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King Richard I

King Richard I (1157-1199)

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King Richard I, the 'Lionhearted', of Britan
Abstract

Known as Richard the Lionhearted (Lionheart, Lion-heart or Lion-hearted) from the French, Coeur de Lion, for his courage and prowess on the battlefield. He was also known as ‘Melek-Ric’ by the Saracens. Richard was the son of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine and the second king in the Plantagenet line.

Richard seemed to be more interested in his territory in France and in his Crusading endeavours than he was in governing England, where he spent just six months of his ten-year reign. He nearly used up the treasury left by his father to fund his Crusade. Though he scored some successes in the Holy Land, Richard and his fellow Crusaders failed to meet the objective of the Third Crusade, which was to recapture Jerusalem from Saladin.

His marriage to Berengaria of Navarre had produced no children and so the English crown passed to his brother John.

Timeline
  9 Sep 1157  CERichard I is born at at Beaumont Palace in Oxford.
    1168  CERichard I, future King of England, was invested with Eleanor of Aquitaine's duchy of Aquitaine in the church of Saint Hillaire at Poitiers at the age of 14.
    1172  CERichard I, future King of England, was invested with the duchy of Poitiers at the age of 18.
    1173  CERichard I, future king of England, revolts aginast his father, Henry II of England, with his brothers Henry the 'Young King' and Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany.
   May 1174  CERichard (I) seized the town of Saintes from his father, Henry II
    1179  CERichard I takes the impenetrable fortress town of Taillebourg. 
 11 Jun 1183  CEHenry the 'Young King', brother of Richard I, future king of England, dies.
   Nov 1187  CEThe Third Crusade is ordered (1187-1192) after the Muslim capture of Jerusalem. Richard I, future King of England, takes the Cross. Richard I, German Emperor Frederick I and French King Philip Augustus lead the cursade.
c.    1188  CEGeoffrey, Duke of Brittany, died. He was the elder brother of Richard I, future King of England.
  6 Jul 1189  CEHenry II, King of England, dies of fever in Chinon and Richard I succeeded him as King of England.
 20 Jul 1189  CEUpon Henry II's death Richard I was crowned Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou.
  3 Sep 1189  CERichard I (The Lionheart) is crowned King of England in Westminster. He rules for ten years and is only present in the country a total of six months.
    1189  CEWilliam of Scotland gives Richard 10,000 marks
  4 Jul 1190  CERichard I, King of England, starts his Crusade.
 10 Apr 1191  CERichard's fleet leave Sicily
  6 May 1191  CERichard sails to Cyprus.
 12 May 1191  CERichard the Lionheart married Bernegaria of Navarre, daughter of Sancho VI, King of Navarre, in Limassol, Cyprus.
  1 Jun 1191  CERichard controls Cyprus.
  6 Jun 1191  CERichard arrives at Tyre and attacks Acre.
    1192  CEKing Richard the Lionhearted was taken prisoner in Austria on his return from the Third Crusade. An entire year's supply of wool from the Cistercian and two other monasteries in England was promised as ransom for the King. It was never paid in full.
  4 Feb 1194  CERichard I, King of England, was freed from captivity in Germany, after England pays Leopold O Fenrik VI's ransom of 100,000.
  3 Jul 1194  CERichard defeats Philip
    1196  CEThe Chateau Gaillard in Normandy was built by Richard the Lionhearted, Duke of Normandy, to protect his domain from Philip Augustus, King of France.
  6 Apr 1199  CEEnglish King Richard I was killed by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Chaluz in France. Richard left the throne to his younger brother John, in preference to Arthur of Brittany, the son of his elder brother, Geoffrey. Richard was burried in Fontevrault Abbey in Anjou.
    1204  CEFrance won back Normandy but the people of the isle of Jersey chose to remain loyal to England. The Chateau Gaillard of Richard the Lionhearted was defeated and partly dismantled as punishment.
 
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