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The Internet

The Internet (1957-)

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The phenomenon of the Internet, how it came about and how it has grown.

Disturbed by the Soviet launch of the sputnik satellite in 1957 during the cold war, the US government commissioned a research project to design a computer network for the military which would withstand the destruction of major parts of infrastructure as would be the case in time of war. The result was ARPANET and its allied technologies. ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990 leaving the vast network of world-wide computers that surround it, now known as the Internet.

This was quickly followed by the invention of the first 'web browser' in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee while working at CERN in Europe.  The exponential growth in the popularity of the Internet since then is now well known and touches most people's lives in the developed word.

  4 Oct 1957  CEThe USSR launches Sputnik 1 the first artificial earth satellite and in response the US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
 31 May 1961  CEFirst paper on packet-switching (PS) theory by Leonard Kleinrock - MIT - 'Information Flow in Large Communication Nets'.
   Aug 1962  CEJ.C.R. Licklider & W. Clark publish - 'On-Line Man Computer Communication' describing the 'Galactic Network' concept encompassing distributed social interactions.
    1962  CEThe RAND Corporation begins research into robust - distributed communication networks for military command and control.
    1964  CEPacket-switching networks with no single outage point described by Paul Baran of RAND in 'On Distributed Communications Networks'
    1965  CEARPA sponsors study on 'cooperative network of time-sharing computers'
    1965  CEThe DOD's Advanced Research Project Association (ARPA) begins work on 'ARPANET'
   Oct 1966  CELawrence G Roberts publishes the first ARPANET plan 'Towards a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers'
   Apr 1967  CEARPANET design discussions held by Larry Roberts at ARPA IPTO PI meeting in Ann Arbor Michigan
   Oct 1967  CEACM Symposium on Operating Principles in Gatlinburg - Tennessee
    1967  CEDelegates at a symposium for the Association for Computing Machinery in Gatlingberg - TN discuss the first plans for the ARPANET
    1967  CEFirst ARPANET papers presented at Association for Computing Machinery Symposium
    1967  CEFirst design paper on ARPANET published by Larry Roberts - 'Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication'
    1967  CEFirst meeting of the three independent packet network teams (RAND - NPL - ARPA)
    1967  CENational Physical Laboratory (NPL) in Middlesex in England develops NPL Data Network under Donald Watts Davies who coins the term packet and the NPL network becomes an experiment in packet-switching using 768kbps lines
   Aug 1968  CERequest for proposals for ARPANET sent out responses received in September
   Sep 1968  CEResponses received from the Request for proposals for ARPANET which was sent out in August
   Oct 1968  CEUniversity of California Los Angeles (UCLA) awarded Network Measurement Center contract
    1968  CEBolt Beranek and Newman Inc. (BBN) were awarded the Packet Switch contract to build Interface Message Processors (IMPs)
    1968  CEFirst generation of networking hardware and software designed
    1968  CENetwork Working Group (NWG) - headed by Steve Crocker - loosely organized to develop host level protocols for communication over the ARPANET
    1968  CEPS-network presented to the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
    1968  CETymnet built as part of Tymshare service
    1968  CEUS Senator Edward Kennedy sends a congratulatory telegram to BBN for its million-dollar ARPA contract to build the 'Interfaith' Message Processor
  7 Apr 1969  CEFirst Request for Comment (RFC) called 'Host Software' by Steve Crocker
 30 Aug 1969  CEARPANET commissioned by DoD for research into networking, the beginning of the Internet.
  2 Sep 1969  CEResearchers at four US campuses create the first host of the ARPANET at UCLA - soon to be connected to three others at Stanford Research Institute (1 Oct), Santa Barbara (1 Nov) and the University of Utah (Dec)
 29 Oct 1969  CEFirst packets sent by Charley Kline at UCLA as he tried logging into SRI but it resulted in the system crashing as the letter G of LOGIN was entered
    1969  CE4 Nodes are commissioned as BBN builds each IMP [Honeywell DDP-516 mini computer with 12K of memory] with AT&T providing the 50kbps lines
    1969  CERFC 4 - Network Timetable
    1969  CEUniv of Michigan - Michigan State and Wayne State Univ establish X.25-based Merit network for students - faculty - alumni
   Mar 1970  CEFirst report on ARPANET at AFIPS 'Computer Network Development to Achieve Resource Sharing'
   Jul 1970  CEALOHAnet becomes operational - developed by Norman Abramson at the University of Hawaii and is the first packet radio network
    1970  CEARPANET hosts start using Network Control Protocol (NCP) which was the first host-to-host protocol
    1970  CEFirst cross-country link installed by AT&T between UCLA and BBN at 56kbps. This line is later replaced by another between BBN and RAND. A second line is added between MIT and Utah
    1970  CEFirst publication of the original ARPANET Host-Host protocol 'HOST-HOST Communication Protocol in the ARPA Network' by C.S. Carr - S. Crocker and V.G. Cerf in AFIPS Proceedings of SJCC
   Sep 1971  CEBBN starts building IMPs using the cheaper Honeywell 316 but because they are limited to 4 host connections BBN develops a terminal IMP (TIP) that supports up to 64 terminals
    1971  CERay Tomlinson of BBN invents email program to send messages across a distributed network which was derived from two others - an intra-machine email program (SENDMSG) and an experimental file transfer program (CPYNET)
    1971  CEThe ARPANET grows to 23 hosts connecting universities and government research centres around the country
    1971  CEChatrooms make their debut on the Internet
   Mar 1972  CERay Tomlinson (BBN) modifies an email program for ARPANET and this was when the @ sign was chosen from the punctuation keys on Tomlinson's Model 33 Teletype for its 'at' meaning
   Jul 1972  CELarry Roberts writes first email management program (RD) to list - selectively read - file - forward - and respond to messages
   Oct 1972  CEInternational Conference on Computer Communications (ICCC) in Washington demonstrates ARPANET running between 40 machines and the Terminal Interface Processor (TIP) organized by Bob Kahn
   Oct 1972  CEInternational Network Working Group (INWG) formed as a result of a meeting at ICCC identifying the need for a combined effort in advancing networking technologies
   Oct 1972  CEVinton Cerf is elected the first chairman of the InterNetworking Working Group (INWG)
    1972  CEALOAHnet was connected to the ARPANET
    1972  CEFirst computer-to-computer chat takes place at UCLA as psychotic at Stanford (PARRY) discusses its problems with the Doctor at BBN
    1972  CELouis Pouzin leads the French effort to build its own ARPANET called CYCLADES
    1972  CERFC 318 - Telnet specification
   Mar 1973  CESRI (NIC) begins publishing ARPANET News and the number of ARPANET users are estimated at 2 thousand
   Mar 1973  CEVinton Cerf sketches gateway architecture in March on back of envelope in a San Francisco hotel lobby
   May 1973  CEBob Metcalfe's Harvard PhD thesis outlines the idea for Ethernet
   May 1973  CEThe Ethernet concept was tested on Xerox PARC's Alto computers where the first Ethernet network was called the Alto Aloha System
   Sep 1973  CEVinton Cerf and Bob Kahn present basic Internet ideas at INWG at Univ of Sussex in Brighton in the UK
 25 Dec 1973  CEChristmas Day Lockup - Harvard IMP hardware problem leads it to broadcast zero-length hops to any ARPANET destination - causing all other IMPs to send their traffic to Harvard
    1973  CEARPA study shows email is 75% of all ARPANET traffic
    1973  CEBob Kahn poses Internet problem - starts internetting research program at ARPA
    1973  CENetwork Voice Protocol (NVP) specification (RFC 741) and implementation which enabled conference calls over ARPANET
    1973  CERFC 454 - File Transfer specification
    1973  CERFC 527 - ARPAWOCKY
    1973  CERFC 602 - The Stockings Were Hung by the Chimney with Care
    1973  CEThe first international connections to the ARPANET to the University College of London in Britain via NORSAR in Norway
    1974  CEBolt - Beranek & Newman (BBN) opens Telenet which is the first public packet data service (a commercial version of ARPANET)
    1974  CEInternational Network Working Group (INWG) became IFIP WG 6.1
    1974  CEVinton Cerf and Bob Kahn publish 'A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection' which specified in detail the design of a Transmission Control Program (TCP)
    1975  CEA science fiction list - SF-Lovers - became the most popular unofficial ARPANET early mailing list
    1975  CEFirst ARPANET mailing list (MsgGroup) was created by Steve Walker
    1975  CEInternet operations transferred to the US Defense Communications Agency (DCA now DISA)
    1975  CE'Jargon File' - by Raphael Finkel at SAIL - first released
    1975  CEJohn Vittal develops MSG - the first all-inclusive email program providing replying - forwarding - and filing capabilities
    1975  CESatellite links cross two oceans (to Hawaii and UK) as the first TCP tests are run over them by Stanford - BBN - and UCL
    1975  CEShockwave Rider' by John Brunner
 26 Mar 1976  CEElizabeth II - Queen of the United Kingdom sends out an email from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) in Malvern
   Jul 1976  CEFirst demonstration of ARPANET/SF Bay Packet Radio Net/Atlantic SATNET operation of Internet protocols with BBN-supplied gateways
    1976  CEMultiprocessing Pluribus IMPs are deployed
    1976  CERFC 733 - Mail specification
    1976  CETymshare spins out Tymnet under pressure from TELENET and both go on to develop X.25 protocol standard for virtual circuit style packet switching
    1976  CEUUCP (Unix-to-Unix CoPy) developed at AT&T Bell Labs and distributed with UNIX one year later
    1977  CETHEORYNET created by Larry Landweber at Univ of Wisconsin providing electronic mail to over 100 researchers in computer science (using a locally developed email system over TELENET)
    1977  CEUUCP provides email on THEORYNET
 Mar 1978  CETCP split into TCP and IP
  1978  CERFC 748 - TELNET Randomly Lose Option
  1978  CETCP checksum design finalised
  1979  CEARPA establishes the Internet Configuration Control Board (ICCB)
  1979  CEFirst MUD (Multi-User Dungeon) - MUD1 - by Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw at the University of Essex
  1979  CEMeeting between Univ of Wisconsin - DARPA - National Science Foundation (NSF) - and computer scientists from many universities to establish a Computer Science Department research computer network (organized by Larry Landweber)
  1979  CEOn April 12 - Kevin MacKenzie emails the MsgGroup a suggestion of adding some emotion back into the dry text medium of email - such as -) for indicating a sentence was tongue-in-cheek. Though flamed by many at the time - emoticons became widely used
  1979  CEPacket Radio Network (PRNET) experiment starts with DARPA funding with most communications take place between mobile vans
  1979  CETom Truscott and Jim Ellis and Steve Bellovin establish the first USENET newsgroups which is used by people to talk about the net - politics - religion and thousands of other subjects
  1979  CEUSENET established using UUCP between Duke and UNC by Tom Truscott - Jim Ellis - and Steve Bellovin. All original groups were under net.* hierarchy
  1979  CECompuServe system started
27 Oct 1980  CEARPANET grinds to a complete halt on 27 October because of an accidentally-propagated status-message virus
  1980  CEFirst C/30-based IMP at BBN
  1980  CEARPANET grinds to a complete halt on 27 October because of an accidentally-propagated status-message virus
  1981  CEARPANET has 213 hosts with a new host added approximately once every 20 days
  1981  CEBITNET - the 'Because It's Time NETwork' which provides electronic mail and listserv servers to distribute information - as well as file transfers
  1981  CECSNET (Computer Science NETwork) built by a collaboration of computer scientists and Univ of Delaware - Purdue Univ - Univ of Wisconsin - RAND Corporation and BBN to provide networking services (especially email) to university scientists with no access to ARPANET
  1981  CEMinitel (Teletel) is deployed across France by France Telecom
  1981  CERFC 801 - NCP/TCP Transition Plan
  1981  CETrue Names by Vernor Vinge
  1982  CEDCA and ARPA establish the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) as the protocol suite for ARPANET which leads to one of the first definitions of an 'internet' as a connected set of networks specifically those using TCP/IP
  1982  CEUS DoD declares TCP/IP suite to be standard for DoD
  1982  CEEUnet (European UNIX Network) is created by EUUG to provide email and USENET services
  1982  CENorway and UCL leave the network to become an Internet connection via TCP/IP over SATNET
  1982  CERFC 827 - Exterior Gateway Protocol specification which was used for gateways between networks
  1982  CEThe term 'Internet' is used for the first time
1 Jan 1983  CEName server developed at Univ of Wisconsin removing the need for users to know the exact path to other systems
 Sep 1983  CEMovement Information Net (MINET) connected to the Internet
  1983  CEARPANET split into ARPANET and MILNET
  1983  CEBob Kahn and Vint Cerf are key members of a team which creates TCP/IP which becomes the universal language of the Internet
  1983  CECSNET / ARPANET gateway put in place
  1983  CECutover from NCP to TCP/IP
  1983  CEDesktop workstations come into being and many had Berkeley UNIX (4.2 BSD) which included IP networking software
  1983  CEEARN (European Academic and Research Network) established which was very similar to the way BITNET worked using a gateway funded by IBM
  1983  CEFidoNet developed by Tom Jennings
  1983  CEInternet Activities Board (IAB) established - replacing ICCB
  1983  CEMovement Information Net (MINET) started early in the year in Europe
  1983  CENetworking requirements move from having a single time sharing computer connected to the Internet to the connection of entire local networks
  1983  CENo more Honeywell or Pluribus IMPs; TIPs replaced by TACs (terminal access controller)
  1983  CEStuttgart and Korea get connected
  1983  CENo more Honeywell or Pluribus IMPs, TIPs replaced by TACs (terminal access controller)
  1983  CENo more Honeywell or Pluribus IMPs - TIPs replaced by TACs (terminal access controller)
  1984  CECanada begins a one year effort to network its universities creating the NetNorth Network which is connected to BITNET in Ithaca from Toronto
  1984  CEDomain Name System (DNS) introduced
  1984  CEJANET (Joint Academic Network) established in the UK using the Coloured Book protocols (previously SERCnet)
  1984  CEJUNET (Japan Unix Network) established using UUCP
  1984  CEKremvax message announcing USSR connectivity to USENET
  1984  CEModerated newsgroups introduced on USENET (mod.*)
  1984  CENumber of Internet hosts breaks 1 thousand
  1984  CEWilliam Gibson coins the term 'cyberspace' in his novel 'Neuromancer'
15 Mar 1985  CESymbolics.com is assigned becoming the first registered domain
 Apr 1985  CEcmu.edu - purdue.edu - rice.edu and ucla.edu domains are registered
 Jun 1985  CEcss.gov domain registered
 Jul 1985  CEmitre.org and .uk domains registered
  1985  CE100 years to the day of the last spike being driven on the cross-Canada railroad - the last Canadian university is connected to NetNorth in a one year effort to have coast-to-coast connectivity
  1985  CEInformation Sciences Institute (ISI) at USC is given responsibility for DNS root management by DCA and SRI was made responsible for DNS NIC registrations
  1985  CEInternet e-mail and newsgroups now part of life at many universities
  1985  CERFC 968 - 'Twas the Night Before Start-up
  1985  CEWhole Earth 'Lectronic Link (WELL) started
16 Jul 1986  CEThe first Freenet (Cleveland) comes on-line under the auspices of the Society for Public Access Computing (SoPAC). Later Freenet program management assumed by the National Public Telecomputing Network (NPTN) in 1989
12 Dec 1986  CENew England gets cut off from the Net as AT&T suffers a fiber optics cable break between Newark/NJ and White Plains/NY due to all seven New England ARPANET trunk lines being in the one severed cable
  1986  CEBARRNET (Bay Area Regional Research Network) established using high speed links and became operational in 1987
  1986  CECase Western Reserve University in Cleveland - Ohio creates the first 'Freenet' for the Society for Public Access Computing
  1986  CEInternet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) comes into existence under the IAB with the first IETF meeting held in January at Linkabit in San Diego
  1986  CEMail Exchanger (MX) records developed by Craig Partridge allow non-IP network hosts to have domain addresses
  1986  CENetwork News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) designed to enhance Usenet news performance over TCP/IP
  1986  CENSF-funded SDSCNET - JVNCNET - SURANET - and NYSERNET operational
  1986  CENSFNET created (backbone speed of 56Kbps) when NSF established 5 super-computing centers to provide high-computing power for all which allowed an explosion of connections especially from universities
  1986  CEThe great USENET name change - moderated newsgroups changed in 1987
 Mar 1987  CEFirst TCP/IP Interoperability Conference (the name changed in 1988 to INTEROP)
20 Sep 1987  CEThe first message (e-mail) from China sent across an email link established between Germany and China using CSNET protocols
  1987  CE1000th RFC - 'Request For Comments reference guide'
  1987  CENSF signs a cooperative agreement to manage the NSFNET backbone with Merit Network Inc
  1987  CENumber of BITNET hosts breaks 1 thousand
  1987  CEThe number of Internet hosts exceeds 10 thousand
  1987  CEUUNET is founded with Usenix funds to provide commercial UUCP and Usenet access which was originally an experiment by Rick Adams and Mike O'Dell
  1987  CEXignals PC Board BBS begins in Alabama
1 Nov 1988  CEInternet worm unleashed which temporarily disables approximately 6 thousand of the 60 thousand Internet hosts
  1988  CECERFnet (California Education and Research Federation network) founded by Susan Estrada
  1988  CECERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) formed by DARPA in response to the needs exhibited during the Morris worm incident
  1988  CECountries connecting to NSFNET - Canada (CA) - Denmark (DK) - Finland (FI) - France (FR) - Iceland (IS) - Norway (NO) - Sweden (SE)
  1988  CEFidoNet gets connected to the Net enabling the exchange of email and news
  1988  CEFirst Canadian regionals join NSFNET - ONet via Cornell - RISQ via Princeton - BCnet via Univ of Washington
  1988  CEInternet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) established in December with Jon Postel as its Director (Postel was also the RFC Editor and US Domain registrar for many years)
  1988  CEInternet Relay Chat (IRC) developed by Jarkko Oikarinen
  1988  CELos Nettos network created with no US federal funding which is instead supported by regional members
  1988  CENSFNET backbone was upgraded to T1 (1.544Mbps)
  1988  CEThe first multicast tunnel is established between Stanford and BBN in the Summer of 1988
  1988  CEThe US DoD chooses to adopt OSI and sees use of TCP/IP as an interim and the US Government OSI Profile (GOSIP) defines the set of protocols to be supported by Government purchased products
  1988  CEComputer virus strikes Pentagon, SDI research lab & 6 universities
23 Jun 1989  CEFirst link between Australia and NSFNET via Hawaii
 Aug 1989  CECorporation for Research and Education Networking (CREN) is formed by merging CSNET into BITNET
 Aug 1989  CEUCLA sponsors the Act One symposium to celebrate ARPANET's 20th anniversary and its decomissioning
  1989  CEAARNET - Australian Academic Research Network - set up by AVCC and CSIRO - introduced into service the following year
  1989  CECountries connecting to NSFNET - Australia (AU) - Germany (DE) - Israel (IL) - Italy (IT) - Japan (JP) - Mexico (MX) - Netherlands (NL) - New Zealand (NZ) - Puerto Rico (PR) - United Kingdom (UK)
  1989  CECuckoo's Egg by Clifford Stoll tells the real-life tale of a German cracker group who infiltrated numerous US facilities
  1989  CEFirst relays between a commercial electronic mail carrier and the Internet - MCI Mail through the Corporation for the National Research Initiative (CNRI) and Compuserve through Ohio State University
  1989  CENumber of Internet hosts breaks 100 thousand
  1989  CERFC 1097 - 'TELNET Subliminal-Message Option'
  1989  CERFC 1121 - 'Act One - The Poems'
  1989  CERIPE (Reseaux IP Europeens) formed (by European service providers) to ensure the necessary administrative and technical coordination to allow the operation of the pan-European IP Network
  1989  CESystem administrator turned author - Clifford Stoll - catches a group of Cyberspies - and writes the best-seller 'The Cuckoo's Egg'
  1989  CEComputers across Britain hit by "Friday the 13th" virus
  1990  CEArchie released by Peter Deutsch - Alan Emtage and Bill Heelan at McGill
  1990  CEARPANET is decommissioned leaving only the vast network-of-networks called the Internet
  1990  CECA*net formed by 10 regional networks as national Canadian backbone with direct connection to NSFNET
  1990  CECountries connecting to NSFNET, Argentina (AR), Austria (AT), Belgium (BE), Brazil (BR), Chile (CL), Greece (GR), India (IN), Ireland (IE), Korea (KR), Spain (ES) and Switzerland (CH).
  1990  CEElectronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is founded by Mitch Kapor
  1990  CEHytelnet released by Peter Scott (Univ of Saskatchewan)
  1990  CEISO Development Environment (ISODE) developed to provide an approach for OSI migration for the DoD which allows OSI application to operate over TCP/IP
  1990  CERFC 1149 - A Standard for the Transmission of IP Datagrams on Avian Carriers
  1990  CERFC 1178 - Choosing a Name for Your Computer
  1990  CEThe first remotely operated machine to be hooked up to the Internet - the Internet Toaster by John Romkey - (controlled via SNMP) makes its debut at Interop
  1990  CEThe number of Internet hosts exceeds 300 thousand
  1990  CEThe World comes on-line (world.std.com) and becomes the first commercial provider of Internet dial-up access
 Mar 1991  CECommercial Internet eXchange (CIX) Association - Inc. formed by General Atomics (CERFnet) - Performance Systems International - Inc. (PSInet) - and UUNET Technologies - Inc. (AlterNet) - after NSF lifts restrictions on the commercial use of the Net
 May 1991  CEDefense Data Network NIC contract awarded by DISA to Government Systems Inc. who takes over from SRI
  1991  CEAt the University of Minnesota - a team led by computer programmer Mark MaCahill releases 'gopher' the first point-and-click way of navigating the files of the Internet and is freely distributed and MaCahill calls it 'the first Internet application my mom can use'
  1991  CECountries connecting to NSFNET - Croatia (HR) - Czech Republic (CZ) - Hong Kong (HK) - Hungary (HU) - Poland (PL) - Portugal (PT) - Singapore (SG) - South Africa (ZA) - Taiwan (TW) - Tunisia (TN)
  1991  CEFirst connection takes place between Brazil - by Fapesp - and the Internet at 9600 baud
  1991  CEGopher released by Paul Lindner and Mark P. McCahill from the University of Minnesota
  1991  CENSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736Mbps)
  1991  CENSFNET traffic passes 1 trillion bytes/month and 10 billion packets/month
  1991  CEPGP (Pretty Good Privacy) released by Philip Zimmerman
  1991  CERFC 1216 - Gigabit Network Economics and Paradigm Shifts
  1991  CERFC 1217 - Memo from the Consortium for Slow Commotion Research (CSCR)
  1991  CEStart of JANET IP Service (JIPS) which signalled the changeover from Coloured Book software to TCP/IP within the UK academic network (IP was initially 'tunneled' within X.25)
  1991  CEThe NSF lifts the restriction on the network for commercial use clearing the way for the age of electronic commerce
  1991  CETim Berners-Lee - working at CERN in Switzerland - posts the first computer code of the World Wide Web in a relatively innocuous newsgroup 'alt.hypertext'
  1991  CETraffic on the NSF backbone network exceeds 1 trillion bytes per month
  1991  CEUS High Performance Computing Act (Gore 1) establishes the National Research and Education Network (NREN)
  1991  CEWide Area Information Servers (WAIS) - invented by Brewster Kahle - released by Thinking Machines Corporation
 Jan 1992  CEInternet Society (ISOC) is chartered
 Apr 1992  CERIPE Network Coordination Center (NCC) created to provide address registration and coordination services to the European Internet community
  1992  CECountries connecting to NSFNET - Antarctica (AQ) - Cameroon (CM) - Cyprus (CY) - Ecuador (EC) - Estonia (EE) - Kuwait (KW) - Latvia (LV) - Luxembourg (LU) - Malaysia (MY) - Slovakia (SK) - Slovenia (SI) - Thailand (TH) - Venezuela (VE)
  1992  CEIAB reconstituted as the Internet Architecture Board and becomes part of the Internet Society
  1992  CEInternet Hunt started by Rick Gates
  1992  CEMore than 1 million hosts are part of the Internet
  1992  CEOne million hosts have multi-media access to the Internet over the MBONE
  1992  CERFC 1300 - Remembrances of Things Past
  1992  CERFC 1313, Today's Programming for KRFC AM 1313, Internet Talk Radio.
  1992  CEThe first audio and video broadcasts take place over the Internet MBONE
  1992  CEThe term 'surfing the Internet' is coined by Jean Armour Polly
  1992  CEVeronica - a gopherspace search tool - is released by Univ of Nevada
  1992  CEWorld Bank comes on-line
  1992  CEZen and the Art of the Internet is published by Brendan Kehoe
 Sep 1993  CEInterCon International KK (IIKK) provides Japan's first commercial Internet connection
 Oct 1993  CETWICS - though an IIKK leased line - begins offering dial-up accounts in Japan
  1993  CEBusinesses and media begin taking notice of the Internet
  1993  CECountries connecting to NSFNET - Bulgaria (BG) - Costa Rica (CR) - Egypt (EG) - Fiji (FJ) - Ghana (GH) - Guam (GU) - Indonesia (ID) - Kazakhstan (KZ) - Kenya (KE) - Liechtenstein (LI) - Peru (PE) - Romania (RO) - Russian Federation (RU) - Turkey (TR) - Ukraine (UA) - UAE (AE) - US Virgin Islands (VI)
  1993  CEInternet Talk Radio begins broadcasting
  1993  CEInterNIC created by NSF to provide specific Internet services - directory and database services (AT&T), registration services (Network Solutions Inc.) and information services (General Atomics/CERFnet)
  1993  CEMosaic - the first graphics-based Web browser - becomes available and traffic on the Internet expands at over 300 thousand percent annual growth rate
  1993  CERFC 1437 - The Extension of MIME Content-Types to a New Medium
  1993  CERFC 1438 - IETF Statements of Boredom (SOBs)
  1993  CEUnited Nations (UN) comes on-line
  1993  CEUS National Information Infrastructure Act
  1993  CEUS White House comes on-line (http://www.whitehouse.gov/)
  1993  CEWorms of a new kind find their way around the Net - WWW Worms (W4) - joined by Spiders - Wanderers - Crawlers - and Snakes
  1993  CEUS White House comes on-line (www.whitehouse.gov)
 Jul 1994  CEIPng recommended by IETF at its Toronto meeting and it is approved by IESG in November (it was later documented as RFC 1752)
 Oct 1994  CEThe first banner ads appear on the Internet at hotwired.com (they were for a beverage called Zima and AT&T)
 Oct 1994  CETrans-European Research and Education Network Association (TERENA) is formed by the merger of RARE and EARN - with representatives from 38 countries as well as CERN and ECMWF. TERENA's aim is to 'promote and participate in the development of a high quality international information and telecommunications infrastructure for the benefit of research and education'
  1994  CEAfter noticing that many network software vendors used domain.com in their documentation examples - Bill Woodcock and Jon Postel register the domain and after looking at the domain access logs - it was evident that many users were using the example domain in configuring their applications
  1994  CEArizona law firm of Canter & Siegel 'spams' the Internet with email advertising green card lottery services and the Net citizens flame back
  1994  CEARPANET/Internet celebrates 25th anniversary
  1994  CECommunities begin to be wired up directly to the Internet
  1994  CECountries connecting to NSFNET - Algeria (DZ) - Armenia (AM) - Bermuda (BM) - Burkina Faso (BF) - China (CN) - Colombia (CO) - Jamaica (JM) - Jordan (JO) - Lebanon (LB) - Lithuania (LT) - Macao (MO) - Morocco (MA) - New Caledonia (NC) - Nicaragua (NI) - Niger (NE) - Panama (PA) - Philippines (PH) - Senegal (SN) - Sri Lanka (LK) - Swaziland (SZ) - Uruguay (UY) - Uzbekistan (UZ)
  1994  CEFirst cyberstation (RT-FM) broadcasts from Interop in Las Vegas
  1994  CEInternet backbone traffic exceeds 10 trillion bytes per month
  1994  CEJapanese Prime Minister on-line (http://www.kantei.go.jp/)
  1994  CEMarc Andreesen and Jim Clark form Netscape Communications Corp
  1994  CENew Zealand's Info Tech Prime Minister on-line (http://www.govt.nz/)
  1994  CEPizza Hut accepts first orders (a mushroom and pepperoni pizza with extra cheese) over the Internet
  1994  CERadio stations start rebroadcasting round the clock on the Internet.
  1994  CERFC 1605 - SONET to Sonnet Translation
  1994  CERFC 1606 - A Historical Perspective On The Usage Of IP Version 9
  1994  CEShopping malls arrive on the Internet
  1994  CEThe first cyberbank open up for business (First Virtual)
  1994  CEThe National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) suggests that GOSIP should incorporate TCP/IP and drop the 'OSI-only' requirement
  1994  CEThe Rolling Stones broadcast the Voodoo Lounge tour over the Internet MBONE
  1994  CETop 10 Domains by number of hosts - com - edu - uk - gov - de - ca - mil - au - org - net
  1994  CEUK's HM Treasury on-line (http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/)
  1994  CEUS Senate and House provide information servers
  1994  CEWWW edges out telnet to become 2nd most popular service on the Net (behind ftp-data) based on % of packets and bytes traffic distribution on NSFNET
  1994  CEJapanese Prime Minister on-line (www.kantei.go.jp)
  1994  CENew Zealand's Info Tech Prime Minister on-line (www.govt.nz)
  1994  CEUK's HM Treasury on-line (www.hm-treasury.gov.uk)
 Mar 1995  CEWWW surpasses FTP-data as the service with greatest traffic on the Internet based on packet count and in April passes FTP based on byte count
23 May 1995  CESun launches the Java programming language
12 Jun 1995  CEHacks of the Year - The Spot
30 Jul 1995  CEThousands in Minneapolis-St. Paul in the US lose Net access after transients start a bonfire under a bridge causing fiber-optic cables to melt
9 Aug 1995  CEA number of Net related companies go public with Netscape leading the pack with the 3rd largest ever NASDAQ IPO share value
12 Aug 1995  CEHacks of the Year - Hackers Movie Page
  1995  CECountry domains registered - Ethiopia (ET) - Cote d'Ivoire (CI) - Cook Islands (CK) Cayman Islands (KY) - Anguilla (AI) - Gibraltar (GI) - Vatican (VA) - Kiribati (KI) - Kyrgyzstan (KG) - Madagascar (MG) - Mauritius (MU) - Micronesia (FM) - Monaco (MC) - Mongolia (MN) - Nepal (NP) - Nigeria (NG) - Western Samoa (WS) - San Marino (SM) - Tanzania (TZ) - Tonga (TO) - Uganda (UG) - Vanuatu (VU)
  1995  CEEmerging Technologies - Mobile code (JAVA - JAVAscript) - Virtual environments (VRML) - Collaborative tools
  1995  CEHong Kong police disconnect all but 1 of the colony's Internet providers in search of a hacker. 10 -000 people are left without Net access
  1995  CEJames Gosling and a team of programmers at Sun Microsystems release an Internet programming language called Java
  1995  CENeda Rayaneh Institute (NRI) - Iran's first commercial provider - comes online - connecting via satellite to Cadvision - a Canadian provider
  1995  CENSFNET reverts back to a research project - leaving the Internet in commercial hands and the Web now comprises the bulk of Internet traffic
  1995  CEOperation Home Front for the first time connects soldiers in the field with their families back home via the Internet
  1995  CERadio HK, the first commercial 24 hour, Internet-only, radio station starts broadcasting.
  1995  CERealAudio - an audio streaming technology - lets the Net hear in near real-time
  1995  CERegistration of domain names is no longer free. Beginning 14 September - a $50 annual fee has been imposed - which up until now was subsidized by NSF. NSF continues to pay for .edu registration - and on an interim basis for .gov
  1995  CERFC 1882 - The 12-Days of Technology Before Christmas
  1995  CERichard White becomes the first person to be declared a munition - under the USA's arms export control laws - because of an RSA file security encryption program tattooed on his arm
  1995  CETechnologies of the Year - WWW Search engines
  1995  CEThe Canadian Government comes on-line (http://canada.gc.ca/)
  1995  CEThe first official Internet wiretap was successful in helping the Secret Service and Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) apprehend three individuals who were illegally manufacturing and selling cell phone cloning equipment and electronic devices
  1995  CEThe new NSFNET is born as NSF establishes the very high speed Backbone Network Service (vBNS) linking super-computing centers
  1995  CEThe Vatican comes on-line (http://www.vatican.va/)
  1995  CETop 10 Domains by number of hosts - com - edu - net - gov - mil - org - de - uk - ca - au
  1995  CETraditional online dial-up systems (Compuserve - America Online - Prodigy) begin to provide Internet access
  1995  CEThe Canadian Government comes on-line (canada.gc.ca)
  1995  CEThe Vatican comes on-line (www.vatican.va)
17 Jan 1996  CEMalaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad - PLO Leader Yasser Arafat - and Phillipine President Fidel Ramos meet for ten minutes in an online interactive chat session
17 Aug 1996  CEHacks of the Year - US Dept of Justice
19 Sep 1996  CEHacks of the Year - CIA
6 Dec 1996  CEHacks of the Year - UK Labour Party
29 Dec 1996  CEHacks of the Year - US Air Force
30 Dec 1996  CEHacks of the Year - NASA DDCSOL
30 Dec 1996  CEHacks of the Year - USAFE
  1996  CE9272 organisations find themselves unlisted after the InterNIC drops their name service as a result of not having paid their domain name fee
  1996  CEA malicious cancelbot is released on USENET wiping out more than 25 thousand messages
  1996  CEApproximately 40 million people are connected to the Internet
  1996  CECountry domains registered - Qatar (QA) - Central frican Republic (CF) - Oman (OM) - Norfolk Island (NF) - Tuvalu (TV) - French Polynesia (PF) - Syria (SY) - Aruba (AW) - Cambodia (KH) - French Guiana (GF) - Eritrea (ER) - Cape Verde (CV) - Burundi (BI) - Benin (BJ) Bosnia-Herzegovina (BA) - Andorra (AD) - Guadeloupe (GP) - Guernsey (GG) - Isle of Man (IM) - Jersey (JE) - Lao (LA) - Maldives (MV) - Marshall Islands (MH) - Mauritania (MR) - Northern Mariana Islands (MP) - Rwanda (RW) - Togo (TG) - Yemen (YE) - Zaire (ZR)
  1996  CEDomain name tv.com sold to CNET for US $15 thousand
  1996  CEEmerging Technologies - Virtual environments (VRML) - Collaborative tools - Internet appliance (Network Computer)
  1996  CEInternet phones catch the attention of US telecommunication companies who ask the US Congress to ban the technology (which has been around for years)
  1996  CEMCI upgrades Internet backbone adding approximately 13000 ports - bringing the effective speed from 155Mbps to 622Mbps.
  1996  CEMore than $1 billion per year changes hands at Internet shopping malls
  1996  CENearly 10 million hosts online and the Internet now covers the globe
  1996  CENew York's Public Access Networks Corp (PANIX) is shut down after repeated SYN attacks by a cracker using methods outlined in a hacker magazine
  1996  CERFC 1925 - The Twelve Networking Truths
  1996  CETechnologies of the Year - Search engines - Java - Internet Phone
  1996  CEThe controversial US Communications Decency Act (CDA) becomes law in the US in order to prohibit distribution of indecent materials over the Net. A few months later a three-judge panel imposes an injunction against its enforcement. Supreme Court unanimously rules most of it unconstitutional in 1997
  1996  CEThe Internet Ad Hoc Committee announces plans to add 7 new generic Top Level Domains (gTLD) - .firm - .store - .web - .arts - .rec - .info - .nom. The IAHC plan also calls for a competing group of domain registrars worldwide
  1996  CEThe number of Internet computer hosts approaches 10 million
  1996  CEThe WWW browser war - fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft - has rushed in a new age in software development - whereby new releases are made quarterly with the help of Internet users eager to test upcoming (beta) versions
  1996  CETop 10 Domains by number of hosts - com - edu - net - uk - de - jp - us - mil - ca - au
  1996  CEUsers in almost 150 countries around the world are now connected to the Internet
  1996  CEVarious ISPs suffer extended service outages - bringing into question whether they will be able to handle the growing number of users. AOL (19 hours) - Netcom (13 hours) - AT&T WorldNet (28 hours - email only)
19 Jan 1997  CEHacks of the Year - Indonesian Government (also on 10 Feb - 24 Apr - 30 Jun and 22 Nov)
5 Mar 1997  CEHacks of the Year - NASA
 Mar 1997  CEThe American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is established to handle administration and registration of IP numbers to the geographical areas currently handled by Network Solutions (InterNIC)
27 Apr 1997  CEHacks of the Year - UK Conservative Party
17 Jul 1997  CEHuman error at Network Solutions causes the DNS table for .com and .net domains to become corrupted making millions of systems unreachable
14 Nov 1997  CEHacks of the Year - The Spice Girls
  1997  CE2000th RFC - 'Internet Official Protocol Standards'
  1997  CECA*net II launched in June to provide Canada's next generation Internet using ATM/SONET
  1997  CECountry domains registered - Falkland Islands (FK) - East Timor (TP) - R of Congo (CG) - Christmas Island (CX) - Gambia (GM) - Guinea-Bissau (GW) - Haiti (HT) - Iraq (IQ) - Libya (LY) - Malawi (MW) - Martinique (MQ) - Montserrat (MS) - Myanmar (MM) - French Reunion Island (RE) - Seychelles (SC) - Sierra Leone (SL) - Somalia (SO) - Sudan (SD) - Tajikistan (TJ) - Turkmenistan (TM) - Turks and Caicos Islands (TC) - British Virgin Islands (VG) - Heard and McDonald Islands (HM) - French Southern Territories (TF) - British Indian Ocean Territory (IO) - Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (SJ) - St Pierre and Miquelon (PM) - St Helena (SH) - South Georgia/Sandwich Islands (GS) - Sao Tome and Principe (ST) - Ascension Island (AC) - US Minor Outlying Islands (UM) - Mayotte (YT) - Wallis and Futuna Islands (WF) - Tokelau Islands (TK) - Chad Republic (TD) - Afghanistan (AF) - Cocos Island (CC) - Bouvet Island (BV) - Liberia (LR) - American Samoa (AS) - Niue (NU) - Equatorial New Guinea (GQ) - Bhutan (BT) - Pitcairn Island (PN) - Palau (PW) - DR of Congo (CD)
  1997  CEEmerging Technologies - Push - Streaming Media
  1997  CEIn protest of the DNS monopoly - AlterNIC's owner - Eugene Kashpureff - hacks DNS so users going to www.internic.net end up at www.alternic.net
  1997  CELiszt (a mailing list directory) has 71618 mailing lists registered
  1997  CELongest hostname registered with InterNIC - CHALLENGER.MED.SYNAPSE.UAH.UALBERTA.CA
  1997  CERFC 2100 - The Naming of Hosts
  1997  CETechnologies of the Year - Push - Multicasting
  1997  CEThe Internet domain name business.com is sold for US $150 thousand
  1997  CEThe Internet whois database has 101803 Name Servers
  1997  CETop 10 Domains by number of hosts - com - edu - net - jp - uk - de - us - au - ca - mil
  1997  CEABC News & Starwave Corp launch ABCNEWS.com
7 Jan 1998  CEHacks of the Year - UNICEF
30 Jan 1998  CEUS Depart of Commerce (DoC) releases the Green Paper outlining its plan to privatize DNS which is followed up by a White Paper on 5 June
20 Feb 1998  CEHacks of the Year - US Dept of Commerce
 Feb 1998  CEBandwidth Generators - Winter Olympics
20 Mar 1998  CELa Fête de l'Internet - a country-wide Internet fest - is held in France 20-21 March
27 Mar 1998  CEInternet users get to be judges in a performance by 12 world champion ice skaters on 27 March - marking the first time a television sport show's outcome is determined by its viewers
4 May 1998  CENetwork Solutions registers its 2 millionth domain
 Jun 1998  CEBandwidth Generators - World Cup (Jun-Jul)
11 Sep 1998  CEBandwidth Generators - The Starr Report
13 Sep 1998  CEHacks of the Year - New York Times
21 Oct 1998  CECDA II and a ban on Internet taxes are signed into US law.
26 Oct 1998  CEHacks of the Year - China Society for Human Rights Studies
2 Nov 1998  CEABCNews.com accidentally posts test US election returns one day early
25 Nov 1998  CEUS DoC enters into an agreement with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Numbers (ICANN) to establish a process for transitioning DNS from US Government management to industry
 Nov 1998  CEIndian ISP market is deregulated causing a rush for ISP operation licenses
8 Dec 1998  CESan Francisco sites without off-city mirrors go offline as the city blacks out
13 Dec 1998  CEFrench Internet users give up their access to boycott France Telecom's local phone charges (which are in addition to the ISP charge)
 Dec 1998  CEChinese government puts Lin Hai on trial for 'inciting the overthrow of state power' for providing 30000 email addresses to a US Internet magazine - he is later sentenced to two years in jail
  1998  CEBandwidth Generators - The Glenn space launch
  1998  CECanada kicks off CA*net 3 the first national optical internet
  1998  CECompanies flock to the Turkmenistan NIC in order to register their name under the .tm domain which is the English abbreviation for 'trademark'
  1998  CECompaq pays US $3.3 million for altavista.com
  1998  CECountry domains registered - Nauru (NR) - Comoros (KM)
  1998  CEElectronic postal stamps become a reality with the US Postal Service allowing stamps to be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web
  1998  CEEmerging Technologies - E-Trade - XML - Intrusion Detection
  1998  CEHobbes' Internet Timeline is released as RFC 2235 & FYI 32
  1998  CEOpen source software comes of age
  1998  CERFC 2321 - RITA - The Reliable Internetwork Troubleshooting Agent
  1998  CERFC 2322 - Management of IP numbers by peg-dhcp
  1998  CERFC 2323 - IETF Identification and Security Guidelines
  1998  CERFC 2324 - Hyper Text Coffee Pot Control Protocol (HTCPCP/1.0)
  1998  CETechnologies of the Year - E-Commerce - E-Auctions - Portals
  1998  CETop 10 Domains by number of hosts - com - net - edu - mil - jp - us - uk -de - ca - au
  1998  CEWeb size estimates range between 275 (Digital) and 320 (NEC) million pages for 1Q
8 Jan 1999  CEHacks of the Year - Star Wars
23 Jan 1999  CEHacks of the Year - USIA
 Jan 1999  CEHacks of the Year - .tp
22 Feb 1999  CEFirst Internet Bank of Indiana opens for business as the first full-service bank available only on the Net
13 Mar 1999  CEHacks of the Year - E-Bay
 Mar 1999  CEViruses of the Year - Melissa
7 Apr 1999  CEA forged Web page made to look like a Bloomberg financial news story raised shares of a small technology company by 31%
21 Apr 1999  CEICANN announces the five testbed registrars for the competitive Shared Registry System (AOL - CORE - France Telecom/Oléane - Melbourne IT - Register.com). 29 additional post-testbed registrars are also selected on 21 April - followed by 8 on 25 May - 15 on 6 July - and so on for a total of 98 by year's end
15 May 1999  CEThe Web becomes the focal point of British politics as a list of MI6 agents is released on a UK Web site and although it was later removed it was too late as the list had already been replicated across the Net
27 May 1999  CEHacks of the Year - US Senate
18 Jun 1999  CEActivists Net-wide target the world's financial centers timed to coincide with the G8 Summit
 Jun 1999  CEViruses of the Year - ExploreZip
2 Jul 1999  CEHacks of the Year - NSI
20 Jul 1999  CEHacks of the Year - Paraguay Government
5 Aug 1999  CEHacks of the Year - AntiOnline
 Sep 1999  CESomalia gets its first ISP - Olympic Computer
11 Oct 1999  CEThe .ps domain is registered to Palestine
26 Oct 1999  CEHacks of the Year - Microsoft
30 Nov 1999  CEThe domain business.com is sold for US $7.5 million (it was purchased in 1997 for US $150 thousand)
31 Dec 1999  CEHacks of the Year - UK Railtrack
  1999  CEAbilene - the Internet2 network - reaches across the Atlantic and connects to NORDUnet and SURFnet
  1999  CEEmerging Technologies - Net-Cell Phones - Thin Computing - Embedded Computing
  1999  CEEuropean Parliament proposes banning the caching of Web pages by ISPs
  1999  CEFirst large-scale Cyberwar takes place simultaneously with the war in Serbia/Kosovo
  1999  CEIBM becomes the first Corporate partner to be approved for Internet2 access.
  1999  CEInternet access becomes available to the Saudi Arabian (.sa) public in January
  1999  CEISOC approves the formation of the Internet Societal Task Force (ISTF) and Vint Cerf serves as its first chair
  1999  CEMCI/Worldcom - the vBNS provider for NSF - begins upgrading the US backbone to 2.5GBps
  1999  CEMCI/Worldcom launches vBNS+ which is a commercialized version of vBNS targeted at smaller educational and research institutions
  1999  CERFC 2549 - IP over Avian Carriers with Quality of Service
  1999  CERFC 2550 - Y10K and Beyond
  1999  CERFC 2551 - The Roman Standards Process - Revision III
  1999  CERFC 2555 - 30 Years of RFCs
  1999  CERFC 2626 - The Internet and the Millennium Problem (Year 2000)
  1999  CETechnologies of the Year - E-Trade - Online Banking - MP3
  1999  CEThe Internet Fiesta kicks off in March across Europe building on the success of La Fete de l'Internet held in 1998
  1999  CETop 10 TLDs by number of hosts - com - net - edu - jp - uk - mil - us - de - ca - au
  1999  CEUS State Court rules that domain names are property that may be 'garnished'
  1999  CEvBNS reaches 101 connections
  1999  CEvBNS sets up an OC48 link between CalREN South and North using Juniper M40 routers
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