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Nobel Laureates

Nobel Laureates (1901-2002)

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The international award given for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, peace and economic sciences.
Introduction

The Nobel Prize is the first international award given yearly since 1901 for achievements in physics, chemistry, medicine, literature and peace.  In 1968, the Bank of Sweden instituted the Prize in Economic Sciences in memory of Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize.

The prizes are administered through the Nobel Foundation which is is a private institution established in 1900 based on his will. The Foundation manages the assets made available through the will for the awarding of the prizes.

In the beginning, more than three prize winners could share a Nobel Prize, although this was never practiced. Paragraph four of the Statutes of the Nobel Foundation was amended in 1968, restricting the number of prizewinners to only three.

Previously, a person could be awarded a prize posthumously if the nomination was made before February 1 of the same year. Since 1974, the Prize may only go to a deceased person who has been named as prize winner for the year (usually in October) but who dies before the Prize Award Ceremony on 10 December.

Timeline
    1863  CEInternational Community of the Red Cross founded in Geneva (Nobel prizes 1917, 1944, 1963)
    1895  CEAlfred Nobel establishes Nobel Prize for Peace, Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Lierature.
 10 Dec 1901  CEThe first Nobel Prize for Peace was awarded to Jean Henri Dunant (1928-1910), Founder of the International Committee of the Red Cross and Frederic Passy (1822-1912), Founder and President first French peace society.
    1901  CEThe first Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Emil Adolf von Behring.
    1901  CEThe first Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Sully Prudhomme.
    1901  CEThe first Nobel Prise for Physics is awarded to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923) for the discovery of X-rays.
    1902  CEThe Nobel Prise for Physics is awarded to Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) and Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) for researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena.
    1902  CEThe Nobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to Hermann Emil Fischer.
    1902  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Ronald Ross.
    1902  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Theodor Mommsen.
    1902  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Elie Ducommun and Charles Albert Gobat.
 10 Dec 1903  CENobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Pierre Curie (1859-1906) and Marie Curie (1867-1934) for the 1898 discovery and research into natural radioactivity.
    1903  CEThe Nobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to Svante August Arrhenius.
    1903  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Niels Ryberg Finsen.
    1903  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson.
    1903  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to William Randal Cremer.
    1904  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919) for his investigations of the densities of important gases and for his discovery of Argon.
    1904  CEThe Nobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to Sir William Ramsay.
    1904  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.
    1904  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Frederic Mistral and Jose Echegaray.
    1904  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Institut de droit international (The Institute of International Law).
    1905  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (1862-1947) for his work on 'cathode rays' (electrons).
    1905  CEThe Nobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer.
    1905  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Robert Koch.
    1905  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Henryk Sienkiewicz.
    1905  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Baroness Bertha Sophie Felicita von Suttner and nee Countess Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau.
    1906  CEThe Nobel Prize for Peace is awarded to US President Theodore Roosevelt who is the first American to be awarded the Peace Prize.
    1906  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics goes to Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940) for theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases.
    1906  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramon y Cajal.
    1906  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Giosue Carducci.
    1907  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Albert Abraham Michelson (1852-1931) for his optical precision instruments and his subsequent spectroscopic and metrological investigations.
    1907  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran.
    1907  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Rudyard Kipling.
    1907  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Ernesto Teodoro Moneta and Louis Renault.
    1908  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Gabriel Lippmann (1825-1941) for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference.
    1908  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich.
    1908  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Rudolf Eucken.
    1908  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Klas Pontus Arnoldson and Fredrik Bajer.
    1909  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Guglielmo Marconi and Ferdinand Braun.
    1909  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Emil Theodor Kocher.
    1909  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Selma Lagerlof.
    1909  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Auguste Marie François Beernaert, Paul HenriBenjamin d'Estournelles de Constant and Baron de Constant de Rebecque.
    1910  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Johannes Diderik van der Waals.
    1910  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Albrecht Kossel.
    1910  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Paul Heyse.
    1910  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Bureau international permanent de la Paix (The Permanent International Peace Bureau).
    1911  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Wilhelm Wien.
    1911  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Allvar Gullstrand.
    1911  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Maurice Maeterlinck.
    1911  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Tobias Michael Carel Asser and Alfred Hermann Fried.
    1912  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Gustaf Dalen.
    1912  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Alexis Carrel.
    1912  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Gerhart Hauptmann.
    1912  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Elihu Root.
    1913  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes.
    1913  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Charles Robert Richet.
    1913  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Rabindranath Tagore.
    1913  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Henri La Fontaine.
    1914  CEThe Vatican puts Belgian Nobel winner Maeterlinck's works in their 'index'.
    1914  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Max von Laue.
    1914  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Robert Barany.
    1915  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to William Bragg and Lawrence Bragg.
    1915  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Romain Rolland.
    1916  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Verner von Heidenstam.
    1917  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Charles Glover Barkla.
    1917  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Karl Gjellerup and Henrik Pontoppidan.
    1917  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Comite international de la Croix Rouge (The International Committee of the Red Cross).
    1918  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Max Planck.
    1919  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Johannes Stark.
    1919  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Jules Bordet.
    1919  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Carl Spitteler.
    1919  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to US President Thomas Woodrow Wilson.
    1920  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Charles Edouard Guillaume.
    1920  CEThe Nobel prize for Medicine is awarded to Schack August Steenberg Krogh.
    1920  CEThe Nobel prize for Litertaure is awarded to Knut Hamsun.
    1920  CEThe Nobel prize for Peace is awarded to Leon Victor Auguste Bourgeois.
    1937  CEThe Nobel Prize was awarded to Albert Szent-Gyogyi who was the first person to isolate vitamin C by extracting it from paprika
    1943  CEGeorg Von Hevesy wins the Nobel Prize for his work with radioactivity
    1950  CERalph J Bunche becomes the first black American to be presented with the Nobel Peace Prize.
    1951  CEThe Nobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton.
 
  1953  CEDr Albert Schweitzer & Gen George C Marshall win Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1958  CESoviet novelist Boris Pasternak, wins Nobel Prize for Literature
 
 
  1961  CEMelvin Calvin was awarded the Nobel Prize in association with Andrew Benson, James Bassham and other scientists. He described the light-independent reactions (often called the dark reactions - or the Calvin cycle) of the photosynthetic system.
 
 
  1962  CEFor his efforts in organizing the world scientific community in opposition to nuclear testing Pauling received a second Nobel Prize (for peace).
 
 
  1962  CEAmerican author John Steinbeck awarded Nobel Prize in literature.
 
 
  1962  CEDr Watson (US) & Drs Crick & Wilkins (Britain) win Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in determining structure of DNA.
 
 
  1964  CEReverend Martin Luther King Jr wins the Nobel Peace Prize.
 
 
  1966  CEIsraeli Shmuel Yosef Agnon wins Nobel Prize for literature
 
 
  1968  CEThe Bank of Sweden introduces an additional Nobel Prize for Economics in memory of Alfred Nobel.
 
 
  1970  CENorman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for development of high yielding dwarf strains of wheat while working at the Rockefeller-financed CIMMYT Agricultural Station in Mexico City
 
 
  1973  CEKissinger & Le Duc Tho jointly awarded Nobel peace prize
 
 
30 Apr 1975  CEAndrei Sakharov the Soviet physicist and human rights activist received the Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1975  CEAndrei Sakharov's wife Yelena Bonner, accepts his Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1975  CESoviet dissident Andrei Sakharov wins Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1976  CEAmerican Saul Bellow wins Nobel Prize for Literature
 
 
  1978  CEBegin & Sadat win the Nobel Peace prize
 
 
  1978  CEIn Oslo, Menachem Begin & Anwar Sadat accept 1978 Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1978  CEIsaac Bashevis Singer wins the Nobel Prize for literature
 
 
  1979  CEMother Teresa (1910-1997) of Calcutta, India, received the Nobel Peace Prize.
 
 
  1979  CEAllan McLeod Cormack & Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield win Nobel Prize for medicine for developing the CAT scan
 
 
  1983  CEBarbara McClintock received the Nobel Prize for her work with the complex color patterns of Indian corn when her studies that revealed moveable genetic elements termed 'jumping genes'.
 
 
  1983  CEDanuta Walesa, wife of Lech Walesa, accepts his Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1983  CELech Walesa wins the Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1984  CEDesmond Tutu, black Anglican Bishop, wins the Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1984  CESouth African Bishop Desmond Tutu received his Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1985  CEInternational Physicians for Prevention of Nuclear War receives Nobel Prize
 
 
  1986  CEConcentration camp survivor Elie Wiesel wins Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1986  CEHolocaust survivor Elie Wiesel accepts 1986 Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1987  CECosta Rican Pres Oscar Arias wins Nobel Peace Prize
 
 
  1988  CE3 Americans win Nobel in physics; 3 W Germans win chemistry Nobel
 
 
  1988  CEUN peacekeeping forces win Nobel Peace prize
 
 
5 Oct 1989  CEThe Tibetan Dalai Lama is awarded the Nobel Prize for peace.
 
 
  1990  CEOctavio Paz wins Nobel Prize for literature
 
 
  1990  CEUS doctors Joseph E Murray & E Donnall Thomas win Nobel Prize
 
 
  2000  CENobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Zhores I. Alferov, Herbert Kroemer and Jack S. Kilby.
 
 
  2000  CENobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa.
 
 
  2000  CENobel Prize for Medicine is awarded to Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel.
 
 
  2000  CENobel Prize for Literaure is awarded to Gao Xingjian.
 
 
  2000  CENobel Prize for Peace is awarded to Kim Dae-jung.
 
 
  2000  CENobel Prize for Economics is awarded to James J. Heckman and Daniel L. McFadden.
 
 
  2001  CENobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle and Carl E. Wieman.
 
 
  2001  CENobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori and K. Barry Sharpless.
 
 
  2001  CENobel Prize for Medicine is awarded to Leland H. Hartwell, R. Timothy Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse.
 
 
  2001  CENobel Prize for Literaure is awarded to V.S. Naipaul.
 
 
  2001  CENobel Prize for Peace is awarded to The United Nations (UN) and Kofi Annan.
 
 
  2001  CENobel Prize for Economics is awarded to George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence and Joseph E. Stiglitz.
 
 
  2002  CENobel Prize for Physics is awarded to Raymond Davis Jr., Masatoshi Koshiba and Riccardo Giacconi.
 
 
  2002  CENobel Prize for Chemistry is awarded to John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka and Kurt Wüthrich.
 
 
  2002  CENobel Prize for Medicine is awarded to Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston.
 
 
  2002  CENobel Prize for Literaure is awarded to Imre Kertész.
 
 
  2002  CENobel Prize for Peace is awarded to Jimmy Carter.
 
 
  2002  CENobel Prize for Economics is awarded to Daniel Kahneman and Vernon L. Smith.
 
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
Note 2: The events are sorted in semi-chronological order according to what is factually known about the date of the event ( Explain ).
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