade paper mills in Italy were operating near Amalfi in the Naples area
    1410  CEEllesmere Chaucer produced the illustrated manuscript of the Canterbury Tales.
    1418  CEThe oldest known specimen of Woodcut. 
    1420  CEJean Fouquet (1420-1480), a leading 15th century manuscript painter was born. He was responsible for 'Hours of Etienne de Chavalier'.  
    1420  CENocolaus Jenson (1420-1480), a punchcutter and printer of Venice, was born.
    1420  CEWilliam Caxton was born (1420-?).
  1423  CEBuxheim Saint Christopher - early dated European woodcut illustrations. 
  1423  CEEuropeans begin Chinese method of block printing. 
  1425  CEColard Mansion (1425-1484), one of the leading calligraphers in Bruges in Belgium, was born.
  1425  CESimon Marmion (1425-1489) was born. He was a Flemish miniature painter who painter, amongst others, 'Grandes Chroniques de France for Philip the Good'.
  1430  CERogier van der Weyden (1430-1464) was born. 
  1430  CEFirst xylographic books (or block books) were produced in Germany and Holland.
  1434  CEMichael Wolgemut (1434-1519), Nuremberg painter famous for his designs for woodcuts, was born.
  1435  CEHours of Catherine of Cleves made in Utrecht in Holland.
  1436  CEJohanes Regiomontanus (1436-1476), printer at Königsberg, Germany, a publisher of astronomical works. 
  1440  CEJohann Gutenberg invents printing from movable type and sets up Europes first printing business in mainz in Germany.
  1440  CEAnton Koberger (1440-1513) was born. He was a Printer in Neuremberg from 1470and made his first dated book 'Disciplinarum Platonis Epitome' in 1472.
  1441  CEBibliotheca Marciana founded by Cosimo de Medici.
  1448  CEThe 'Chronique du Hainaut' with illustration by Rogier van der Weyden. 
  1450  CEAldus Manutius (Teobaldo Manucci) (1450-1515) was born. 
  1450  CEA few newsletters begin circulating in Europe. 
  1450  CEFirst book printed with movable metal type. Johannes Gutenberg printed a 42-line bible with movable type in Mainz. He perfected interchangeable type that could be cast in large quantities and invented a new type of press.
  1451  CEJohnannes Gutenberg uses a press to print an old German poem.
  1452  CEMetal plates are used in printing. 
  1453  CEMany books in the Constantine library were burnt in this year or carried away and sold when Constantinople was captured by the Ottoman Turks.
  1454  CEGutenberg publication of 'Turkenkalender'.
  1455  CEThe first xylographic version of Biblia Pauperum was made in Germany.
  1455  CEBlock Books introduced in Europe (1455-1510). 
  1457  CEThe earliest example of colour printing in Mainz Psalter by Fust and Schoffer. 
  1457  CEOldest known exactly dated printed book (circa 3 years after Gutenberg). 
  1458  CEMatthias Corvinus was became King of Hungary [until 1490]. He was a famous book collector.
  1460  CEThe 'Catholicon of Johannes Baldus' was printed by Schoffer. 
  1460  CEJohann Froben (1460-1527) was born. 
  1461  CEBiblia Pauperum issued in Bamberg with handcolored illustrations. 
  1461  CEThe work 'der Edelstein' by Ulrich Boner was printed by Albrecht Pfister of Bamberg. It was the first printed book with woodcut illustrations. 
  1462  CEJodocus Badius Ascensius (1462-1535), a Parisian printer, was born.
  1464  CERogier van der Weijden died. 
  1465  CEThe first typeset edition of 'Biblia Pauperum' was made near Brussels with illustrations based on drawings by Rogier van der Weijden.
  1465  CECanticum Canticorum printed. 
  1465  CEThe first drypoint engravings known in the history of prints are those of the 'Master of the Housebook', thought to be active in Germany between 1465 and 1500.
  1466  CEPublication of 'Ars Moriendi' for the first time. 
  1466  CEDesiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) was born. 
  1466  CEOttaviano Petrucci was born (1466-1539). He was a Printer in Venice who established a papermill that remained active until the 19th century.
  1467  CEThe first book printed in Rome was made by by Ulrich Han.
  1467  CEFrancesco Colonna rote 'Hypnerotomachia Poliphili'. 
3 Feb 1468  CEGutenberg died.
  1469  CEThe 'Arches Papermill' in Vosges, France, was operating.
  1469  CEThe first time the roller or roulette appeared in German binderies for bookbinding.
  1470  CEThe first book printed in France was an ornate ninth-century transcript produced for the grandson of Charlemagne. It is held by the Bibliotheque Nationale de France.
  1471  CEAlbrecht Durer (1471-1528) was born. 
  1471  CEMalermi Bible (the Italian translation of the Vulgate) was first printed in Venice by Wendelin da Spira.
  1472  CEThe first printed edition of Dante's epic poem. 
  1472  CEThe book 'Speculum Humanae Salvationes' was printed by Gunther Zainer. 
  1472  CELucas Cranach the Elder (1472-1553), German painter, woodcutter and graphic artist, was born. He painted 'Cardinal Albrecht as St. Jerome'.
  1473  CEHans Burckmaier (1473-1531), a leading book illustrator, was born. 
  1473  CEThe Ducali bindings (1473-1600) made for the edicts, decrees and governor's commisions issued by the Doges of Venice.
  1473  CERichard de Bury's treatise 'Philobiblon' was written in praise of books. 
  1473  CE(1473/1474) The book 'Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye' was translated and printed from the French by William Caxton. A copy sold in 1998 for $1.2 million.
  1475  CEFirst books printed by Colard Mansion of Bruges in Belgium.
  1476  CEIn England, William Caxton sets up printing press at Westminster.
18 Nov 1477  CEWilliam Claxton published the first dated book printed in England. It was a translation from the French of 'The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers', by Earl Rivers.
  1477  CEFirst book with intaglio illustrations 'Il Monte Sancto di Dio' published in Florence.
  1479  CEUgo da Carpi (1479-1533) was born. He was a leading engraver of Venice and Rome and was probaly one of the inventors of chiarusco printing.
  1479  CEJean Grolier (1479-1565) was born. He was a French bibliphile and famous for the bindings of his books.
  1480  CEBartolomeo Saachi de Platina had a cookbook printed titled 'De honesta voluptate et valetudine'.  
  1482  CEThe 'Poeticon Astronomicon' by Erhard Ratdolt was printed and was illustrated with allegorical woodcuts. 
  1483  CECologne Bible by Anton Koberger of Nuremberg.
  1486  CEWilliam Caxton prints his first books in England in Westminster.
  1486  CEGotfred van Os prints 'Chevalier Libere' at Gouda (the book deals with Charles the Bold).
  1489  CEBookprinting came to Copenhagen in Denmark with the arrival of the Dutch printer Gotfried van Os who called himself Gotfred of Ghemen.
  1490  CEAntonio Blado (1490-1567) was born. He became a Printer in Rome using a cursive type face designed by Arrighi.
  1490  CEPrinting of books on paper becomes more common in Europe. 
  1490  CEThe first dated edition of Maimonides 'Mishna Torah' published.
  1490  CEA version of the legal handbook 'Statham's Abridgement' was printed. The text is classed as part of the 'incunabula', or books printed in the first 50 years after the introduction of movable type by Gutenberg in 1450.  
  1491  CEJohann Froben started printing in Basle and was the Printer of Erasmus publications. 
  1492  CEThe 'Pentateuch' (a Jewish holy book) was first printed.
  1493  CEHartmann Schedel's 'Weltchronik' published with illustrations by Wolgemut. 
  1493  CEGerard Leeu (1493-1493) was born and became a printer at Gouda in Holland.
  1493  CEThe earliest known etchings are by Daniel Hopfer in Augsburg, the Swiss Urs Graf, and Dürer, who did five etchings on iron among them 'The Agony in the Garden' and 'The Cannon'.
  1494  CESebastian Brant's 'Narrenschiff' was published and was illustrated with woodcuts among them the famous Bookfool. 
  1494  CESebastian Brant's 'Ship of Fools' was published by Bergmann von Olpe of Basle and was illustrated with 114 woodcuts. 
  1495  CEJohn Bale (1495-1563) was born and became the compiler of first bibliography in England.
  1495  CEFirst Latin book from the Aldus' press was Pietro Bembo's dialog about Aetna which was printed in a roman type. 
  1495  CEFrancesco Griffo cut 'old face' roman type for Aldus Manutius. 
  1495  CEHans Lufft (1495-1584) was born who became printer-publisher of Wittenberg.  
  1495  CEThe first complete edition in Greek of Aristotle in five volumes printed/published by Manutius between 1495-1498. 
  1495  CEA paper mill is established in England.
  1496  CEAlbrecht Durer made his woodcut 'The Four Avenging Angels' from the Apocalypse between 1496-1498. 
  1497  CEHans Holbein (1497-1543) was born. 
  1497  CEJohann Neudorfer (1497-1563) was born. He became writing master of Nuremberg, his 'Fundament' was the first writing book to be published. 
  1498  CEDurer's Apocalypse series woodcuts. 
  1498  CEMusic Printing using movable type invented by Ottaviano Petrucci of Venice.
  1498  CEAlbrecht Durer made his woodcut titled 'The Bath House'.  
  1499  CEHypnerotomachia Poliphili is printed by Manutius. 
  1499  CEThe oldest known reproduction of 'In Dance of Death' printed in Lyon by M.Huss.
  1500  CEClaude Garamont (1500-1561), a Parisian type designer and punchcutter, was born.
  1500  CEBy 1500 approximately 35 thousand books had been printed totalling some 10 million copies. 
  1500  CE(Between 1500-1600) The first Russian book printed was the 15th century 'Apostle'.
  1500  CEAldus Manutius, Italian printer, founded the Venice Academy for the study of Greek classics and he invented Italic type.
  1500  CEDuring the first half century of printing 1450-1500, the majority of printed books were renderings of Greek and Latin works, previously available only in manuscripts. From this point on, published works in the national languages were in the majority. 
  1501  CEFirst use of Francescop Griffo's 'Italic' type by Manutius . 
  1501  CEThe first book in octavo format was printed by Aldus Manutius. 
  1502  CEChristian Egenolff (1502-1555), a printer, was born.  
  1507  CEGeorg Lucas Cranach completed his first printing work 'Chiaroscuro'. 
  1507  CEJohannes Oporinus (1507-1568) was born and became a scholar-printer issueing more than 800 publications including the Koran and writings by Luther.
  1507  CEJohannes Ruysch produced the first printed map of America, as declared by the selling map dealer, R.B. Arkway, Inc. It is dotted with Asian place names. In 1995 it was for sale for $135,000.
  1508  CEHans Burgkmair produces the earliest German colour woodcut 'The Emperor Maximilian on Horseback'.
  1508  CEJost de Negker, printer, became active in Antwerp (1508-1544) and is believed to be the inventor of the colored woodcut.
  1509  CENarrenschiff printed the English adaptation 'Ship of Fools' by Alexander Barclay and was based on the latin translation by Jacob Locher.
  1510  CEGrolier was in Italy as a French legate from 1510 to 1537.
  1511  CEThere were Jews in Thessaloniki, Greece involved in the printing.
  1512  CEGerard Mercator was born (1512-1592) (Gerhard Kremer) who becme a cartographer and mathematician
  1513  CEFraktur, the Prayer book of Maximilian the First, was the first book printed in this type. 
  1514  CEDenmark Chronicle printed by Ascenius in Paris.
  1515  CEHans Holbein the Younger arrived in Basel, the European center of book publishing. The city in 1997 owned 340 prints by Holbein.
  1516  CEMusic printed from engraved plates was used for the first time in Italy.
  1520  CEKing Francis founded the Royal Library of France at Fountainebleu.
  1522  CEA Bible was printed in Alcala, Spain, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Aramaic.
  1524  CEJan Wynken de Worde printed Robert Wakefield's 'Oration' using Italic type for the first time in English typography.
  1530  CEBrunfels published 'Herbarium Vivae Eicones' which was the first newly written and printed botanical book.
  1530  CEChristian Egenolff established a press and foundry in Frankfurt.
  1537  CEGerhardus Mercator, Flemish geographer, established a business as globe and map maker.
  1545  CEClaude Garamond, French typographer, cut a Greek type that remained in use to the early 19th century. Some modern typefaces bear his name.
3 Aug 1546  CEEtienne Dolet (?-1546), a French printer, accused of heresy, blasphemy and sedition, was hanged and burned at the stake for printing reformist literature.
  1546  CEThe first Welsh book, 'Yny Lhyvyr Mwnn', was printed.
  1550  CEPrinted wallpaper is brought to Europe from China by traders.
  1551  CEPrinting was introduced into Ireland.
  1555  CETung Ch'i-ch'ang (1555-1636), painter and master of calligraphy, was born. He also mastered the play of void and presence at the heart of Chinese ink painting.
  1561  CEPortuguese monks at Goa introduced printing to India.
  1563  CEFoxe's 'Book of Martyrs' appeared in its first illustrated English edition.
  1566  CEOne of the world's first newspapers, 'Notizie Scritte', appeared in Venice.
  1572  CEThe first book privately printed in England, 'De Antiquitate Britannicae Ecclesiae' by Matthew Parker, was published.
  1586  CEThe first Turkish marbled paper.
  1592  CEGerard Mercator (1512-1592), mapmaker and founder of the mercator projection, died.
  1598  CEThe first Dutch marbled paper was produced.
  1600  CEThe beginning of the cosmopolitan Edo period, until 1868, the heyday of the woodblock print.  
  1602  CEAn atlas made by the Flemish mapmaker Abraham Ortelius, bound in vellum with text in Spanish, was one of dozens issued between 1570 and 1612.
  1609  CEFirst regularly published newspaper appears in Germany.
  1631  CEA French newspaper carries classified advertisments.
  1639  CEFirst printing press in the American colonies.
  1650  CELeipzig has a daily newspaper.
  1656  CEOldest surviving commercial newspaper begins in Haarlem, the Netherlands.
  1672  CEThe Joan Blaeus publisher is destroyed by a fire in Amsterdam.
  1689  CENewspapers are printed, at first as unfolded 'broadsides'. 
  1690  CEPublick Occurrences, the first American (Boston) newspaper, publish the first and last edition.
  1693  CEThe first woman's magazine 'The Ladies' Mercury' published in London.
  1696  CEBy 1696 Britain has 100 paper mills.
  1702  CEThe first English daily newspaper 'Daily Courant', is published.
  1704  CEA newspaper in Boston prints the first newspaper advertising.
  1704  CEBoston News-Letter, the first successful newspaper in America, is established.
  1710  CEGerman engraver Le Blon develops three-colour printing.
  1711  CEThe Spectator' begins publishing in London.
  1719  CEReaumur proposes using wood to make paper. 
  1725  CEScottish printer develops stereotyping system.
  1735  CEAmerican jury acquits John Zenger, of the New York Weekly Journal, ho was charged with seditious libel by the royal governor of New York. This was seen as a victory for the freedom of press.
  1741  CEAndrew Bedford publishes the first American magazine called 'The American Magazine'.
  1741  CEBenjamin Franklin's General Magazine (the second US Magazine) begins publishing.
  1762  CEAnn Franklin becomes the first female US newspaper editor in Newport RI, Mercury.
  1774  CESwedish chemist invents a future paper whitener.
  1780  CESteel pen points begin to replace quill feathers.
  1780  CEThe first British Sunday newspaper appears, the British Gazette & Sunday Monitor.
  1783  CEBenjamin Tower of Philadelphia publishes first daily newspaper in US.
  1784  CEA French book is made without rags instead vegetation was used.
  1784  CEPenns Packet & General Advertiser is first published, the first daily newspaper in America.
  1785  CEJohn Walter publishes the first issue of the London Times, know at the time as the 'Daily Universal Register'.
  1788  CELondon's 'Daily Universal Register' becomes 'The Times'.
  1790  CEIn England the hydraulic printing press was invented.
  1793  CENoah Webster establishes New York's first daily newspaper, 'American Minerva'.
  1796  CEThe first American newspaper to appear on Sunday, Baltimore Monitor.
  1798  CEFrenchman Nicholas Robert invented the first machinery to manufacture paper.
  1798  CESenefelder in Germany invents lithography.
  1799  CERobert in France invents a paper-making machine.
  1800  CEPaper can be made from vegetable fibers instead of rags. 
  1803  CEHenry and Sealy Fourdrinier improved on Robert's paper making machine.
  1806  CEThe first documented use of the term 'carbonated paper' (carbon paper), when Englishman Ralph Wedgwood, issued a patent for his 'Stylographic Writer'.
  1808  CEPellegrino Turri invented a typewriting machine in Italy. Since 'black paper' was essential for the operation of his machine, he must have perfected his form of carbon paper at virtually the same time as Wedgwood who issued a patent in 1806.
  1814  CEIn England, a steam-powered rotary press is used to print 'The Times'.
  1816  CEUS Newspapers are carried for less than 2 cents postage.
  1819  CENapier builds a rotary printing press. 
  1822  CEThe first printing in Hawaii took place.
  1830  CECalendered paper is produced in England.
  1835  CEBennett publishes the first of his penny press editions. 
  1835  CESiwinowe Kesibwi (Shawnee Sun) is first Native American Indian language monthly magazine.
  1835  CEThe first edition of New York Herald.
  1837  CEPitman publishes a book on shorthand in England.
  1837  CEThe first US electric printing press patented by Thomas Davenport.
  1839  CEIn Russia, Jacobi invents electrotyping, the duplicating of printing plates.
  1840  CEFriedrich Keller patented a wood grinding machine that promoted the use of wood pulp for papermaking.
  1841  CEThe first type-composing machine goes into use in London.
  1842  CEThe first edition of the 'London Illustrated News'.
  1843  CEManila paper (made from sails, canvas & rope) patented in Massachusetts in the US.
24 May 1844  CEThe first telegraphed news dispatch is published in the Baltimore Patriot.
  1844  CEThe first edition of New Rotterdam's Daily (3x per week). 
  1845  CEThe typewriter ribbon is invented.
  1846  CEThe double cylinder rotary press is introduced and produces 8 thousand sheets an hour. 
  1846  CEThe 'Oregon Spectator' is the first newspaper to be published on the US West Coast.
  1847  CEFrederick Douglass publishes the first issue of his newspaper 'North Star'. 
  1847  CENetherlands Haarlem's Current newspaper starts publishing.
  1848  CEA forerunner of the Associated Press is founded in New York.
  1851  CEPaper is made from wood fiber in the US.
  1851  CEThe New York Times starts publishing.
  1854  CEWood-pulp paper is first exhibited, in Buffalo.
  1856  CEMachines folds newspapers and paper for books. 
  1857  CEA Typesetting machine is patented and demonstrated. 
  1862  CEThe US Bureau of Engraving and Printing begins operation.
  1863  CEThe first US newspaper printed on wood-pulp paper, Boston Morning Journal.
  1865  CEThe British newspaper the 'Morning Chronicle' begins publishing.
  1865  CEThe London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is founded.
  1866  CEThe American Wood Paper Company was established in Philadelphia based on development of techniques for dissolving wood fibers using caustic soda to create the pulp needed for manufacturing paper.
  1869  CEThe first postcards introduced in Austria.
  1871  CEThe 'Halftone' process is developed which allows newspaper printing of pictures by rendering a pattern of dots. 
  1872  CESwedish sulfite process uses Wood pulp as the source of paper.
  1872  CEThe development of the Sholes and Glidden typewriter, the first for practical commercial office use, causes an increase in the demand for carbon paper.
  1873  CERemington starts manufacturing Sholes' typewriters when they get the get the 'QWERTY' pseudo-scientific keyboard.
  1873  CEThe first illustrated daily newspaper in US, New York Daily Graphic, is published.
  1874  CELéon Vidal combines chromolithography with Woodburytype printing
  1877  CEWashington Post publishes its first edition.
  1878  CEFull page newspaper advertisments first appear.
  1878  CEKarl Klic invented the most precise and commercially successful method of photogravure printing
  1879  CEThe 'Benday process' aids newspaper production of maps and drawings. 
  1880  CENew York Daily Graphic publishes first half-tone engraving, by S H Horgan
  1886  CEMergenthaler constructs a linotype machine for setting type. 
  1886  CEThe first Vancouver newspaper, The Weekly Herald, publishes its first issue.
  1887  CEA monotype type-casting machine was patented by Tolbert Lanston of Washindton DC.
  1890  CEAB Dick markets the mimeograph. 
  1890  CEThe first weekly comic paper, Comic Cuts, is published in London.
  1891  CEA large press prints and folds 90 thousand 4-page papers an hour. 
  1892  CEThe four-colour rotary press is introduced. 
  1895  CEIn England, Friese-Greene invents phototypesetting.
  1896  CEUnderwood model typewriter for the first time permits typists to see what they are typing.
  1896  CEThe 'monotype' sets type by machine in single characters. 
  1896  CEElectric power is used for the first time to to run a paper mill. 
  1896  CEThe first edition of London Daily Mail priced at ½ a penny.
  1897  CENew York Times begins using slogan 'All the News That's Fit to Print'.
  1901  CEThe first electric typewriter is produced, the 'Blickensderfer'.
  1902  CEEtched zinc engravings start to replace hand-cut wood blocks. 
  1903  CEThe Dutch Press museum opens in Amsterdam.
  1904  CEOffset lithography becomes a commercial reality. 
  1904  CEThe British newspaper, The Daily Mirror, began publication.
  1905  CEThe journal 'Variety', covering all phases of show business, is first published. 
  1905  CERobert S Abbott published the first issue of the newspaper "Chicago Defender".
  1906  CEIn Britain, a new process colours printed books cheaply.
  1911  CERotogravure aids magazine production of photos. 
  1912  CESoviet Communist Party newspaper 'Pravda' begins publishing.
  1913  CEProduction of type composing machines begins. 
  1922  CEThe first facsimile photo send over city telephone lines, Washington, DC
  1923  CEInk paste manufactured for the first time by Standard Ink Company. 
  1933  CEThe first US newspaper published on pine pulp paper, "Soperton News" (Georgia) 
  1950  CEThe first typesetting machine to dispense with metal type exhibited. 
  1954  CERadio sets in the world now outnumber daily newspapers.
  1954  CEThe first typesetting machine (photo engraving) used, Quincy MA 
  1957  CEFirst book to be entirely phototypeset is offset printed 
  1960  CEIn Britain, the News Chronicle & Daily Mail merge, & The London Evening Star merges with the Evening News
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
Note 2: The events are sorted in semi-chronological order according to what is factually known about the date of the event ( Explain ).
Note 3: Events with more information are marked as follows:
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