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Late Christianity

Late Christianity (1500-1998)

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The development of the Christian church and its division into further sects.

Around two thousand years ago, it is believed by many, that Jesus the Nazarine was born.  This event was to be the foundation of a religion that has survived through this time and has created many different sects with a common belief in the word of the bible.

As the church had developed it has split into further sects each based upon their own interpretation of the bible.

See also: 
Early Christianity (1-1054)

Middle Christianity (1054-1500)

    1500  CEPope Alexander VI proclaimed a Year of Jubilee with a call for a crusade against the Turks.
  7 Jun 1502  CEPope Gregory XIII was born. He introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1582.
    1502  CEGranada Moslems forced to convert to Catholicism.
    1503  CEThomas a Kempis published his 'Imitation of Christ' in an English translation and it had great religious influence.
    1503  CECanterbury Cathedral was finished after 433 years of construction.
    1503  CEPope Alexander VI died.
 17 Jan 1504  CEPius V, future Pope between 1566-1572, was born.
    1505  CEMichelangelo was called to Rome by Pope Julius II.
    1506  CEThe Swiss Guard was founded by Pope Julius II to protect the pope and the Vatican.
    1507  CEPope Julius II announced an indulgence for the re-building of St. Peter's.
    1507  CEMartin Luther was ordained.
 27 Apr 1509  CEPope Julius II excommunicated the Italian state of Venice.
 10 Jul 1509  CEJohn Calvin (1509-1564), founder of Calvinism, the basis for modern Protestantism, was born in France.
    1509  CEErasmus lectured at Cambridge and dedicated his 'In Praise of Folly', a witty satire on church corruption and scholastic philosophy, to Thomas More.
    1510  CEPope Julius II excommunicates the republic of Venice.
    1510  CEJohn Colet, English churchman and humanist, founded St. Paul's School in London.
    1510  CEMartin Luther became professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg.
    1511  CEHaving won battles over Muslim forces the Portuguese advanced their control over spice producing areas of India, Ceylon, Java, Sumatra and (by 1514)the Spice Islands.
    1511  CEPope Julius joined the Holy League with Aragon and Venice against the French. Papal forces captured Modena and Mirandola from the French.
    1512  CEJulius II convened the 5th Lateran Council (18th ecumenical council) to try for the first time to reform abuses within the Church of Rome.
 20 Feb 1513  CEPope Julius II died. He was laid in rest in a huge tomb sculptured by Michelangelo.
    1513  CEGiovanni de' Medici chosen Pope Leo X.
    1513  CENiccolo Machiavelli wrote 'The Prince' in which he gave reasons for the rise and fall of states. It was not published until 1532. He justified the ruthless subjection of religion and morality to politics.
    1514  CEThe Complutensian New Testament in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin is completed.
    1514  CEPope Leo X issued a papal bull against slavery.
    1515  CERaphael succeeded Bramante as chief architect of St. Peter's in Rome.
    1516  CEErasmus published his version of the New Testament. He began by copying manuscripts found in monasteries and given to him by his friend Thomas More. His Latin translation and commentary and an improved Greek text differed in many places from the Vulgate of St. Jerome, and was immediately recognized as the most accurate translation so far.
 31 Oct 1517  CEMartin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Thesis to the door of the Wittenberg Palace All Saints' Church. This event signaled the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Germany and Protestantism in general.
    1517  CEPope Leo X signs 5th Council of Lateranen.
    1517  CEPope Leo X's calendar reform fails.
    1518  CELuther was summoned to the Diet of Augsburg where he refused to recant.
    1518  CEUlrich Zwingli, a Swiss clergyman, supported Martin Luther's Reformation.
    1518  CERaphael painted a portrait of Leo X which showed spectacles with concave lenses for short-sightedness.
 24 Apr 1519  CEEnvoys of Montezuma II attended the first Easter mass in Central America.
  6 Jun 1519  CECharles of Spain was elected Holy Roman emperor in Barcelona. The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty.
    1519  CEThe first Altenburger sermon by Luther and Karl von Miltitz.
    1519  CESt. George's Chapel, Windsor, England, was completed after 46 years of work.
    1519  CEThe Italian influenced medieval church at the Moscow Monastery of Peter the Metropolitan was constructed.
    1519  CEMartin Luther disputed with Johann Eck in the Leipzig Disputation and questioned the infallibility of the Pope.
    1519  CEUlrich Zwingli initiated the Swiss Reformation with his preaching in Zurich.
    1519  CECorregio began painting the ceiling frescoes in the dining room of the abbess of St. Paul's Convent in Parma.
 10 Dec 1520  CEMartin Luther publicly burned the papal edict demanding that he recant, or face excommunication.
    1520  CEThe Pope threatens to excommunicate Luther from the Catholic Church.
    1520  CEThe Anabaptists, Protestants who baptized believers only and not infants, grew as a movement in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Some emigrated to America and established themselves as the Amish of Lancaster, Pa.
  3 Jan 1521  CEPope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther from the Roman Catholic Church.
 17 Apr 1521  CEUnder the protection of Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Luther first appeared before Charles V and the Imperial Diet. Martin Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.
 18 Apr 1521  CEMartin Luther confronted the emperor Charles V in the Diet of Worms and refused to retract his views which led to his excommunication.
 21 Apr 1521  CEMartin Luther was called before an Imperial Diet in Worms. He was already accused of heresy and excommunicated by the Pope. Here he was absolved of all charges.
  8 May 1521  CEEmperor Charles V and the Diet issued the Edict of Worms. It banned Luther's work and enjoined his detention but was not able to be enforced.
    1521  CEThe 'Diet of Worms' and Luther refuses to back down.
    1521  CEEdict of Worms outlaws Martin Luther and his followers.
    1521  CEPope Leo X signs treaty with German emperor Charles V.
    1521  CEPope Leo X conferred the title of 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII of England.
    1522  CEMarten Luther preaches his 'Invocavit'.
    1522  CEMartin Luther completed his translation of the New Testament into German and returned to Wittenberg. His supporter, Ulrich Zwingli, condemned Lenten fasting and celibacy.
    1522  CEHead inquisitor Adriaan Florisz Boeyens of Utrecht was elected Pope Adrian VI. He was the last non-Italian pope until John Paul II.
    1522  CEA Bible was printed in Alcala, Spain, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and Aramaic.
    1523  CEPope Adrian VI died and was succeeded by Pope Clement VII, nephew of Lorenzo de' Medici [until 1534]. Adrian VI was the last non-Italian Pope until 1978 when Cardinal Wojtyla, Archbishop of Cracow, became Pope Paul II.
   Apr 1524  CEThe Peasant's War, in which Protestants fought against Catholics and demanded an end to feudal services and oppression by the landed gentry, broke out in Germany.
    1524  CEMartin Luther and Johann Walther produced jointly a German hymnal called 'Geistliche Lieder'.
    1524  CEUlrich Zwingli abolished the Catholic mass in Zurich.
 19 Jul 1525  CEThe Catholic princes of Germany formed the Dessau League to fight against the Reformation.
    1525  CEChurch reformer John Pistorius caught in the Hague.
    1525  CEParis' parliament begins pursuit of Protestants
    1525  CEThomas Munzer, a German Anabaptist, set up a communistic theocracy at Mulhausen, Germany.
    1525  CEWilliam Tyndale's translation of the New Testament was published in Worms, Germany.
    1525  CEMartin Luther got married and served chicken to his guests.
    1525  CELuther wrote 'Against the Murderous and Thieving Hordes of Peasants'.
    1525  CEThe Capuchin order of friars was founded in Italy. They become among the most effective Catholic preachers and missionaries in the Counter-Reformation.
    1525  CEThe Mennonites, a Protestant branch of the Anabaptists, were established in Zurich, Switz.
    1526  CEGerman evangelical monarchy joins Schmalkaldische League.
    1526  CEPope Clemens VII, France, Genoa, Venice, Florence and Milan form the Anti-French League of Cognac.
    1526  CEThe Sermon of Bathe preaches evangelical theology.
    1526  CEPope Clement VII formed the League of Cognac against Emperor Charles V.
    1526  CEWilliam Tyndale, priest and translator, completed and published the first complete version of the New Testament in English at Worms, Germany. Tyndale was the first translator of the biblical texts from their original Greek and Hebrew into English.
    1526  CEThe Teutonic Knights, a German military and religious order of knights and priests, broke away from the Catholic Church to become Lutherans.
 30 May 1527  CEThe University of Marburg was founded. It is the oldest Protestant University in Germany.
    1527  CEHenry VIII appealed to the Pope for permission to divorce Catherine of Aragon.
    1527  CE(1527-1528) Henry VIII imprisoned Pope Clement VII for disobedience. It was to Clement that Henry appealed for an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which had been granted under special dispensation in the first place.
    1528  CETreaty of Dordrecht between the emperor and the ecclesiastical powers.
  1528  CECardinal Wolsey dissolved 22 religious houses and used the money for the founding of several colleges.
  1528  CEPhilip Melanchthon, Protestant reformer, proposed German educational reforms.
  1528  CEPaolo Cagliari Veronese (1528-1588), a Venetian painter, was born. He was hauled before the Inquisition in1573 and accused of painting profanities.
  1529  CELuther published two hymns: 'Away in a Manger' and 'A Mighty Fortress Is Our God'.
  1529  CEAt the Diet of Speyer the Lutheran minority protested against restrictions on their teachings and were called 'Protestant' for the first time.
  1529  CECivil war commenced between Catholic and the Reformed cantons in Switzerland. The Catholics were ultimately defeated.
  1530  CEEnglish King Henry VIII's divorce request is denied by the Pope Henry then declares that he, not the Pope, is supreme head of England's church.
  1530  CEWilliam Tyndale published his translation into English of the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament.
  1530  CEMartin Luther and Philip Melanchthon drew up the Augsburg Confessions and presented them unsuccessfully to the German Diet at Augsburg convened by Charles V.
  1530  CEThe first imperial coronation by a Pope when Pope Clement VII crowns Charles V as the Holy Roman Emperor. Charles restored the Medici to power after capturing Florence and ceded Malta to the landless religious order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem.
11 Feb 1531  CEHenry VIII was recognized as the supreme head of the Church of England.
27 Feb 1531  CEGerman Protestants formed the League of Schmalkalden to defend themselves against Charles V and the Roman Catholic states.
11 Oct 1531  CEThe Catholics defeated the Protestants at Kappel during Switzerland's second civil war.
24 Oct 1531  CEBavaria, despite being a Catholic region, joined the League of Schmalkalden, a Protestant group which opposed Charles V.
  1531  CEEvangelical German monarchy and towns form Schmalkaldische Union.
  1531  CEPope Clemens VII forbids English king Henry VIII to re-marry.
  1531  CEIn Mexico legend held that a dark-skinned Virgin Mary appeared to a peasant and left an imprint on his cactus-fiber poncho. The poncho became an icon for the Virgin of Guadalupe.
  1531  CEThe Inquisition in Portugal became notably assiduous in reaction to the spread of Protestantism.
  1531  CEUlrich Zwingli, Swiss Protestant reformer, was killed in the Swiss civil war between the Protestant and Catholic cantons.
  1532  CEBritish parliament bans payments by British church to Rome.
  1532  CEBetween 1532 and 1540, Thomas Cromwell disbanded most of the monasteries in England and absorbed their vast wealth under the crown.
  1532  CEIn Italy the Shroud of Turin was scorched in a fire and doused with water.
28 May 1533  CEBritain's Archbishop declared the marriage of King Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn valid.
11 Jul 1533  CEPope Clement VII excommunicated England's King Henry VIII.
  1533  CEThomas Cranmer became the archbishop of Canterbury [until 1556].
  1534  CEPope Paul II affirms George van Egmond as bishop of Utrecht.
  1534  CEWürttemberg becomes Lutheran.
  1534  CERegensburg Cathedral, Germany, was completed after 259 years of work.
  1534  CEThe Church of St. Basil was begun in Moscow on what is now known as Red Square.
  1534  CEHenry VIII was declared Supreme Head of the Church in England. He suppressed the monasteries and renounced papal jurisdiction. He issued the Act of Supremacy which signified a break with the Catholic Church of Rome.
  1534  CEWilliam Tyndale published a revised English New Testament.
  1534  CEMichelangelo settled in Rome and began to work on the immense 'Last Judgement' on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel.
11 Feb 1535  CEGregory XIV, Roman Catholic Pope was born.
6 Jul 1535  CEThomas More's sentence to death by hanging was commuted to beheading. Thomas More was beheaded in England for treason, for refusing to renounce the Catholic church in favor of King Henry VIII's Church of England.
31 Aug 1535  CEPope Paul III deposed & excommunicated King Henry VIII.
  1535  CE12 nude Anabaptist Protestants run through Amsterdam streets.
  1535  CEImperial authorities in Antwerp captured and imprisoned William Tyndale for heresy over his translation of the Bible into English.
  1535  CEThe Anabaptists under John of Leiden formed a communist state at Munster. When the city was recaptured, John was tortured to death. The Anabaptists Protestants are then disbanded.
18 Jul 1536  CEThe authority of the pope was declared void in England.
6 Oct 1536  CEWilliam Tyndale, the English translator of the New Testament, was strangled and burned at the stake for heresy at Vilvorde, France, by the Holy Roman Empire.
  1536  CEEnglish King Henry VIII orders the bible be placed in every church.
  1536  CEFrançois Rabelais was absolved of apostasy by Pope Paul III.
  1536  CEPope Paul III installs the Portugese inquisition.
  1536  CEIn England Hyde Park was seized from the monks at Westminster Abbey by Henry VIII and preserved as forest for the royal hunt.
  1536  CEThe suppression of the smaller monasteries in England under Thomas Cromwell was completed.
  1536  CERobert Aske led an uprising of some 30,000 people against the dissolution of the monasteries in the northern counties of England. It ended a year later with the arrest and hanging of Aske.
  1536  CEJohn Calvin published the 'The Institutes of the Christian Religion', which spread Calvinist ideas across Europe.
2 Jun 1537  CEPope Paul III banned the enslavement of Indians in the New World.
  1537  CEPope Paul III sends Cardinal Pole to England.
  1537  CERobert Aske was arrested and hung for the uprising in northern England against the closing of the monasteries by Thomas Cromwell.
  1537  CEThe first Catholic hymnal was published.
  1538  CEPope Paul III excommunicated England's King Henry VIII.
  1538  CEThe Thirteen Articles of the Church of England were written
  1538  CECalvin was exiled from Geneva for three years and lived in Strasbourg.
  1538  CEReligious plays were first performed in Mexico on the feast of Corpus Christi.
19 Apr 1539  CEEmperor Charles V reached a truce with German Protestants.
  1539  CEEmperor Charles receives Cardinal Pole in Toledo.
  1539  CEThe Six Articles, a religious stature, was passed at the 'instance' of Henry VIII. It set forth the position of the English Church on six fundamental points in an effort to stem the growth and influence of the English Protestants.
27 Sep 1540  CEThe Society of Jesus, a religious order under Ignatius Loyola, was approved by the Pope. The Jesuits were recognized by Pope Paul III. They were to become the chief agents of the Church of Rome in spreading the Counter-Reformation.
  1540  CESt. Ignatius Loyola founds the Society of Jesus (the Jesuits).
  1540  CECourt of Holland names Amsterdam sheriff John Hubrechtsz a 'heretic'.
  1541  CEIgnatius of Loyola becomes the first superior-general of the Jesuits.
  1541  CEMichelangelo completed 'The Last Judgement' on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel at Rome. It is one of the largest paintings in the world.
  1541  CEJohn Knox, a Scottish theologian and historian, led the Calvinist Reformation in Scotland.
  1541  CEJohn Calvin, French theologian, set up a theocratic government in Geneva, the 'City of God'. Some of the finest French watchmakers joined him.
  1541  CEIgnatius Loyola, Spanish ecclesiastic, was elected first general of the Jesuits.
  1542  CEPope Paul III began the Inquisition in Rome. Alleged heretics were tried and tortured in an effort to stem the spread of the Reformation.
  1542  CECardinal Robert Bellarmine, became chief theologian of the Roman Catholic church [until 1621]. He denied Galileo's mathematical proofs and astronomical observations. He was named a saint and was canonized in 1930.
  1543  CELuther wrote a pamphlet titled: 'On the Jews and Their Lies'. The founder of the Protestant movement, Martin Luther, despised Jews and it has been said that he helped to set the stage for the Holocaust.
  1543  CEProtestants were burned at the stake for the first time in the Spanish Inquisition. Pope Paul III issued an index of prohibited books.
13 Dec 1545  CEThe Church Council of Trent to reform Catholic Church began with the meeting of 30 bishops. It lasted 3 years but took 18 years to complete its work. The Council sparked the beginning of the Counter-Reformation.
  1545  CEIn Mexico Bishop Fray Bartolome de las Casas championed the Indians in the area of Chiapas.
18 Feb 1546  CEMartin Luther, leader of the Protestant Reformation in Germany, died.
3 Aug 1546  CEEtienne Dolet (?-1546), a French printer, accused of heresy, blasphemy and sedition, was hanged and burned at the stake for printing reformist literature.
  1546  CECharles V got into the Schmalkaldic War against the Protestant princes upon support by the Catholic Counter-Reformation.
  1546  CETitian painted his great family portrait of Paul III and his Grandsons Ottavio and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese.
  1547  CEThe English parliament repealed the Statute of the Six Articles, which defined heresy.
  1548  CEFrancis Xavier founded the Jesuit mission in Japan.
13 Sep 1549  CEPope Paul III closed the first session of the Council of Bologna.
  1549  CEThomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, issued the 'Book of Common Prayer'. Other prayer books were forbidden by the Act of Uniformity. The book was mandated by the government under Edward VI, son of Henry VIII, so that services could be spoken in the language of the people.
  1549  CEPope Paul III died and was succeeded by Julius III.
  1549  CEThe Catholic missionary, Francis Xavier landed in Kagoshima, Japan.
  1549  CEJesuit missionaries arrived in South America.
  1550  CEGiovanni Maria del Monte elected Pope Julius III.
  1550  CEIn Moscow, Ivan the IV built a stone church to commemorate the triumph of Orthodoxy over Roman Catholicism, Islam and the Uniates, who sought to unite the Catholic and Orthodox churches.
  1550  CEJohn Marbeck, English theologian, published a concordance of the entire English bible.
  1550  CEJulius III, Giommaria Ciocci del Monte or Giovanni Maria del Monte, served as Pope 1550-1555.
  1550  CEJohn Marbeck produced the first musical setting for the English liturgy.
  1550  CEMichelangelo began his painting 'The Deposition from the Cross', which included a self-portrait as Nicodemus.
  1551  CEThe Council of Trente resumes.
  1551  CECranmer published his 42 Articles, the basis of Anglican Protestantism.
  1551  CEThe Jesuits founded the Papal University in Rome.
  1551  CEThe term 'Xmas' was used at least this early for Christmas. The short form derived from the Greek letters 'XP', chi and rho, as an abbreviation of the Greek symbol for Christ.
2 Aug 1552  CEThe treaty of Passau gave religious freedom to Protestants living in Germany. The Augsburg Interim was annulled and Lutherans were allowed freedom of worship in Germany.
  1552  CEUnder Edward VI, The Second Book of Common Prayer, more radical than the first, was authorized by a second Uniformity Act and became mandatory in England.
  1553  CEPope Julius III orders confiscation & burning Volumes of the Talmud.
  1553  CEThe Forty-two Articles of the Church of England were written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer 'for the avoiding of controversy in opinions'. The Forty-two Articles had been partly derived from the Thirteen Articles of 1538. When Mary became queen in 1553 and restored Catholicism, the Forty-two Articles were eliminated.
  1553  CEProtestants fearing persecution in England began leaving to Switzerland.
  1553  CEThe League of Heidelberg was formed by German Catholic and Protestant princes to stop Philip of Spain from becoming Holy Roman Emperor.
  1553  CEChristopher Tye composed 'The Acts of the Apostles'.
9 Jan 1554  CEGregory XV, Roman Catholic Pope was born.
12 Mar 1554  CERichard Hooker, English theologian, was born. He authored 'Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity'.
  1554  CESao Paulo in Brazil was founded by the Jesuits with a mission school.
  1554  CEEngland and the Pope reached a reconciliation.
  1554  CEJohn Knox fled to Geneva where he met Jean Calvin.
  1554  CEPalestrina composed his first book of Masses.
25 Sep 1555  CELutheranism was acknowledged by the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of Augsburg.
  1555  CEThe first Jesuit play was performed in Vienna.
  1555  CERichard Hooker (1555-1600), architect of Anglicanism, was born. The Anglican Communion emerged from the conflicts between Henry VIII and Pope Clement VII over Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn.
  1555  CEPope Julius III died. He was succeeded by Marcellus II and then by Giampietro Caraffa as Paul IV.
21 Mar 1556  CEFormer archbishop of Canterbury Cranmer was scheduled to denounce his errors and be burned at the stake. He denounced his own confessions and was hustled off to be burned. He then put forth his hand and declared: 'Forasmuch as my hand offended, writing contrary to my heart, my hand shall first be punished'.
31 Jul 1556  CESt. Ignatius of Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, the Jesuit order of Catholic priests and brothers, died in Rome.
  1556  CEArchbishop Thomas Cranmer is declared a heretic.
  1556  CECardinal Reginald Pole becomes archbishop of Canterbury.
  1556  CEThe Jesuit order was established in Prague.
  1557  CECatholics and Protestants met in Worms in a final effort to achieve reconciliation.
  1558  CEFerdinand I, brother of Charles V, was appointed Holy Roman emperor.
  1558  CEThe religious climate in England changed for the better and Protestants returned home from Geneva and Zurich.
8 May 1559  CEAn act of supremacy defined Queen Elizabeth I as the supreme governor of the church of England.
  1559  CEPope Paul IV calls for deposition of sovereigns supporting heresy.
  1559  CEThe Elizabethan Prayer Book was used for the first time.
  1559  CEJohn Knox preached an inflammatory sermon at Perth and incited the Protestants lords to rise against queen-mother Mary. They captured Edinburgh and sacked religious houses in other cities.
  1559  CEPope Paul IV died and was succeeded by Pius IV.
  1560  CEThe Church of Scotland was founded. The Presbyterian branch of Protestant Christianity was started by John Knox.
  1560  CEThe beginnings of Puritanism appear in England.
  1560  CEThe Huguenot conspiracy of Amboise attempted without success to overthrow the Guises, a powerful French ducal line that championed the Catholic cause.
 May 1561  CEIn Montpellier, France, a Calvinist stronghold, the Catholics marched in protest against the Calvinists chanting 'We shall dance in spite of the Huguenots'. Wars of religion began to rip France apart and lasted for the next 6 decades.
  1561  CEThe first Calvinist refugees from Flanders, clothworkers, settled in Sandwich, England.
  1561  CEThe Edict of Orleans suspended the persecution of the Huguenots.
  1561  CEThe Basilica of St. Basil in Moscow was completed after 26 years of work.
17 Jan 1562  CEProtestants were recognized in France under the Edict of St. Germain.
1 Mar 1562  CEThe Catholic Guises massacred more than 60 Huguenots at a Protestant service in a church at Vassy and sparked off The Wars of Religion in France between between Catholics and Protestants [until 1578].Some 1,200 Huguenots were killed at Vassy.
19 Dec 1562  CEThe French Wars of Religion between the Huguenots and the Catholics began with the Battle of Dreux.
  1562  CE3rd sitting of Council of Trente opens
  1563  CECouncil of Trent holds last session, after 18 years.
  1563  CEWilliam Byrd is appointed organist at Lincoln Cathedral.
  1563  CEThe Jesuits lead the Counter-Reformation from Bavaria.
  1563  CEThe 1563 Canterbury Convocation drastically revised the Forty-two Articles of the Church of England. The 39 Articles combined Protestant doctrine with Catholic church organization to establish the Church of England. Dissenting groups included the Puritans, Separatists, and Presbyterians.
  1563  CEThe Peace of Amboise ended the First War of Religion in France. Huguenots gained limited tolerance. The French regain La Havre from the English.
  1563  CEWilliam Byrd, English composer, was appointed organist at Lincoln Cathedral.
26 Apr 1564  CEWilliam Shakespeare was baptized.
27 May 1564  CEJohn Calvin, Protestant leader and one of the dominant figures of the Protestant Reformation, died in Geneva.
  1564  CECardinal Granvelle flees Brussels.
  1564  CEPhilip II routes cardinal Granvelle to Franche-Comte.
  1564  CEThe Council of Trent ended with the Pope promulgating profesio fidei, the final definition of Roman Catholicism.
  1564  CEAndreas Vesalius, the father of modern anatomy, was forced by the Inquisition to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He disappeared during the voyage.
19 Apr 1565  CEIn Malta, the Great Siege lasted until 8 Sep, as Suliman the Magnificent sought to add the island to his conquests. The Grand Master Jean de la Valette led the Knights of St. John in repulsing the Turks and consequently halting the westward advance of Islam in the Mediterranean.
8 Sep 1565  CEThe siege of Malta was broken. The Turkish army of 40,000 men of Suleyman the Magnificent besieged the Knights of Malta (the Knights of St John), led by Jean de la Valette, at their garrison, St. Elmo. The defenders numbered 540 knights, 400 Spanish troops, and Maltese gentry.
  1565  CEPalladio finished S. Giorgio Maggiore Church in Venice.
  1566  CEAntonio Michaele Ghislieri is elected Pope Pius V.
  1566  CECardinal Michaele Ghislieri was elected Pope Pius V.
  1566  CEFanatical Calvinists instigated religious riots in the Netherlands.
  1566  CEHeinrich Bullinger, Swiss theologian, sought to combine Calvinism with Zwinglianism in his 'Helvetian Confession'.
  1566  CERegent Margaret abolished the Inquisition.
  1567  CEThe Huguenots started a second War of Religion in France with the Conspiracy of Meaux.
  1567  CEThe Catholic Church outlawed the outright sale of indulgences.
  1567  CEMaximilian II established a monastery council to superintend the clergy.
  1568  CEAbdij Church in Middelburg destroyed by fire.
  1568  CEHoly Roman Emperor agrees to pay annual tribute to Sultan for peace.
  1568  CETreaty of Longjumeau when French Protestant Huguenots go on strike.
  1568  CELeaders of the Flemish opposition to the Spanish Inquisition were beheaded as traitors in Brussels.
  1568  CEAn eighty year war of independence from Spain was carried on by the Calvinist and predominantly mercantile Dutch provinces.
  1568  CEIl Gesu, the mother church of the Jesuit order, was begun in Rome.
  1569  CEBattle of Jarnac when the Count of Anjou defeats the Huguenots.
  1569  CEKing Philip II forms an inquistion in South America.
  1569  CESt Philip of Moscow martyred by Ivan the Terrible.
25 Feb 1570  CEPope Pius V issued the bull Regnans in Excelsis which excommunicated Queen Elizabeth I of England and absolves her subjects from allegiance.
  1570  CECzar Ivan IV becomes Protestant.
  1570  CELutherans, Calvinists and Moravian brethren united against the Jesuits in Poland in the Consensus of Sendomir.
2 Feb 1571  CEAll eight members of a Jesuit mission in Virginia were murdered by Indians who pretended to be their friends.
7 Sep 1571  CESpanish and Venetian ships of the Christian League in the naval Battle of Lepanto in the Mediterranean Sea under Don John of Austria gained complete victory over a Turkish fleet with 117 Turkish ships sunk.
  1571  CEEmperor Maximilian II grants Austrian adel freedom of religion.
  1571  CEVenice, Spain and Pope Pius form the anti-Turkish Saint League.
  1571  CEAlong with the Common Book of Prayer, the Thirty-nine Articles constitute the doctrinal statements of the Church of England. Developed from the Forty-two Articles written by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer in 1553 'for the avoiding of controversy in opinions'.
  1571  CEPope Pius V signed an alliance with Venice and Spain to fight the Turks.
  1571  CEThe Jesuits in Chesapeake Bay were wiped out by the Indians, resulting in the complete withdrawal of all Jesuits from Florida.
24 Aug 1572  CEThe slaughter of French Protestants at the hands of Catholics began in Paris as Charles IX of France attempted to rid the country of Huguenots.
  1572  CEBeggars assault Oisterwijk in the Netherlands and drive the nuns out.
  1572  CELouis van Nassau and the Huguenots occupy Valenciennes.
  1572  CEPope Pius V died and was succeeded by Gregory XIII.
  1573  CEFrance's Fourth War of Religion ended with the Pacification of Boulogne.
  1573  CEThe Huguenots gained an amnesty and were promised freedom of conscience.
  1573  CE(1573-1577) In Malta the Cathedral of St. John was built.
23 Feb 1574  CEThe 5th War of Religion broke out in France.
28 Feb 1574  CEOn the orders of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, two Englishmen and an Irishman were burnt for heresy.
  1575  CE(1575-1649) In Mexico the construction of La Immaculada Concepcion cathedral in Puebla.
6 May 1576  CEThe peace treaty of Chastenoy ended France's fifth war of religion.
  1576  CEHenry of Navarre (the future Henry IV) abjures Catholicism at Tours.
  1576  CEThe Fifth War of Religion in France ended with the Peace of Monsieur. The Huguenots were granted freedom of worship in all places except Paris.
  1576  CEThe basilica of San Petronio was erected by Egnatio Danti, a mathematician and Dominican friar who worked for Cosimo I dei Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany. The structure included a solar observatory. Danti also advised Pope Gregory on calendar reform.
  1577  CEKing Henri de Bourbon of Navarra becomes leader of Huguenots.
  1577  CEThe Sixth War of Religion erupts in France. After five months it ends with the Peace of Bergerac. The Huguenots gain more concessions.
  1578  CESebastian, King of Portugal, invaded Morocco and was killed along with the King of Fez and the Moorish Pretender in the Battle of Alcazar. He is succeeded by Cardinal Henry.
25 Jan 1579  CEThe Union of Utrecht brought together seven northern, Protestant provinces of the Netherlands (Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Friesland, and Groningen) against the Catholics. Known as the United Provinces, when the Treaty of Utrecht was signed they become the foundation of the Dutch Republic.
  1580  CEEdmund Campion and Robert Parsons began a Jesuit mission in England.
  1580  CEFrance's Seventh War of Religion broke out and ended with the Peace of Felix.
  1580  CECarlo Borromeo, Archbishop of Milan, established the first Sunday schools.
1 Dec 1581  CEEdmund Champion, English Jesuit, and other Jesuit martyrs were hanged at Tyburn, England, for sedition, after being tortured.
  1581  CEBritish parliament passes laws against Catholicism.
  1581  CEJames Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh, was born. He stated the age of the Earth based on the bible.
  1581  CEPope Gregory XIII approves the results of his calendar reform commission.
  1581  CEConverts to Roman Catholicism in England were subject by law to penalties of high treason.
  1581  CEPope Gregory XIII attempted in vain to reconcile the Roman and Orthodox churches.
24 Feb 1582  CEPope Gregory XIII - Aloysius Lilius - and Christopher Clavius introduce a Gregorian calendar with an improved leap year system removing the old Julian Calendar's error of one day in every 128 years.
4 Oct 1582  CEThe Church Council at Trent, Italy, discussed the error of 10 days in the calendar as referenced to the spring equinox which was used to establish the date for Easter. 'The Gregorian Adjustment', cretaed a calendar thet is accurate to a day in 3,323 years.
  1582  CEItaly and other Catholic countries introduce the Gregorian calendar and skip 10 days
  1582  CEA Jesuit mission was founded in China.
  1583  CEMatteo Ricci, an Italian Jesuit, entered China. He was later accused of 'going native', and ignoring his mandate to spread the faith.
4 Dec 1584  CEJohn Cotton, English-born Puritan clergyman who wrote 'The Way of the Church of Christ in New England', was born.
  1584  CESeven Westfriese towns divide the monasteries of Egmond, Blokker and St-Pietersdal.
  1584  CEJohn Cotton (1584-1652), US clergyman, colonist and author, was born.
9 Sep 1585  CEPope Sixtus V deprived Henry of Navarre of his rights to the French crown.
14 Dec 1585  CEHenry IV, the first Bourbon king of France, was born. He survived the massacre of St. Bartholomew's by proclaiming himself a Catholic.
  1585  CEArchduke Karl II, ruler of Styria in eastern Austria, granted the Faculties of Arts and Catholic Theology in Graz an official University charter. He entrusted the Jesuits with the administration.
  1586  CEThe Lateran Church of St. John, Rome, was rebuilt on the orders of Pope Sixtus V, who succeeded the late Gregory XIII.
25 Jul 1587  CEJapanese strong-man Hideyoshi banned Christianity in Japan and ordered all Christians to leave.
20 Oct 1587  CEIn France, Huguenot Henri de Navarre routed Duke de Joyeuse's larger Catholic force at Coutras.
  1587  CEPope Sixtus V proclaimed a Catholic crusade for the invasion of England. Philip II prepared an invasion fleet but was interrupted by Francis Drake, who 'singed the king's beard' by burning 10,000 tons of shipping in Cadiz harbor.
  1587  CEPortuguese missionaries were banned from Japan by Hideyoshi.
  1588  CECatholic League under duke Henri de Guise occupies Paris France.
  1588  CEKing Henri III flees Paris.
  1588  CEPope Sixtus V decrees 'Immense aeterni' (Reformed curia).
  1588  CEThe Bible was translated into Welsh by Bishop William Morgan.
  1588  CEMarin Mersenne (1588-1648), French monk and mathematician, was born. Mersenne numbers, which come from multiplying 2 over and over and subtracting one, are named after him. A small percentage of mersenne numbers are also prime numbers.
  1589  CEBernard Palissey, a Huguenot, expressed the opinion that fossils were the remains of living creatures. He was locked up in the dungeons of the Bastille for his opinions and died there.
  1590  CEBattle at Ivry when French King Henri IV beats the Catholic League.
  1591  CEGerman monarchy forms Protestant Union of Torgau.
  1591  CEPope Gregory XIV threatens to excommunicate French King Henri IV.
  1592  CEIppolito Aldobrandini elected Pope Clement VIII.
25 Jul 1593  CEFrance's King Henry IV converted from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism.
  1593  CEVatican opens a seven year trial against scholar Giordano Bruno.
  1593  CEBeginning of the period of the Spanish Inquisition in Mexico [until 1817].
21 Feb 1595  CEThe Jesuit poet Robert Southwell was hanged for 'treason' being a Catholic.
  1596  CEThe Catholic League disjoins.
  1596  CERuthenian members of an Orthodox religious group entered into communion with the Roman Catholic Church and became the Uniate Church of the Little Russians.
  1597  CEThe Sao Paulo church in Macao was constructed by Portuguese colonists.
  1598  CEPope Clement VIII seizes duchy of Ferrara on death of Alfonso.
13 Feb 1599  CEAlexander VII, Roman Catholic Pope, was born.
  1600  CEVatican convicts scholar Giordano Bruno to death.
  1600  CEIn what is now Colombia the Tairona civilization, coerced by the Spaniards to convert to Christianity, fled from their coastal settlements and moved to the whose ruins were only rediscovered in the 1970s. The indigenous Kogui Indians are thought to be their ancestors.
  1600  CEChristian missionaries arrived in India with the first European traders.
  1601  CEChurch authorities burn Hebrew books in Rome.
  1605  CECamillo Borghese elected to succeed Pope Leo XI becomes Paul V.
  1605  CEPope Paul V was elected. After 2 months he elevated his young law-student nephew, Scipione Borghese, to the office of cardinal.
  1606  CEThe order of the Sisters of Ursula was founded in France. Like their Jesuit brethren they try to fuse contemplative withdrawal with worldly engagement.
  1607  CEAnnales Ecclesiastici (Scientific History of Catholicism) published.
  1607  CEThe first Protestant Episcopal parish in America established, Jamestown, Virginia.
  1607  CEWenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677), Bohemian artist, was born. He made an engraving of old St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
19 May 1608  CEThe Protestant states formed the Evangelical Union of Lutherans and Calvinists under the direction of the elector of Brandenburg.
  1611  CEGeorge Abbot appointed archbishop of Canterbury.
  1611  CEThe authorized version of the King James Bible was published and it incorporated the translation of William Tyndale.
  1611  CEGalileo went to Rome to describe his observations to the pontifical court.
  1613  CEAmsterdam merchant Hans Bontemantel baptized.
13 Mar 1615  CEInnocent XII, future Roman Catholic Pope, was born.
  1616  CECopernicus' 'de Revolutionibus' placed on Catholic Forbidden index.
  1616  CESpanish Inquisition delivers injunction to Galileo.
  1616  CEGalileo was forbidden from continuing his scientific work by the Roman Catholic Church.
30 Aug 1617  CERosa de Lima of Peru became the first American saint to be canonized.
8 Nov 1620  CEThe King of Bohemia was defeated at the Battle of Prague. With Hapsburg support in Bohemia the Catholics defeated the Protestants at the Battle of the White Mountain.
  1621  CEAlexander Ludovisi is elected Pope Gregory XV.
  1621  CEIn Mexico Agustina Ruiz of Quertaro was tried for claiming sexual intercourse with saints. She was sent to a convent by the Inquisition for 3 years of fasting and penance.
  1622  CEIgnatius of Loyola declared a saint.
  1622  CEPapal Chancery adopts 1 January as the beginning of the year (was March 25).
  1622  CEPope Gregory XV forms 'Congregatio the Propagande Fide'.
15 Jan 1624  CEThe people of Mexico rioted upon hearing that their churches were to be closed.
27 Aug 1626  CEThe Danes were crushed by the Catholic League in Germany, marking the end of Danish intervention in European wars.
18 Nov 1626  CESt. Peter's Cathedral, Rome, was dedicated.
  1627  CEFrance and Spain sign an accord for fighting protestantism.
  1627  CEIn Norway the stave church at Vaga was rebuilt by architect Werner Olsen. His design included a few fragments of the original building.
28 Oct 1628  CEAfter a fifteen-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrendered to royal forces.
  1628  CEPuritans land at Salem, from Mass Bay Colony, witches soon to settle.
  1628  CEThe Reformed Protestant Dutch Church was established by settlers in New York. In 1867 it became the Reformed Church of America.
  1629  CEFrench Huguenot leader duke De Rohan signs accord with Spain.
  1631  CEBritish colony of Massachusetts Bay grants puritarians voting rights.
  1631  CEBarker and Lucas, the king's printers at Blackfriars were fined 300 pounds for their bible misprint that omitted 'not' from the 7th commandment. The fine helped to ruin the printer. The edition was called 'The Wicked Bible'. A list of variant bible editions due to misprints is in Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable
  1632  CEGalileo's book 'Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems' was published with the full backing of the church censors. It was soon recognized to support Copernican theory and Galileo was put under house arrest for life.
13 Feb 1633  CEItalian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before the Inquisition.
  1633  CEGalileo Galilei is forced by Inquisition to 'abjure, curse, & detest' his Copernican heliocentric views.
  1633  CEItalian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome for trial before Inquisition for professing belief that earth revolves around the Sun.
  1633  CERene Descartes wrote 'Le Monde' in which he upheld the theories of Copernicus but halted publication to prevent conflict with the Church.
  1633  CEGalileo's trial for heresy.
25 Mar 1634  CECatholic colony of Maryland was founded by English colonists sent by the second Lord Baltimore.
  1634  CEWilliam Prynne tried in Star Chamber for publishing 'Histriomastix'.
  1637  CEA King James version of the Bible was printed with only 14 known copies made.
  1637  CE(1637-1638) The Christians of Shimabara, Japan, rebelled.
  1638  CEReligious dissident Anne Hutchinson expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony.
  1638  CEScottish Presbyterians sign National Convenant, Greyfriars, Edinburgh.
  1639  CEDescartes published his 'Discourse on Method'. It is here that his famous statement 'I doubt; therefore I am', was expounded. His Discourse was placed by Catholic theologians on the Index of forbidden books.
  1640  CEPope Urban VIII ordered Spanish priests to stop smoking cigars.
  1640  CEThe Cathedral of Morelia, Mexico, 185 miles northwest of Mexico City, was begun. It was completed 100 years later and is considered to be Mexico's best example of Platersque architecture, an ornate style that resembles silverwork.
  1644  CEPope Urbanus VIII & duke of Parma signs Peace of Ferrara.
  1644  CEThe first Protestant ministry society in New England.
26 May 1647  CEA new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty was banishment or death for a second offense.
  1647  CEMassachusetts disallows priest access to the colony.
  1647  CEThe first woman known to be executed as a witch, Achsah Young in Massachusetts in America.
13 May 1648  CEMargaret Jones of Plymouth was found guilty of witchcraft and was sentenced to be hanged by the neck.
21 Apr 1649  CEThe Maryland Toleration Act, which provided for freedom of worship for all Christians, was passed by the Maryland assembly.
  1649  CEMaryland Toleration Act passed, allowing all freedom of worship
  1650  CEIn Massachusetts the Puritans ordered Obadiah Holmes to be 'well whipped' for holding a Baptist service.
25 Dec 1651  CEThe General Court of Boston levied a five shilling fine on anyone caught 'observing any such day as Christmas'.
  1651  CEFlemish missionary Joris van Geel departs to Congo
  1651  CEFrancois Fenelon (1651-1715), French theologian, was born.
  1653  CECardinal Mazarin returns to Paris from exile.
25 Mar 1655  CEPuritans jailed Governor Stone after a military victory over Catholic forces in the colony of Maryland.
  1655  CEArchbishop James Usher of Dublin, Ireland, developed a timetable that set the creation of the world to 4004 BCE, and Noah's landing on Mount Ararat in 2348 BCE.
  1659  CEPeter Stuyvesant of New Netherlands forbids tennis playing during Creligious services.
  1659  CEThe British Parliament invoked law that made it a crime, punishable by burning at the stake, to forecast the weather.
  1659  CEQuaker leader Mary Dyer was sentenced to death by a Puritan court in Massachusetts Bay Colony amid the Salem witch trials.
  1662  CEAct of Uniformity goes into effect which requires the English to accept book of Common Prayer.
  1662  CEThe Act of Uniformity compels Puritans to accept the doctrines of the Church of England or leave the church.
8 Jul 1663  CEKing Charles II of England granted a charter to Rhode Island guaranteeing freedom of worship..
  1663  CEJean Baptiste Massillon (1663-1742), French clergyman, was born.
  1663  CECotton Mather (1663-1728), American clergyman and author, was born.
  1664  CEThe first Baptist Church is organized, in Boston.
  1664  CEThe Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher wrote the 'Mundus subterraneus'.
  1665  CENew York approves new code guaranteeing Protestants religious rights.
  1665  CEPope Alexander VII convicts Jansenisme.
  1665  CEIn France Louis XIV began to systematically hollow out formal guarantees to the Protestants until they became little more than scraps of paper.
  1665  CEThe British Five-Mile Act prevents 'Nonconformist' clergy from coming within five miles of their parish towns.
  1666  CEIn Cholula, Mexico, the chapel Nuestra de los Remedios was built atop a Teotihuacan pyramid.
23 Sep 1667  CESlaves in Virginia were banned from obtaining their freedom by converting to Christianity.
27 May 1668  CEThree colonists were expelled from Massachusetts for being Baptists.
  1668  CEThe Spaniards established a permanent settlement on Guam. They forced the Chamorros to convert to Catholicism. Under Spanish rule the Chamorro numbers were reduced to some 2,000.
  1669  CEFrench King Louis XIV limits freedom of religion.
13 Oct 1670  CEVirginia passed a law that blacks arriving in the colonies as Christians could not be used as slaves.
  1670  CERoman Catholic emperor Leopold I chases Jews out of Vienna.
  1671  CEThe second son of King Charles I, James, became a Catholic, leading to the first attempts to exclude him from succession but he later became James VII of Scotland and II of England (1685-1688).
1 Jan 1672  CEThe beginning of the current Dionysian Period, named for the monk Dionysius Exiguous who, in the AD 500s, introduced the present custom of reckoning time by counting the years from the birth of Christ.
  1672  CEThe first recorded monthly Quaker meeting in America held, Sandwich, Mass.
  1673  CEEnglish King Charles II accepts the 'Test Act' which excluded Roman Catholics from public office.
  1673  CELord Berkley sells his half of New Jersey to the Quakers.
  1675  CECornelia Dina Olfaarts was found not guilty of witchcraft.
  1677  CEPope Innocent XII confirmed the imperial foundation of the University of Innsbruck in a papal bull that emphasized the Catholic character of the Univ. and decreed that the important chairs of the Faculty of Theology be filled by members of the Jesuit order.
  1677  CEThe Episcopal Parish called St. Michaels was established on the east coast of the Chesapeake Bay. The town of St. Michaels derives its name after the parish.
  1680  CEKateri Tekakwitha, a Mohawk Indian, died. She became the first Native American to be beatified by the Catholic Church in 1980.
  1682  CEThe Nationally Council accept independence of French church.
18 Oct 1685  CEEdict of Nantes was lifted by Louis XIV. The edict, signed at Nantes, France, by King Henry IV in 1598, gave the Huguenots religious liberty, civil rights and security. By revoking the Edict of Nantes, Louis XIV abrogated their religious liberties. He declared France entirely Catholic again.
8 Nov 1685  CEFredrick William of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, offering Huguenots refuge.
  1685  CECharles II bars Jews from settling in Stockholm Sweden
  1685  CEGeorge Berkeley (1685?-1753), Irish bishop and philosopher, was born. He argued that the things we see around us exist only as ideas. This was in opposition to naive realism which held that we perceive objects as they really are.
  1687  CEKing James II orders his declaration of indulgence read in church.
18 Feb 1688  CEQuakers in Germantown, Pensilvania, adopted the fist formal antislavery resolution in America. At a Mennonite meeting in Germantown, Pennsylvania, a memorandum was penned stating a profound opposition to Negro slavery.
  1688  CEIn northern Ireland the gates of Londonderry were shut in the face of Catholic forces. The event was later celebrated by the Protestant Apprentice Boys as the Lundy's Day demonstration.
  1688  CEIn France a blind Benedictine monk named Dom Perignon discovered the fermentation process that led to champagne. He later devised a cork stopper to hold the bubbles.
24 May 1689  CEEnglish Parliament passed the Act of Toleration, protecting Protestants. Roman Catholics were specifically excluded from exemption.
1 Aug 1689  CEJames II's 15-week siege of Londonderry, Ireland, ended in failure. The Catholic Army of King James II besieged Londonderry where 13 Protestant apprentices stood in defense. The Protestants were victorious and the event led to the annual Apprentice Boy's March.
  1689  CEMemorable Providences, Related to Witchcrafts and Possessions', published by Cotton Mather, contributed to the hysteria that led to the Salem witch trials of 1692.
1 Jul 1690  CEThe Battle of the Boyne when Protestant English King William III of Orange was victorious over the Irish Catholics led by his father-in-law Catholic King James II. Protestants took over the Irish Parliament. This marked the beginning of the annual Drumcree parade, held by the Loyal Orange Lodge on the first Sunday of July.
  1690  CEIn Puebla, Mexico, the ornate Capilla del Rosario, Chapel of the Rosary, was consecrated.
1 Mar 1692  CESarah Goode, Sarah Osborne and Tituba were arrested for the supposed practice of witchcraft in Salem, Mass.
10 Jun 1692  CEBridget Bishop was the first to be hanged for witchcraft in Salem and an additional 13 women and 5 men were hanged over the course of the following 3 days before the trilas were stopped by the Superior court.
19 Sep 1692  CEGiles Corey was pressed to death for standing mute and refusing to answer charges of witchcraft brought against him. He is the only person in America to have suffered this punishment.
  1695  CEJonathan Swift ordained an Anglican priest in Ireland.
  1698  CEMissionary John St. Cosme celebrated the first Mass in what became St. Louis, Mo.
  1699  CEMassachusetts holds day of fasting for wrongly persecuting 'witches'.
  1703  CEThe first Lutheran pastor ordained in America, Justus Falckner at Philadelphia.
  1714  CEParliament of Paris accepts Pope Clemens XI's 'Unigenitus' degree.
  1721  CEMichelangiolo dei Conti replaces Pope Clement XI, as Innocent XIII.
  1729  CESister St Stanislas Hachard, the first US nun, takes her vows, in New Orleans.
  1731  CEAll Hebrew books in the Papal State are confiscated.
  1732  CEKing Frederik Willem I moves Lutherans towards East-Prussia.
  1732  CEThe first mass celebrated in American Catholic church, in St Joseph's Churchin Philadelphia.
  1735  CEThe first American Moravian bishop, David Nitschmann, consecrated in Germany.
  1736  CEMethodists John & Charles Wesley arrive in Savannah GA.
  1738  CEThe Methodist Church is established.
  1739  CEThe Methodist Church was founded by John Wesley.
  1741  CEPope Benedict XIV encyclical forbidding traffic in alms.
  1743  CEThe first religios American journal, 'The Christian History', was published in Boston.
  1748  CEUnited Lutheran Church of the United States organized.
2 Sep 1752  CELast day of Julian calendar in Britain, British colonies.
13 Sep 1752  CEThe Gregorian calendar reforms in Britain and the American colonies this and the next ten day did not exist (3-13 September 1752). New Year's Day was decreed to be 1 January and not 25 March.
14 Sep 1752  CEEngland & colonies adopt Gregorian calendar, 11 days disappear. People riot thinking the government stole 11 days of their lives.
  1752  CEPope Stephen II elected to succeed Zacharias, he died 2 days later.
  1753  CEFerdinand VI of Spain and Pope Benedictus XIV sign concord.
  1753  CEThe first official St Patrick's Day.
  1759  CEPope Clement XIII allows the Bible to be translated into various languages.
  1766  CEPope Clement XIII warns On the dangers of anti-Christian writings.
  1769  CEPope Clement XIV proclaims a universal jubilee.
  1770  CEQuakers open a school for blacks in Philadelphia.
  1771  CEMission San Gabriel Archangel forms in California.
  1772  CEThe first Protestant church west of Pennsivania (in Ohio) holds communion.
  1773  CEPope Clement XIV suppresses Jesuits.
  1774  CEPope Clement XIV proclaims a universal jubilee.
  1775  CEAngelo Braschi chosen as Pope Pius VI.
  1775  CEPope Pius VI encyclical on the problems of the pontificate.
  1777  CEChristianity is introduced in Korea.
  1784  CEJohn Carroll is appointed supervisor of US Catholic Missions.
  1784  CEJohn Wesley charters the Methodist Church.
  1787  CEThe first Anglican bishops of New York and Pennsylvania consecrated in London.
  1787  CEThe first Unitarian minister in the US was ordained in Boston.
  1788  CEPioneer African Baptist church organizes in Savannah, Georgia.
  1789  CEGeorgetown, first US Catholic college, is founded.
  1789  CEJohn Odell signs contract for £336 to build St Peter's church in the Bronx.
  1791  CEPope condemns France's Civil Constitution's treatment of the clergy.
  1792  CEBaptist Missionary Society forms in London.
  1793  CEFather Stephen Theodore Badin is first US Roman Catholic priest ordained.
  1794  CERichard Allen founded AME Church.
  1796  CEBethel African Methodist Church of Philadelphia is formed. It is the first US-African church.
  1797  CEOne third of the papal domain ceded to France.
  1798  CEThe Pope was dethrowned from Political Power.
  1798  CECatholic women are forced to do penance for kindling sabbath fire for Jews.
  1800  CELuigi Chiaramonti crowned Pope Pius VII.
  1800  CEPope Pius VII calls on French bishops to return to Gospel principles.
  1800  CEThe first Swedenborgian temple in the US holds its first service in Baltimore.
  1800  CEThe Zion AME Church is dedicated in New York City.
  1812  CEChinese edict against Christianity
  1815  CESunday observance in Netherlands is regulated by law.
  1816  CEAfrican Methodist Episcopal Church organizes in Philadelphia.
  1816  CEAmerican Bible Society forms (New York).
  1817  CEThe first Evangelical church building dedicated, New Berlin PA.
  1817  CETsar Alexander I recommends formation of Society of Israeli Christians.
  1818  CERussia's Czar Alexander I petitions for a Jewish state in Palestine.
  1820  CEThe Dutch city of Leeuwarden forbids Jews to go to synagogues on Sundays.
  1821  CEAfrican Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church organizes in New York City.
  1821  CECathedral of Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary, first US Catholic cathedral, is dedicated in Baltimore.
  1822  CESociety for the Propagation of the Faith starts (Lyon, France).
  1824  CEPope Leo XII proclaims a universal jubilee.
  1829  CEBritish Parliament grants freedom of religion to Catholics.
  1829  CEJoseph Smith ordained by John the Baptist according to Joseph Smith.
  1829  CEPope Pius VIII issues his program for the pontificate.
  1830  CEJoseph Smith and five others organize the Mormon church in Seneca County, New York.
  1832  CEPope Gregory XVI poroduces an encyclical on 'liberalism and religious indifferentism'.
  1832  CEMormon Joseph Smith beaten, tarred and feathered in Ohio.
  1833  CEJoseph Pease, a Quaker, admitted to the British Parliament on his affirmation.
  1834  CEThe Spanish Inquisition is abolished.
  1836  CEThe first Mormon temple is dedicated, in Kirtland, Ohio.
  1837  CEThe first Mormon missionaries to the British Isles leave Kirtland, Ohio.
  1841  CECornerstone laid for the second Mormon temple, Nauvoo, Missouri.
  1842  CEThe Christmas card became popular.
  1842  CEFranciscan nuns begin missionary work on Netherlands Antilles.
  1843  CEThe United Free Church of Scotland forms.
  1844  CEThe Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) is founded in London.
  1846  CEBeginning of the Mormon march to west of the US.
  1846  CEMormons leave Nauvoo in Missouri for settlement in the west.
  1847  CEPope Pius IX encyclical 'On aid for Ireland'.
  1850  CEA Mormon Temple in Nauvoo, Iliois, is destroyed by a tornado.
  1851  CEThe first Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) in North America.
  1852  CESan Franciso Methodists establish the first black church, Zion Methodist.
4 Mar 1853  CEPope Pius IX recovers the Catholic hierarchy in the Netherlands.
  1853  CEAntoinette Blackwell becomes the first US woman to be ordained a minister.
  1854  CEPope Pius IX encyclical 'On the persecution of Armenians'.
  1854  CEPope Pius IX proclaims the 'Immaculate Conception' which makes Mary free of Original Sin.
  1858  CEThe first apparition of Mary to 14-year-old Bernadette of Lourdes in France.
  1860  CEThe American College is established in Rome by Pope Pius IX.
  1863  CEPope Pius IX encyclical 'On persecution in New Grenada'.
  1864  CEKnights of Pythias form first lodge in Washington DC with 12 members.
  1866  CEMary Baker Eddy cures her injuries by opening a bible.
  1869  CE20th Roman Catholic ecumenical council, Vatican I, opens in Rome.
  1870  CEYWCA (Young Women's Christian Association) is founded in New York.
  1871  CEEaster day becomes a legaly recognised as a 'Bank Holiday' in Britain, observed by banks, government workers and the post office.
  1871  CEWhitmonday (the day after Pentecost) becomes a legaly recognised as a 'Bank Holiday' in Britain, observed by banks, government workers and the post office.
  1871  CEGood Friday becomes a legaly recognised as a 'Bank Holiday' in Britain, observed by banks, government workers and the post office.
  1873  CEPope Pius IX encyclical 'On the Church in Armenia'.
  1874  CEPope Pius IX encyclical 'On the Greek-Ruthenian rite'.
  1874  CEPope Pius IX proclaims a jubilee for 1875.
  1875  CEThe first US cardinal, John McCloskey, is invested.
  1878  CEPope Leo XIII encyclical on socialism.
  1880  CEConstruction of Cologne Cathedral completed, 633 years after it began.
  1880  CEPope Leo XIII publishes encyclical Arcanum about Christian marriage.
  1880  CEThe Salvation Army of England sets up US welfare and religious activity.
  1881  CEA revised version of New Testament is published.
  1882  CEthe Knights of Columbus is chartered for Catholic men.
  1884  CEPope Leo XIII encyclical 'On Freemasonry'.
  1885  CEPope Leo XIII proclaims an extraordinary jubilee.
  1885  CEUS Salvation Army officially organized.
  1890  CEThe Mormon Church renounces polygamy.
  1890  CEPope Leo XIII encyclical 'On slavery in the missions'.
  1890  CEPope Leo XIII publishes encyclical 'Sapientiae Christianae'.
  1891  CEPope Leo XIII publishes encyclical 'Rerum novarum'.
  1893  CEThe Mormon temple in Salt Lake City is dedicated.
  1893  CEUS President Cleveland grants amnesty to Mormon polygamy.
  1896  CEFollowing Mormon abandonment of polygamy, Utah is admitted as the 45th US state.
  1901  CEPope Leo XIII publishes encyclical 'Graves De Communi Re'.
  1902  CEPope Leo XIII encyclical 'On the Church in the US'.
9 Aug 1903  CEPope Pius X crowned before a crowd of 70,000 in Rome.
  1904  CEPope Pius X banned low cut dresses in the presence of churchmen.
  1905  CEPope Pius X publishes encyclical 'Vehementer nos'.
  1906  CEBlack evangelist William J Seymour arrives in Los Angeles, California, USA.
  1906  CEPope encyclical against separation of church &and state.
  1906  CESt Pius X encyclical 'On the Mariavites or Mystic Priests of Poland'.
  1910  CEPope's encyclical on Editae Saepe, against church reformers.
  1911  CEThe Portuguese expel the Jesuits.
  1912  CESt Pius X encyclical 'On the Indians of South America'.
  1913  CEThe Archdiocese of Managua is created.
  1914  CECardinal Giacome della Chiesa becomes Pope Benedict XV.
  1914  CEThe Vatican puts Belgian Nobel winner Maeterlinck's works in their 'index'.
  1915  CENational Baptist Convention chartered
  1917  CEThe first appearance of Mary to 3 shepherd children in Fatima, Portugal
  1919  CEPope Benedictus XV publishes encyclical 'In hac tanta'.
16 May 1920  CEJoan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc) canonized a saint in Rome.
  1920  CEThe Church disestablished in Wales.
  1920  CEPope Benedictus XV publishes the encyclical 'Pacem Dei'.
  1921  CEPope Benedict XV encyclical 'On Dante'.
  1921  CEThe first religious service radio broadcast in US, KDKA-Pittsburgh.
  1922  CECardinal Achille Ratti is elected Pope Pius XI.
  1926  CEPope Pius XI encyclical On the persecution of the Church in Mexico
  1926  CEPope Pius XI names J E van Roey archbishop of Malines Belgium
  1928  CEPope Pius XI publishes encyclical Mortalium animos (against oecumene)
  1929  CEVatican City (world's smallest country) made an enclave of Rome and a soverign state.
  1931  CEPope Pius XI encyclical On the economic crisis
  1931  CEPope Pius XI publishes encyclical Quadragesimo anno
  1933  CEPope Pius XI encyclical "On oppression of the Church in Spain"
  1936  CEPope Pius XI encyclical to US bishops "On motion pictures"
  1936  CEPresbyterian Church of America founded at Philadelphia
  1937  CEPope Pius XI publishes anti-Nazi-encyclical Mit brennender Sorge
  1937  CEPope Pius XI publishes encyclical Divini redemptoris against communism
  1938  CEVatican recognizes Franco-Spain
2 Mar 1939  CEPope Pius XII crowned in Vatican ceremonies
  1941  CEVichy-France makes religious education in school mandatory
  1944  CEThe first Serbian Orthodox cathedral in US, Cathedral of St Sava, NYC
  1945  CEJohn J "Cardinal" O'Connor, ordained as a priest
  1946  CEPope Pius XII publishes encyclical Quemadmodum
  1947  CEDutch Roman Catholic bishops publish manifest against "godless communism"
  1947  CEPope Pius XII publishes encyclical Fulgens radiatur
  1948  CEPope Pius XII publishes encyclical Auspicia quaedam
  1948  CEWorld Council of Churches formed by 147 churches from 44 countries.
  1949  CEBilly Graham begins his ministry
  1950  CENational Council of the Church of Christ in US established.
  1950  CEPope Pius XII encyclical 'On combating atheistic propaganda'.
  1952  CENew Dutch bible translation finished
  1953  CEPope Pius XII publishes encyclical Doctor Mellifluus
  1954  CEPope Pius X canonized a saint
  1954  CEPope Pius X issues holy declaration
  1954  CEPope Pius XII encyclical "Sacra virginitas" (On consecrated virginity)
  1955  CEIsrael acquires 4 of 7 Dead Sea scrolls.
  1955  CEPope Pius XII ex-communicated Argentine Pres Juan Peron
  1956  CEPope Pius XII publishes encyclical Haurietis aquas
  1956  CEPresbyterian Church begins accepting women ministers
  1956  CEUS Methodist church disallows race separation
  1957  CEPope Pius XII encyclical On motion pictures, radio, TV.
  1957  CEPope Pius XII publishes encyclical Invicti Athletae
  1957  CEVatican Radio begins broadcasting.
  1958  CEAngelo Giuseppe Roncalli, elected Pope, taking the name John XXIII
  1959  CEPope John XXIII encyclical "On truth, unity, & peace, in charity"
  1959  CEPope John XXIII proclaims 2nd Vatican council
  1959  CEVatican edict forbids Roman Catholics for voting for communists
  1960  CEOld handwriting is found in at Qumran, near the Dead Sea.
  1960  CEPope John raises the first Japanese, African and Filipino cardinals.
  1961  CEArthur M Ramsay becomes archbishop of Canterbury.
  1961  CEPope John XXIII publishes encyclical Mater et Magistra.
  1961  CEUS Supreme Court struck down a provision in Md's constitution requiring state office holders to believe in God.
  1962  CE2nd Vatican Council (21st ecumenical) convened by Pope John XXIII.
  1962  CEDutch Roman Catholic bishop Beckers of Bosch makes TV speech in Netherlands in favor of birth control.
  1962  CEPope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro.
  1963  CE2nd session of Ecumenical council, 'Vatican II,' opens in Rome.
  1963  CECardinal Montini elected Pope Paul VI, 262nd head of RC Church
  1963  CEElizabeth Ann Seton of New York beatified (canonized in 1975)
  1963  CEJohn XXIII encyclical On peace in truth, justice, charity & liberty
  1963  CEPope Paul VI (Giovanni Battista Montini) succeeds John XXIII
  1964  CEPope Paul VI visits Jordan & Israel
  1964  CERoman Catholic Church in US replaces Latin with English
  1965  CEPope Paul VI & Orthodox Patriarch Athenagoras I simultaneously lift mutual excommunications that led to split of the 2 churches in 1054
  1965  CEPope Paul VI proclaims Jews not collectively guilty for crucifixion
  1966  CEThe first official meeting after 400 years of Catholic & Anglican Church
  1966  CEUS RC bishops did away with rule against eating meat on Fridays
  1967  CEPope Paul VI names 27 new cardinals, including Karol Wojtyla, archbishop of Krakow, who later became Pope John Paul II
  1967  CEPope Paul VI publishes encyclical Populorum progressio
  1968  CEDiocese of Rome announces that it "deplored the concept", but wouldn't prohibit rock & roll masses at Church of San Lessio Falconieri
  1968  CEThe first papal visit to Latin America (Pope Paul VI arrives in Bogota)
  1968  CEUnited Methodist Church forms
  1968  CEVatican City's Apostolic Constitution of 1967 goes into effect
  1969  CEPope Paul VI names JGM Willebrands cardinal
  1969  CEPope Paul VI publishes constitution Sacra Ritum Congregation
  1970  CEHoly Eucharist given by women for 1st time in Roman Catholic service
  1970  CENew English Bible published
  1970  CEPope Paul VI wounded in chest during a visit to Philippines by a dagger-wielding Bolivian painter disguised as a priest
  1973  CEPatriarch Shenuda II of Kopitisch church visits the pope
  1973  CEPope Paul VI has an audience with Golda Meir at Vatican
  1973  CEPope Paul VI publishes constitution motu proprio Quo aptius
  1974  CEPope Paul VI encyclical "To Honor Mary"
  1975  CEArchbishop Oliver Plunkett became 1st Irish-born saint in 7 centuries
  1975  CEJames A Healy, 1st black Roman Catholic bishop, consecrated (Maine)
  1975  CEMother Elizabeth Ann Bayley Seton canonized as 1st US-born saint
  1976  CEBelgium catholic elite start amnesty campaign for war criminals
  1976  CECardinal Willebrands installed as archbishop of Utrecht
  1976  CEEpiscopal Church approves ordination of women as priests & bishop
  1977  CEPope Paul VI makes 19th-cen bishop John Neumann 1st US male saint
  1977  CEThe first woman formally ordained an Episcopal priest (Jacqueline Means)
  1978  CECardinal Albino Luciani of Venice becomes Pope John Paul I
  1978  CEChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) strikes down 148 year policy of excluding black men from priesthood
  1978  CEFuneral of Pope Paul VI
  1978  CEFuneral services held for Pope John Paul I
  1978  CEPolish Cardinal Karol Wojtyla elected supreme pontiff-John Paul II
  1978  CEPope John Paul I officially installed as 264th supreme pontiff
  1979  CEMother Teresa (1910-1997) of Calcutta, India, received the Nobel Peace Prize.
  1979  CEJohn Paul II becomes 1st pope to visit a communist country (Poland).
  1979  CEPope John Paul II becomes the first pope to visit Ireland.
  1979  CEPope John Paul II is 1st Pope to visit the White House
  1979  CEPope John Paul ordains John J O'Conner as a bishop
  1980  CEThe first papal visit to France since 1814
  1981  CEPope John Paul II released from hospital after attempt on life
  1981  CEPope John Paul II shot, wounded by assailant in St Peter's Square
  1982  CEIn Fatima Portugal, a Spanish priest with a bayonet is stopped prior to his attempt to attack Pope John Paul II
  1982  CEPope John Paul II becomes 1st pontiff to visit Spain
  1982  CEPope John Paul II canonizes Rev M Kolbe, who volunteered to die in place of another inmate at Auschwitz concentration camp, a saint
  1982  CEPope John Paul II declares "Peerke" Donders divine
  1982  CEPope John Paul II is 1st pope to visit Great Britain
  1982  CEPope John Paul II prays for an end to martial law in Poland
  1982  CEThe first papal visit to Britain since 1531
  1983  CEAnglican synod vote 338-100 against unilateral UK nuclear disarmament
  1983  CEArchbishop Hickey conducts papal investigation of Archbishop Hunthausen, Seattle
  1983  CEChicago Archbishop Joseph L Bernardin is among 18 new cardinals invested
  1983  CEPope John Paul II names 18 new cardinals
  1983  CEThe first visit to Lutheran church by a pope (John Paul II in Rome)
  1984  CEUS establishes full diplomatic relations with Vatican after 117 years
  1986  CEDonald E Pelotte becomes 1st native American bishop
  1987  CEAnglican Church envoy Terry Waite taken hostage in Beirut, Lebanon
  1987  CEArchbishop's envoy Terry Waite disappears in Lebanon
  1987  CEPope John Paul II beatifies Edith Stein, a Jewish born nun
  1987  CEPope John Paul II receives Austrian Pres Kurt Waldheim
  1987  CEVatican formal opposition to test-tube fertilization & embryo transfer
  1988  CEBarbara C Harris of Mass, elected 1st woman Episcopal bishop
  1988  CEEugene Marino of Atlanta, appointed 1st African American archbishop
  1988  CELab tests reportedly show Shroud of Turin not Christ`s burial cloth
  1989  CEEpiscopal church appoints 1st female bishop
  1991  CECalifornia University makes the Dead Sea Scrolls public
  1991  CEIrene the Icon of the Greek Orthodox church returns after being stolen
  1991  CEPope John Paul II's encyclical on Centesimus annus
  1992  CEGeneral Synod votes for Ordination of women in the UK
  1992  CEOrthodox patriarch Shenouda III visits Netherlands.
  1993  CEPope John Paul II declares Duns Scotus, a saint
  1994  CEChurch of England ordains 1st 33 women priests
  1994  CEPope John Paul II demands juristic discrimination of homosexuals
  1998  CEPope John Paul II condemns US embargo against Cuba
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