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Colonization & Conquest

Colonization & Conquest (0001-)

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Human territorial expansion either by force of arms or through colonisation.
    1155  CEThe English plan for the conquest of Ireland is approved.
    1170  CEIreland was attacked by the English Earl of Pembroke.
    1204  CE(Spring) Peace negotiations with France
    1207  CEMarshall inherits the lands of Leinster in Ireland.
    1500  CEThe Indian population of Brasil numbered about 2.5 million before European settlement but that population today is less than 200 thousand
    1500  CETurks conquered Modon from the Venetians and expelled the Teutonic Knights from the Peloponnesus.
    1500  CEDuke Ludovico Sforza's troops reconquer Milan.
c.    1500  CE(Between 1500-1600) The Kalmyk people, descendants from the Golden Horde of Genghis Khan, settled in the lowlands between the Volga and Don rivers with their livestock.
c.    1500  CE(Between 1500-1900) Millions of Africans were torn from their homelands, herded into ships and sold in the New World for more than 300 years.
    1501  CECesare Borgia returns in triumph to Rome from Romagna.
    1501  CEFrance and Spain occupied Naples, and French troops entered Rome. Louis XII was declared King of Naples by the Pope.
    1501  CEIvan III, Czar of Russia, invaded Lithuania.
    1501  CEThe Turks took Durazzo from Venice.
    1502  CEAtahualpa (1502-1533), emperor of the Incas, was born. He had a fortune in gold and silver and tried to purchase his freedom from Pizarro for a chamber filled with gold. Pizarro took 124 tons of gold in ransom and then re-arrested Atahualpa for treason to the Spanish crown and had him decapitated.
    1503  CEThe French in Italy were defeated by the Spaniards in the battles of Cerignola and Garigliano, and Spanish forces entered Naples.
    1503  CEZanzibar became a Portuguese colony.
    1504  CEBabur, founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, captured Kabul in Afghanistan and maintained control to 1519.
    1504  CELouis XII of France ceded Naples to Ferdinand II of Aragon in Spain with the Treaty of Lyon. Naples remained under Spanish control for the next 200 years.
    1505  CEThe Portuguese settled Ceylon and their exploitation of the cinnamon forests led to a system of slavery and a monopoly on trade in this spice.
    1505  CEIvan the Great of Moscow extends the Russian border into the Byelorussian and the Ukrainian territories, before his death. Muscovian Russia is recognized as a major Eastern-oriented power in Europe.
    1506  CEMozambique, Africa, was colonized by the Portuguese.
 12 Mar 1507  CECesare Borgia died while fighting alongside his brother, the king of Navarre, in Spain.
    1507  CEGenoa was annexed by the French.
    1508  CEThe League of Cambrai was formed against Venice by Ferdinand of Aragon, Emp. Maximilian, Louis XII of France, and Pope Julius II as part of an ongoing dispute over sovereignty in Italy.
    1508  CEPonce de Leon arrives and begins to colonise Puerto Rico. He was appointed by Spain and given a Spanish fleet which began to capture Bahamanian Tainos to work as slaves on Hispaniola. His settlement at Caparra, 2 miles south of San Juan Bay, was plagued by Taino Indians and cannibalistic Caribean Indians.
 14 May 1509  CEIn the Battle of Agnadello, the French defeat the Venetians in Northern Italy.
    1509  CEThe Venetian defeat at Agnadello led to the annexation of Faenza, Rimini, and Ravenna by Pope Julius II, and Otranto and Brindisi by Ferdinand of Aragon.
    1509  CEThe Egyptian and Gujarat fleets were routed by the Portuguese at the Battle of Diu, which left the latter in control of the Indian seas and the spice trade.
    1509  CESpanish armies invaded North Africa in a crusade against the Muslim rulers of Tripoli, Oran, and Bougie.
    1510  CECharles of Gelre conquerors Oldenzaal. 
    1510  CEIn China Liu Jin, a eunuch of the Ming dynasty, was executed for abusing his authority. He had grown wealthy from graft.
    1510  CEWar broke out between Denmark and the Hanseatic League.
    1510  CEGoa, India, was captured by the Portuguese.
    1510  CE(1510-1550) Spain took in gold shipments from the New World at 3,000 pounds a year.
    1511  CEDiego de Velazquez, Spanish commander, occupied Cuba.
 11 Apr 1512  CEThe forces of the Holy League were heavily defeated by the French at the Battle of Ravenna.
 27 Dec 1512  CEThe laws of Burgos gave New World natives legal protection against abuse and authorized Negro slavery.
    1512  CEBattle at Valeggio French troops beat Venetianen.
    1512  CEFrench troops under Gaston de Foix occupy Brescia.
    1512  CEThe English began using double-deck warships. They displaced 1,000 tons and were armed with 70 guns.
    1512  CEHenry VIII claimed the throne of France and sent troops unsuccessfully into Spain.
    1512  CEThe Portuguese took over control of East Timor.
    1512  CEThe Spaniards conquered Navarre and annexed it to Castile.
    1512  CESpain imported black slaves to Hispaniola to replace moribund Indian laborers.
    1512  CESelim I deposed his father Bayazid II and became Sultan of Turkey.
    1512  CEPonce de Leon stepped ashore on the Turks and Caicos Islands.  
 16 Aug 1513  CEHenry VIII of England and Emperor Maximilian defeated the French at Guinegatte, France, in the Battle of the Spurs.
  9 Sep 1513  CEKing James IV of Scotland was defeated and killed by English at the Battle of Flodden Field. The Scottish navy was sold to France.
    1513  CEHenry VIII and Maximilian defeated the French forces in Italy and Louis XII gave up Milan.
    1513  CEChristian II became King of Denmark and Norway succeeding Johan I. He later asserted his right to the Swedish throne by force of arms.
    1513  CEThe Swiss completed the acquisition of the southern province of Ticino.
    1514  CEGeorge Dozsa, soldier of fortune, instigated a peasant's revolt in Hungary. He was later captured and grilled alive.
    1514  CEAt the Battle of Orsha, Lithuanian forces defeated those of Moscow.
    1514  CEVasily III, ruler of Moscow, captured Smolensk from Poland.
    1514  CESelim I, Sultan of Turkey, declared war on Persia.
    1514  CESpanish soldiers conquered the natives of Cuba.
    1514  CE1,500 Spanish settlers went to Panama.
 22 Jul 1515  CEEmperor Maximillian and Vladislav of Bohemia forged an alliance between the Hapsburg (Austria) and Jagiello (Polish-Lithuanian) dynasties in Vienna.
 13 Sep 1515  CEKing Francis of France defeated the Swiss army under Cardinal Matthias Schiner at Marignano, northern Italy. Switzerland was last involved in a war. French armies defeated the Swiss and Venetians at the Battle of Marignano and Milan fell to the French. Francis I conquered Lombardy in northern Italy.
    1515  CEIn the Persian Gulf the Portugese fleet occupies Ormuz.
    1515  CEBartolome de Las Casas, Dominican priest, returned to Spain from Hispaniola to plead on behalf of the ill-treated native Indians.
    1515  CESpanish conquistadores founded Havana, Cuba.
    1515  CEBy this year the Taino Indians of what is now the Dominican Republic were practically annihilated in clashes with the Spanish.
    1516  CEThe Treaty of Noyon brought peace between France and Spain.
    1516  CELebanon became part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire.
    1517  CEThe Mamelukes in Egypt lost power.
    1517  CEArchduke Charles left the Netherlands for Spain and entered Valladolid in triumph.
    1517  CEBartolomeo de las Casas, the first Spanish priest to be ordained in the New World, pleaded the case of oppressed and enslaved American Indians.
    1517  CEArchduke Charles granted a monopoly in the African slave trade to Florentine merchants.
    1517  CECairo and Mecca were captured by the Turks and Arabia came under Turkish rule.
    1518  CECardinal Wolsey arranged the Peace of London between England, France, the Pope, Maximilian I and Spain.
    1518  CEPortugal and the Kingdom of Kotte, Ceylon, signed a peace treaty.
    1518  CELorens de Gominot obtained a license to import 4,000 African slaves into the New World colonies.  
 13 Mar 1519  CEThe Spaniards under Cortez landed at Veracruz. Cortez landed in Mexico with 10 stallions, 5 mares and a foal.
    1519  CEIn Mexico Cortes discovered a plot by some Cholulans to assassinate him and ordered some 6,000 Cholulan men executed.
 20 May 1520  CEHernando Cortes defeated Spanish troops sent to punish him in Mexico.
 10 Jul 1520  CEThe explorer Cortes was driven from Tenochtitlan, Mexico, by Aztec leader Cuauhtemoc, and retreated to Tlaxcala.
    1520  CEEmperor Charles V and Henry VIII met at Dover and agreed to an Anglo-French commercial treaty.
    1520  CEKing Christian II of Denmark and Norway defeated a Swedish army at Lake Asunden and was crowned King of Sweden. He then renounced his offer of amnesty and massacred most of the Swedish leaders.
 23 Apr 1521  CEThe Comuneros were crushed by royalist troops in Spain.
31 Aug 1521  CECortes captured the city of Tenochtitlan, Mexico, and set it on fire.
  1521  CESuleiman II the Magnificent takes Belgrade.
  1521  CEAn eight year war between France and the Holy Roman Emp., Charles V, began after the French supported rebels in Spain.
  1521  CESuleiman I, the Ottoman Sultan, conquered Belgrade and invaded Hungary.
  1521  CEIn Puerto Rico the Caparra colony founded by Spanish conquistadores relocated to a barrier island at the entrance of San Juan Bay.
  1522  CEDuke of Albany takes captured French back to Scotland.
  1522  CEFrench troops driven out of Genoa.
  1522  CEEngland declared war on France and Scotland. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V visited Henry VIII and signed the Treaty of Windsor. Both monarchs agreed to invade France.
  1522  CEGuatemala was conquered by Spanish armies.
  1522  CEA massive slave rebellion, the first of dozens, was crushed in Hispaniola.  
  1523  CEChristian II was deposed in Denmark after a civil war and was exiled. His uncle became King Frederick I of Denmark and Norway.
  1524  CEPedro de Alvarado, a lieutenant of Cortez, marched into the Guatemalan highlands. He played the local Indian tribes against one another and won a major battle fought at a river in western Guatemala against warriors of the Quiche tribe led by Tecun Uman.
24 Feb 1525  CEIn the first of the Franco-Hapsburg Wars, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V captured the French king Francis I at the battle of Pavia, in Italy.
7 May 1525  CEThe German peasants' revolt was crushed by the ruling class and church.
  1525  CEBattle at Böblingen: Zwabische Union beats rebel Württembergse farmers. 
  1525  CEBattle at Pavia Emperor Karel V's troops beat French King François I. 8,700 were killed.
  1525  CEBattle at Zabern when duke of Lutherans beats rebels. 
  1525  CESwiss and German mercenaries desert François I's army.
  1525  CEThousands of German peasants were slaughtered.
  1525  CECharles V led the German and Spanish forces over the French and Swiss at the Battle of Pavia and became master of Italy. Francis I was captured and taken to Spain.
  1525  CETurkey and Hungary signed a seven year truce.
14 Jan 1526  CEFrancis of France, held captive by Charles V for a year, signed the Treaty of Madrid, giving up most of his claims in France and Italy.
21 Apr 1526  CEMongol Emperor Babur annihilated Indian Army of Ibrahim Lodi. Babur, Mughal Emperor of India, in this year established the Mughal dynasty at Delhi.
26 Jul 1526  CEThe Spaniard Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon and his colonists left Santo Domingo in the Caribbean for Florida.
  1526  CEFrench King François I is freed from Spain.
  1526  CEPope Clemens VII, France, Genoa, Venice, Florence and Milan form the Anti-French League of Cognac.
  1526  CESaxony & Hesse form League of Gotha (the league of Protestant princes).
  1526  CEFrancis I of France and Emperor Charles V signed the Peace of Madrid wherein Francis renounced claims to territory in Burgundy, Italy and Flanders.
  1526  CEPeace was concluded between Poland and Russia.
  1526  CEThe slave trade escalated to the point where the Portuguese bribed officials to revolt and provided goods and guns to any chief who would supply slaves. King Affonso wrote to King John of Portugal asking that the Portuguese ban the slave trade in Kongo. Numerous letters were sent but King John did nothing.
  1526  CETurkish forces of Suleiman I defeated the Hungarian forces and killed Hungarian King Louis II at the Battle of Mohacs.
16 Mar 1527  CEThe Emperor Babur defeated the Rajputs at the Battle of Kanvaha, removing the main Hindu rivals in Northern India.
6 May 1527  CEGerman troops began sacking Rome, bringing about the end of the Renaissance.
  1527  CEFlorence expelled the Medici nephews of the Pope and reverted to a republic.
  1527  CEMuslim Somali Chief, Ahmed Gran, used firearms against the Ethiopians for the first time.
  1527  CESpanish mercenaries paid by Charles V sacked Rome and left 4,000 dead. Some see this event as marking the close of the Renaissance.
  1528  CETreaty of Dordrecht between the emperor and the ecclesiastical powers.
  1528  CEUtrecht Governor Maarten van Rossum plunders The Hague.
  1528  CEEngland and France declared war on Emperor Charles V. The French army was later expelled from Naples and Genoa.
  1528  CECharles V granted to the Welser family, Augsburg merchants, rights to colonize most of north-eastern South America.  
22 Apr 1529  CESpain and Portugal divided the eastern hemisphere in Treaty of Saragosa.
6 May 1529  CEBabur defeated the Afghan Chiefs and the Bengals in the Battle of Ghagra, India.
26 Jul 1529  CEFrancisco Pizarro was made governor for life and captain-general in New Spain. He returned to Peru in a fleet of three ships. Pizarro received a royal warrant in Toledo, Spain, to 'discover and conquer' Peru.
8 Sep 1529  CEThe Ottoman Sultan Suleiman re-entered Buda and established John Zapolyai as the puppet king of Hungary.
15 Oct 1529  CEOttoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade. The Ottomans siege of Vienna was a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
  1529  CEThe Turks began the siege of Vienna.
  1531  CEKings Ferdinand of Austria and János Zápolyai of Hungary recognise each other.
  1531  CEFrancisco Pizarro left Panama with 180 men to conquer Peru.
  1532  CEPizarro seizes Incan emperor Atahualpa after victory at Cajamarca.
  1532  CESuleiman I, Sultan of the Ottoman empire, invaded Hungary.
  1532  CEFrancisco Pizzaro with 183 soldiers entered the lowlands of northern Peru near Cajamarca, the capital of the Inca empire.
29 Aug 1533  CEFrancisco Pizarro captured Cuzco and completed his conquest of Peru. He ordered the imprisonment and murder of Atahualpa, the last ruler of the Atahualpa.
15 Nov 1533  CESpanish conquistadores reached the high valley of the Andes and Francisco Pizzaro entered Cuzco, Inca capital of Peru.
  1533  CEOttoman ruler Suleiman I concluded a treaty with Austria and got time to deal with dissident elements in Anatolia.
13 Jul 1534  CEOttoman armies captured Tabriz in northwestern Persia.
  1534  CEThe Ottoman Empire extended from Hungary to Baghdad.
  1535  CEBloemkamp Abbey (Oldeklooster) is attacked and destroyed. 
  1535  CEFrancisco Pizarro founded Lima in Peru.
14 Jul 1536  CEFrance and Portugal signed the naval treaty of Lyons aligning themselves against Spain.
  1536  CEThe Spaniards completed the conquest of Peru.
  1536  CEProvence was invaded by Charles V.
  1536  CESavoy and Piedmont were conquered by France.
  1536  CEThe first Spanish settlement was established in Buenos Aires, Argentina, but the colony failed. The cows and horses however thrived on the tall pampa grass and when new colonists arrived two decades later they found the thriving livestock.
  1537  CEFrench troops invade Flanders.
24 Feb 1538  CEFerdinand of Hapsburg and John Zapolyai, the two kings of Hungary, concluded the peace of Grosswardein.
  1538  CEKing Ferdinand of Austria & King Janos Zapolyai of Hungary sign the Peace of Grosswardein.
  1538  CEThe Truce of Nice was arranged between Charles V and Francis I. It only lasted 10 months.
  1538  CEGonzalo Jimenez de Quesada, Spanish conquistador, founded Bogota, Colombia.
  1539  CESpain annexed Cuba.
  1539  CEEmperor Karel and King Francois I sign an anti-English treaty.
17 May 1540  CEAfghan chief Sher Khan defeated Mongol Emperor Humayun at Kanauj.
  1540  CESher Shah, Afghan rebel, became Emperor of Delhi.
  1540  CEKing Charles V returned to Ghent and brutally beat down an uprising against taxes for an expansionist war. Nine leaders were beheaded and another hanged. City burgers were forced to walk the streets barefoot with rope hanging round their necks. The 'Gentse Feesten' annual festival re-enacts this event every mid-July.
26 Jun 1541  CEFrancisco Pizarro, the Spanish Conqueror of Peru, was murdered by his former followers.
  1541  CEEthiopia was invaded by the Portuguese.
  1541  CESuleiman I annexed southern and central Hungary.
  1542  CEWar was renewed between the Holy Roman Empire and France.
  1542  CE150 Spanish colonists settled Asuncion, capital of Paraguay.
1 Jul 1543  CEEngland and Scotland signed the peace of Greenwich.
  1543  CEBattle at Wayna Daga when Ethiopian and Portugese troops beat a Moslem army.
  1543  CEHenry VIII of England and Emperor Charles V formed an alliance against France.
  1543  CEKing Francis I of France invaded Luxembourg.
  1543  CE(1543-1773) The Palacio de los Capitanes in Antigua, Guatemala, was the center for Spanish rule over Chiapas, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua during this period.
  1543  CEA combined French and Turkish fleet captured Nice.
14 Sep 1544  CEHenry VIII's forces took Boulogne, France.
19 Sep 1544  CEFrancis, the king of France, and Charles V of Austria signed a peace treaty in Crespy, France, ending a 20-year war. The Peace of Crespy ended the fighting between Charles V and Francis I. Henry VIII was not consulted. France surrendered much territory and Charles gave up his claim to Burgundy.
  1544  CEGerman emperor Charles V recognizes King Christian III of Denmark.
  1544  CEScottish Earl Matthew van Lennox signs a secret treaty with Henry VIII.
  1544  CETurkish troops occupy Hungary.
  1544  CEHenry VIII crossed the Channel to Calais to campaign with Charles V against Francis I.
  1544  CEGustavus I of Sweden signed an alliance with France.
19 Jul 1545  CEA French fleet entered The Solent in England, and French troops landed on the Isle of Wight. The Mary Rose, pride of England's fleet, capsized with heavy loss in Portsmouth harbor. King Henry VIII of England watched his flagship, Mary Rose, capsize as it left to battle the French.
  1545  CELord Lisle, English fleet commander, set ablaze Treport in Normandy.
  1545  CEThe Spanish discovered the silver mines of Potosi, Bolivia. From the town of Cerro Rico, which means Hill of Riches, they took out the equivalent of $2 billion from one mountainside.
7 Jun 1546  CEThe Peace of Ardes (Ardres) ended the war between France and England.
  1546  CESpanish conquistadores brutally crushed a major Mayan rebellion in New Spain.
  1546  CEThe Turks occupied Moldavia.
24 Apr 1547  CECharles V's troops defeated the Protestant League of Schmalkalden at the battle of Muhlburg.
  1548  CESpaniards in Mexico exploited the silver mines.
  1548  CEGonzalo Pizarro, son of the conqueror of Peru, was defeated by and executed by Pedro de la Gasca in the Battle of Xaquixaguane.  
9 Aug 1549  CEFrance declared war on England. England declared war on France.
  1549  CESao Salvador, later Bahia in Brazil, was founded by Thome de Souza, Portugal's first governor of Brazil. Portuguese conquerors founded Salvador.
  1550  CEFrance and England sign Peace of Boulogne.
  1550  CE(Between 1550-1600) Grace O'Malley led a 200-strong band on Clare Island, Ireland, financed by piracy.
  1551  CEHenry II led French forces against Charles V in Italy.
  1551  CETurkish forces captured Tripoli but failed to take Malta.
  1552  CEThe English again attacked the Irish town and monastery at Clonmacnoise and carried everything away.
  1552  CEThe (secret) Treaty of Friedewalde confirmed the alliance between Henry II of France and the Protestant princes of Germany against Charles V.
  1552  CEThe Turks invaded Hungary again with a victory at the Battle Szegedin. Istvan Dobo led the defense of Eger against the Turks. The siege of Eger lasted 38 days.
9 Jul 1553  CEMaurice of Saxony was mortally wounded at Sievershausen, Germany, while defeating Albert of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.
2 Aug 1553  CEAn invading French army was destroyed at the Battle of Marciano in Italy by an imperial army.
  1553  CEThe League of Heidelberg was formed by German Catholic and Protestant princes to stop Philip of Spain from becoming Holy Roman Emperor.
  1553  CETurkish warships ravaged the Mediterranean.
  1553  CESuleiman I of Turkey made peace with Persia.
  1554  CEHenry II of France invaded the Netherlands.
  1554  CEDragut, leader of the Mediterranean pirates, recaptured Mehedia, Tunisia, from the Spaniards.
  1555  CESiena was incorporated with Florence. When the Florentine army defeated the Siennese a moratorium was put on further development in the walled city.
  1555  CEJapanese pirates besieged Nanking.
  1555  CEThe Ottoman Empire continued its conquest of the North African coast.
5 Feb 1556  CEHenry II of France and Philip II of Spain signed the truce of Vaucelles.
5 Nov 1556  CEThe Emperor Akbar defeated the Hindus at Panipat and secured control of the Mogul Empire. Akbar the Great became Mogul Emperor of India and defeated the Afghans at the Battle of Panipat in the Punjab.
10 Aug 1557  CESpanish and English troops in alliance defeated the French at the Battle of St. Quentin. French troops were defeated by Emmanuel Philibert's Spanish army at St. Quentin, France.
  1557  CEThe Portuguese settled in Macao, on the coast of southern China, and established trading factories. Trade agreement gave the Portuguese a virtual monopoly for 300 years on maritime commerce China and Europe.
  1557  CEThe Russians invaded Poland and started the 14-year Livonian War of succession in the Baltic lands held by the Teutonic Knights.
7 Jan 1558  CEThe French, under Francois, Duke of Guise, took the British held port of Calais from the English.
22 Jun 1558  CEThe French took the French town of Thioville from the English.
13 Jul 1558  CELed by the court of Egmont, the Spanish army defeated the French at Gravelines, France.
3 Apr 1559  CEPhilip II of Spain and Henry II of France signed the peace of Cateau-Cambresis, ending a long series of wars between the Hapsburg and Valois dynasties.
  1559  CEJohn Knox preached an inflammatory sermon at Perth and incited the Protestants lords to rise against queen-mother Mary. They captured Edinburgh and sacked religious houses in other cities.
  1559  CEThe Treaty of Cateay-Cambresis ended the war between the late Holy Roman Emperor and France, and between England and France. Calais was to remain French for eight years and then to be restored to England.
  1559  CE1,500 Spanish settlers sailed from Vera Cruz to found a settlement on Pensacola Bay in Florida, but were repulsed by hostile Indians.
  1560  CESpanish Christian fleet under Gian Andrea lands and occupies Djerba, Tripoli in North Africa.
  1560  CEFailed assault on royal palace in Amboise France.
  1560  CETurkish galleys routed a Spanish fleet off of Tripoli.
20 Sep 1561  CEQueen Elizabeth of England signed a treaty at Hamptan Court with French Huguenot leader Louis de Bourbon, the Prince of Conde. The English would occupy Le Harve in return for aiding Bourbon against the Catholics of France.
23 Sep 1561  CEPhilip II of Spain gave orders to halt colonizing efforts in Florida. The French took advantage of the opportunity.
  1561  CESanta Cruz, Bolivia, was founded by the Spaniard Nuflo de Chavez as a bulwark against Portuguese expansion.
17 Jan 1562  CEProtestants were recognized in France under the Edict of St. Germain.
1 Mar 1562  CEThe Catholic Guises massacred more than 60 Huguenots at a Protestant service in a church at Vassy and sparked off The Wars of Religion in France between between Catholics and Protestants [until 1578].Some 1,200 Huguenots were killed at Vassy.
19 Dec 1562  CEThe French Wars of Religion between the Huguenots and the Catholics began with the Battle of Dreux.
  1562  CEGeneral Francois de Guise enters Paris in France.
  1562  CEThe Huguenot leader Louis I de Bourbon signed the Treaty of Hampton Court with Queen Elizabeth that called for the English troops to occupy Dieppe and La Havre.
  1562  CEJohn Hawkins, English naval commander, removed 300 African slaves from a Portuguese ship bound for Brazil. This marked the start of the English participation in the slave trade.
 Mar 1563  CELeague of High Nobles' second protest against King Philip II.
  1563  CERussian troops occupy Polotsk Lithuania.
  1563  CEFrederick II of Denmark allied to Poland, Lubeck, and Saxony against Sweden to start the Seven Years' War.
13 Sep 1564  CEOn the verge of attacking Pedro Menendez's Spanish settlement at San Agostin, Florida, Jean Ribault's French fleet was scattered by a devastating storm.
  1564  CEBattle on Gotland when Lübeck and Denmark beat Sweden.
  1564  CEThe Peace of Troyes ended the war between England and France with England renouncing its claim to Calais for a substantial payment.
  1564  CESpaniards occupied the Philippines and built Manila.
27 Apr 1565  CEFirst Spanish settlement in Philippines was established in Cebu City.
8 Sep 1565  CEA Spanish expedition established the first permanent European colony in the present day St. Augustine, Florida, the first permanent European settlement in what is now the United States.
20 Sep 1565  CEPedro Menendez of Spain wiped out the French at Fort Caroline, in Florida. Spanish colonists in the northeast coast of Florida under Pedro Menendez de Aviles massacred a band of French Huguenots that posed a potential threat to Spanish hegemony in the area. They also took advantage of the local Timucuan Indian tribe.
  1565  CEThe Battle at Talikota when India Moslems destroy Vijayanagar's army.
  1565  CERio de Janeiro was founded by the Portuguese under Estacio de Ss, who destroyed the existing French colony.
  1566  CEThe Turko-Hungarian War restarted despite the truce of 1562.
  1567  CEBattle at Oosterweel when Spanish troops destroy Geuzenleger. 
  1567  CEGeuzen army leaves Walcheren to return to Oosterweel. 
3 May 1568  CEFrench forces in Florida slaughter hundreds of Spanish.
5 Jun 1568  CEFerdinand, the Duke of Alba, crushed the Calvinist insurrection in Ghent, Belgium.
  1568  CEBattle at Heiligerlee when Dutch rebels beat the Spanish, 100s killed.
  1568  CEIn the Netherlands, Duke of Alva declares William of Orange an outlaw.
  1568  CEGeneral Oda Nobunaga, Japanese leader who seized Kyoto and destroyed the power of the feudal lords, introduced a dynamic period of centralization and expansion.
  1568  CEEmperor Maximilian bought peace from Selim II and the Sultan received a large annual payment.  
  1569  CEBattle of Jarnac when the Count of Anjou defeats the Huguenots.
  1569  CESt Philip of Moscow martyred by Ivan the Terrible.
  1569  CEDon John of Austria put down the Morisco rebellion in Granada.
  1569  CEBurmese King Bayinnaung invaded Thailand and took as hostage Princess Suphankalaya. It was later believed that the princess gave up her freedom in exchange for her kingdom's independence from Burma.
  1569  CELithuania and Poland formed the Union of Lublin for protection against the growing power of Muscovite Russia. The new federation established an elective monarchy and Lithuania lost its separate institutions and was gradually submerged into Poland as a province.
  1570  CEAnti-Portugese uprising on Ternate, Moluccas.
  1570  CEKing Philip II bans foreign Dutch students.
  1570  CEDenmark recognized the independence of Sweden in the Peace of Stettin.
  1570  CE(1570-1670) Portuguese forces attacked Monomutapa in order to gain control over the markets and gold mines there.
  1570  CEIvan the Terrible, Tsar of Muscovy, sacked the city of Great Novgorod, massacring most of its inhabitants during a five-week reign of terror.
  1570  CEThe Turks declared war on Venice, which refused to surrender Cyprus.
  1570  CEThe Turks sacked Nicosia.
7 Sep 1571  CESpanish and Venetian ships of the Christian League in the naval Battle of Lepanto in the Mediterranean Sea under Don John of Austria gained complete victory over a Turkish fleet with 117 Turkish ships sunk.
7 Oct 1571  CEIn the last great clash of galleys, the Ottoman navy was defeated at Lepanto, Greece, by a Christian naval coalition under the overall command of Spain's Don Juan de Austria.
  1571  CESpanish troops under Miguel Lopez de Lagazpi occupy Manilla in the Phillipines.
  1571  CEVenice, Spain and Pope Pius form the anti-Turkish Saint League.
  1571  CECharles IX of France had a reconciliation with the Huguenots.
  1571  CEPope Pius V signed an alliance with Venice and Spain to fight the Turks.
  1571  CEMoscow was sacked by Tartars from Crimea.
1 Apr 1572  CEThe Sea Beggars under Guillaume de la Marck landed in Holland and captured the small town of Briel.  
  1572  CEA refurbished Turkish fleet captured Cyprus.
  1572  CEDutch warships, Beggars of the Sea, effectively harried Spanish shipping in the English Channel and fueled the Dutch War of Independence.
  1572  CEThe Dutch used carrier pigeons during the Spanish siege of Haarlem.
  1573  CEDon John captured Tunis from the Turks for Spain.
  1573  CESir Francis Drake captured a huge shipment of Spanish silver as it was being transported across the Isthmus of Panama.
  1573  CEVenice and Turkey signed the Peace of Constantinople whereby Venice surrendered Cyprus and paid Turkey a large indemnity.
  1574  CELouis of Nassau ends siege of Maastricht. 
  1574  CESea battle at Lillo Belgium when Adolf Van Haemstede fought Louis de Boisot.
  1574  CESea battle of Reimerswaal when Admiral Boisot beats the Spanish fleet.
  1574  CESpanish troops plunder Krommenie, Wormerveer and Jisp Netherlands.
  1574  CEThe Portuguese began to settle in Angola.
  1574  CESpanish forces in the Netherlands besieged Leyden, but William the Silent breached the dykes to flood the land. This allowed his ships to sail up to the walls and lift the siege.
  1574  CETurkish troops captured Tunis from the Spaniards.
  1575  CEWilliam of Orange, facing defeat, offered the sovereignty of the Netherlands to Queen Elizabeth, who declined the offer.
  1575  CEIn India the Mughal Emp. Akbar conquered Bengal.
  1575  CEIn Japan a battle was fought that arrayed 3,000 guns against men on horseback using stirrups. The gun force won and changed the course of Japanese fighting.
8 Nov 1576  CEAll 17 provinces of the Netherlands united in the Pacification of Ghent in the face of Spanish occupation. The 17 provinces of the Netherlands formed a federation to maintain peace.
  1576  CEHenry of Navarre (the future Henry IV) escapes from Paris.
  1576  CESpanish army under Mondragon conquerors the Zierik sea.
  1576  CESpanish defeat Walloons and take Antwerp in Belgium.
  1576  CEMutinous Spanish forces sacked Antwerp in 'the Spanish Fury'.
23 Sep 1577  CEWilliam of Orange made his triumphant entry into Brussels, Belgium.
  1577  CESpanish land guardian Don Juan of Hapsburg signs 'Eternal Edict'.
  1577  CEDon John of Austria, Governor of the Netherlands, issued his Perpetual Edict by which all Spanish troops were to be withdrawn from the Netherlands and ancient liberties restored.
  1578  CEBattle of Alcazarquivir when the Moroccans defeat the Portugeese.
  1578  CEBattle of Gembloers. 
  1578  CEEnglish Queen Elizabeth I gives Johan Casimir £20,000 to aid the Dutch rebellion.
  1578  CESir Francis Drake renamed his flagship, the Pelican, to the Golden Hind. He ravaged the coasts of Chile and Peru on his way around the world.
  1579  CERoshan of Afghanistan was killed in a battle with the Moghuls, but his struggle for independence continued.
  1579  CEThe Peace of Arras ensured that the southern provinces of The Netherlands were reconciled to Philip II.
  1580  CEThe Battle of Alcantara when Spain defeats Portugal.
  1580  CESpanish king Philip II puts 25,000 gold coins on the head of Prince Willem of Orange.
  1580  CEThe Azores were occupied by Spain [until 1640] when bullfighting was introduced.
  1580  CETupac Amuru, an Inca leader, held out against the Spanish conquest after most of the empire had been subdued.
  1581  CEAkbar, Mughal Emperor of India, conquered Afghanistan.
  1581  CEStephen Bathory, King of Poland, invaded Russia.
  1581  CERussia began the conquest of Siberia.
  1581  CEThe seven northern provinces of the Netherlands (Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland, Overijssel, Friesland, and Groningen) renounced their allegiance to Philip II of Spain.
  1581  CEAfter being a semi-autonomous Swedish duchy for over a hundred years, Finland becomes a Grand Duchy of Sweden.
10 Aug 1582  CERussia ended its 25-year war with Poland. Russia and Poland concluded the Peace of Jam-Zapolski under which Russia lost access to the Baltic and surrendered Livonia and Estonia to Poland.
8 Sep 1582  CEA small Belarussian-Lithuanian force overcame a larger Muscovite force.
  1582  CERussia cedes Livonia & Estonia to Poland, loses access to the Baltic
  1582  CEWilliam of Orange escaped an assassination attempt.  
  1583  CEDutch States General and Anjou sign a treaty.
  1583  CEThe Duke of Anjou sacked Antwerp in the 'French Fury', but failed to capture it and retired from the Netherlands to France.
  1584  CEA Dutch trading post was established at the Russian port of Archangel.
  1585  CESpain and Catholic France sign Saint League of Joinville.
  1585  CEThe War of the Three Henries (Henry III, Henry of Guise, and Henry of Navarre) began when Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot, became heir to the French throne.
  1585  CEElizabeth extended her protection to The Netherlands against Spain to avenge the murder of William of Orange.
  1585  CEFrancis Drake attacked the Spanish ports of Vigo and Santo Domingo. English shipping in Spanish ports was then confiscated as a virtual declaration of war by Spain.
  1585  CESir Francis Drake sailed through the Virgin Islands to plunder Spanish ships.
  1585  CEThe ruler of Morocco captured the Songhai's salt mines in Taghaza and puts his eye on the Songhai source of gold.
  1585  CEAntwerp was sacked by the Duke of Parma, resulting in long-lasting loss of trade for that port.
1 Jan 1586  CEFrancis Drake, who left England on a new voyage to America last September, made a surprise attack on the heavily fortified city of Santo Domingo in Hispaniola, forcing the governor to pay a large ransom.
19 Jun 1586  CEEnglish colonists sailed from Roanoke Island, after failing to establish England's first permanent settlement in America.
  1586  CEBattle at Boxum Spanish troops under Tassis beat state army.
  1586  CEIn America relations with the local Indians soured after the English soldiers attacked a village, and soon the English returned home.
  1586  CESpanish Captain Francisco Gali died in Manila and Pedro de Unamuno took command of his 2 ships to return to Acapulco.
  1586  CEThe Turks attacked the Hungarian fortress at Eger again. The mercenary occupants capitulated.
  1586  CEKing Philip II of Spain decides to invade England.
22 Jul 1587  CEA second English colony of about 120 people under Sir Walter Raleigh, also fated to vanish under mysterious circumstances, was established on Roanoke Island off North Carolina. A three-year drought also peaked during this time.
  1587  CEDeventer and Zutphen surrender to Spain.
  1587  CEThe first English child born in the New World. She was named Virginia Dare.
  1587  CESir Edward Stafford, English ambassador in Paris, contacted the Spanish ambassador and offered to provide news of Queen Elizabeth's plans and to offer the English disinformation concerning Spanish plans. Stafford's brother-in-law was Lord Howard Effingham, commander in chief of the English fleet.
  1587  CEVirginia was initially called Windgancon, meaning 'what gay clothes you wear'. The names Cape Fear, Cape Hatteras, the Chowan and Neuse rivers, Chesapeake and Virginia, were all names that date to the first colony there.
  1587  CE(1587-1590) The Lost Colony of Roanoke Island disappeared during this period. It consisted of 116 colonists and included Virginia Dare, the first English child born in the New World.
12 May 1588  CEKing Henry II fled Paris after Henry of Guise entered the city. The people of Paris rose against Henry III, who fled to Chartres. Seven months later he had Henry of Guise and his brother, Cardinal de Guise, assassinated.
19 May 1588  CEThe Spanish Armada under Medina-Sidonia set sail for England from Lisbon and was defeated by the English fleet the following August.
23 Jul 1588  CEEnglish army assembled at Tilbury to repel invasion of England by Spanish Armada.
29 Jul 1588  CEThe English soundly defeated the Spanish Armada in the Battle of Gravelines. The Spanish Armada was sighted off the coast of England.
8 Aug 1588  CEThe Spanish Armada was destroyed. It was shattered around the coasts of the English Isles by an English fleet under the command of Lord Howard of Effingham with the help of Sir Francis Drake, Sir John Hawkins, and a violent storm.
15 Sep 1588  CEThe Spanish Armada, which attempted to invade England, was destroyed by a British fleet.
  1588  CECatholic League under duke Henri de Guise occupies Paris France.
  1588  CEKing Henri III flees Paris.
  1588  CEAn eye-witness account of the New World was provided by 'A Briefe and True Account of the New Found Land of Virginia', written by Thomas Harriot. It encouraged further settlement and investment.
19 Mar 1589  CEWilliam Bradford, governor of Plymouth colony for 30 years, was born.
21 Sep 1589  CEThe Duke of Mayenne of France was defeated by Henry IV of England at the Battle of Arques.
  1589  CEFrancis Drake with 150 ships and 18,000 men failed in his attempt to capture Lisbon.
  1589  CEBoris Godunov asserted Moscow's Independence from Constantinople.
25 Apr 1590  CEThe Sultan of Morocco launched his successful attack to capture Timbuktu.
  1590  CEBattle at Ivry when French King Henri IV beats the Catholic League.
  1590  CEEarl Mauritius of Nassaus sails to Breda.
  1590  CEEarl Mauritius conquerors Breda 'turfschip of Breda'.
  1591  CEBattle at Tondibi when the Moroccan army under Judar beat the Sultan Askia Ishaq II of Songhai.
  1591  CEGerman monarchy forms Protestant Union of Torgau.
  1591  CESpanish troops in Zutphen surrenders to Willem Louis of Mauritius.
3 Aug 1592  CEThe Earl of Cumberland, et al, took the Madre de Dios, A Spanish carrack carrying the largest treasure ever captured for Queen Elizabeth. The earl's sailors got out of hand and looted items intended for the queen, including a large diamond which eventually found its way to Goldsmith's Row, London.
  1592  CEToyotomi Hideyoshi of Japan sent an army to invade Korea. This set off a war that lasted 6 years.
  1592  CEKorean Yi Sun Sin employed his ironclad 'turtle ships' in an invasion of Japan. More than 500 vessels were sunk in 6 months.
  1594  CEEarl Mauritius and Willem Louis begins siege of Groningen. 
28 May 1595  CEIt was a shaken and demoralized English column that returned to its northern Irish base at Newry.
5 Jun 1595  CEHenry IV's army defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Fontaine-Francaise.
23 Jul 1595  CESpanish soldiers landed at Cornwall, England, and burned Mousehold and Penzance before returning to their ships.
  1595  CEFrench King Henry IV declares war on Spain.
  1595  CEKing Philip II names Albrecht of Austria land guardian of Netherlands.
  1595  CEQueen Elizabeth sent Sir Francis Drake to capture treasure from a wrecked Spanish galleon stored at La Forteleza. Drake failed and returned to Panama.
  1595  CESpanish explorers Alvaro de Mendana and Pedro Fernandez de Quiros visited the Cook Islands but overlooked Rarotonga, the largest one.
28 Jan 1596  CEEnglish navigator Sir Francis Drake died off the coast of Panama of a fever; he was buried at sea.
1 Jul 1596  CEAn English fleet under the Earl of Essex, Lord Howard of Effingham and Francis Vere captured and sacked Cadiz, Spain.
  1596  CEBritain, France and the Netherlands signs Drievoudig Covenant against Spain.
  1596  CEThe first documented official contact between the Cambogee and the West took place. The king of Angkor, Barom Reachea, in fear of attack sent to the Spanish governor general at Manila a request for the assistance of his musket-armed soldiers. The Spanish governor complied and sent a small expedition to the king of Angkor.
  1596  CEMonterey, Mexico was founded by conquistador Don Luis de Carvajal. He fell in love the wrong man's daughter and was later denounced to the Mexican Inquisition because of his Jewish heritage.
  1596  CEIn Mexico the nephew of Luis Carvajal, a Jewish convert to Catholicism and governor of the province of Nuevo Leon, was accused of relapsing into Judaism. He was tried by Spanish Inquisitors and under torture gave out 116 names that included his mother and 23 sisters. They were eventually strangled with iron collars and burned to death.
  1597  CEBritain routes troops to Amiens.
  1597  CELand guardian Albrecht occupies Amiens on France.
2 May 1598  CEHenry IV signed the Treaty of Vervins, ending Spain's interference in France.
15 Aug 1598  CEHugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, led an Irish force to victory over the British at Battle of Yellow Ford.
25 Sep 1598  CEIn Sweden, King Sigismund was defeated at Stangebro by his Uncle Charles.
  1598  CESir George Clifford, the third Earl of Cumberland, led an attack on Puerto Rico. He landed east of San Juan at Boqueron Inlet and attacked. The English prevailed and plundered San Juan but their food spoiled and 400 died of dysentery. The survivors burned San Juan and sailed away.
  1598  CEThe Spanish governor of Manila sent a 2nd small expedition to the king of Angkor in what is now Cambodia.
  1599  CESpain sent 400 soldiers, 46 cannon and a new governor, Alonso de Mercado, to rebuild San Juan, Puerto Rico.
21 Oct 1600  CEBattle of Sekigahara sets Tokugawa clan as Japan's rulers (the Shoguns) when Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats his enemies.
  1600  CEIn Colombia legend held that U'wa Indians led by Chief Guaiticu committed mass suicide to protest Spanish colonialism. There is no historical record of this.
  1600  CEThe Kongo kingdom broke apart as a result of the Portuguese induced revolts and slave trade.
  1600  CEPirates Anne Bonny and Mary Read plundered the Caribbean region.  
17 Jan 1601  CEThe Treaty of Lyons ended a short war between France and Savoy.
24 Feb 1601  CERobert Devereux, the second Earl of Essex and former favorite of Elizabeth I, was beheaded in the Tower of London for high treason. His plan to capture London and the Tower had failed.
  1601  CERobert Devereux, second Earl of Essex, leads his armies into London in a revolt against Queen Elizabeth I.
  1601  CEFrance gains Bresse, Bugey, Valromey and Gex in a treaty with Spain.
29 Jul 1602  CEThe Duke of Biron was executed in Paris for conspiring with Spain and Savoy against King Henry IV of France.
  1602  CESpanish forces in Ireland surrender to the English at Kinsdale.
29 Jul 1603  CEBartholomew Gilbert was killed in the colony of Virginia by Indians, during a search for the missing Roanoke colonists.
  1603  CEBattle at Mellifont when the English army under Lord Mountjoy beat the Irish.
20 Sep 1604  CEAfter a two-year siege, the Spanish retook Ostend (NW Belgium), the Netherlands, from the Dutch.
  1604  CESpanish garrison of Aardenburg surrenders to Mauritius.
  1604  CETsar Ivan IV defeats the False Dmitri, who claims to be the true tsar.
  1604  CEJuan de Onate, Spanish colonizer of New Mexico, explored along the Colorado.
5 Nov 1605  CEGunpowder Plot fails when Catholics try to blow up English Parliament. The plot was uncovered when the leader Guy Fawkes was betrayed and caught. He was later convicted as a traitor and hung, drawn and quartered.
  1605  CEThe Dutch began seizing control of Portuguese-held trade with the Spice Islands (historically called the Moluccas) gaining full control by 1621.
  1605  CEPortuguese garrison on Ambon surrenders to Admiral Van der Haghen.
31 Jan 1606  CEGuy Fawkes, convicted for his part in the 'Gunpowder Plot' against the English Parliament and King James I, was hanged, drawn and quartered.
20 Dec 1606  CEVirginia Company settlers leave London to establish Jamestown.
26 Apr 1607  CEShips under the command of Captain Christopher Newport sought shelter in Chesapeake Bay. The forced landing led to the founding of Jamestown on the James River, the first English settlement.
13 May 1607  CEThe English colonists landed near the James River and founded the colony at Jamestown, Virginia (some sources claim May 14). In 1996 archeologist discovered the original Jamestown Fort and the remains of one settler, a young white male who died a violent death.
24 May 1607  CEEnglishman John Smith founds the colony of Virginia at Jamestown at the mouth of the James river. It becomes the first permanent settlement in North America.
15 Jun 1607  CEColonists in North America completed James Fort in Jamestown.
14 Aug 1607  CEThe Popham expedition reached the Sagadahoc River in the northeastern North America and settled there.
28 Sep 1607  CESamuel de Champlain and his colonists returned to France from Port Royal Nova Scotia.
29 Dec 1607  CEThe Native American Chief Powhatan, who spared John Smith's life after the pleas of his daughter Pocahontas, was born.
3 Jul 1608  CEFrench explorer Samuel de Champlain founds the French colony of Quebec as a trading post.
10 Sep 1608  CECapatin John Smith was elected president of the Jamestown colony council in Virginia.
  1608  CEFire destroys the Jamestown settlement in Virginia.
  1608  CEMatthias von Hapsburg's army reaches Lieben, at Prague.
  1608  CEBowling in Jamestown was banned after workers were found bowling instead of building the fort.
  1608  CESettlers in Jamestown, Virginia, shipped distilled tar back to its sponsors in England, the first manufactured item exported from the US.
12 Mar 1609  CEThe Bermuda Islands become a British colony.
  1609  CEHenry Hudson gave brandy to the local Indians and their chief passed out. The place was renamed 'Manahachtanienk', meaning 'where everybody got drunk'. Authorities say that 'Manhattan' came form an Indian word meaning 'high island'.
4 Jul 1610  CEBattle at Klushino where King Sigismund II (III) of Poland beat Russia & Sweden.
  1610  CEPolish King Sigismund III, forces the Dimitri & Romanov families to sign a covenant against czar Vasili Shushki.
  1610  CEThe first Dutch settlers arrive from New Jersey, to colonize Manhattan Island.
  1610  CEIn Ireland the settlement at Derry was colonized by the English, who built a fortress surrounded by stone walls and renamed it Londonderry.
  1610  CEThe Dutch ousted the Portuguese from Indonesia by this time, but the Portuguese retained the eastern half of Timor.
22 Jun 1611  CEEnglish explorer Henry Hudson, his son and several other people were set adrift in present-day Hudson Bay by mutineers. He was never seen again.
  1611  CEMatthias, brother of Rudolf II, occupied Prague and captured Rudolf II.
27 Oct 1612  CEA Polish army which invaded Russia capitulated to Prince Dimitri Pojarski and his Cossacks.
  1612  CEIn Russia the end of the 'Time of Troubles', a period of popular uprisings and fighting between noblemen and pretenders to the thrown.
  1613  CEPeace of Knärod ends War of Kalmar between Denmark and Sweden.
  1613  CEThe American Indian Tisquantum, aka Squanto, returned to the New World from England as the interpreter for John Smith. He was freed by Smith but then kidnapped with 19 fellow Indians by an Englishman and carried off to Milaga, Spain. He managed to escape to England.
  1613  CEKhushhal Khan Khattak (1613-1689), an Afghan warrior-poet, was born. He initiated a national uprising against the foreign Moghul government.
15 May 1614  CEAn aristocratic uprising in France ended with the treaty of St. Menehould.
  1614  CEThe Don Cossacks made a pact with the Russian Czar and gained self-government in exchange for military service.
4 Jun 1615  CEThe Tokugawa Shogun captured Osaka Castle and eliminated Hide-yoshi's heirs. The fortress of Osaka, Japan, fell to shogun Leyasu after a six month siege.
  1615  CEIn India prince Shah Jahan, son of Jehangir, returned home after a successful military campaign.
25 Dec 1616  CENathaniel Courthope, a British merchant-adventurer under direct orders from James I, landed his ship Swan at the Banda Island of Run. He persuaded the islanders to enter an alliance with the British for nutmeg. He fortified the 1 by 2 mile island and with 30 men proceeded to hold off a Dutch siege for 1,540 days.
  1616  CETreaty of Loudun kills French civil war.
9 Mar 1617  CEThe Treaty of Stolbovo ended the occupation of Northern Russia by Swedish troops.
  1617  CEFort San Diego was built to protect Acapulco, a major port for Spanish galleons, against buccaneers.
  1618  CEThirty Years' War begins in Germany (1618-1648) which spread throughout central europe.
  1618  CE2nd Defenestration of Prague at the beginning of the 30 Years War.
  1618  CEImperial civil servants thrown out a window of Prague Castle.
  1618  CEThe Dutch began their rule of Indonesia, until 1945. They were drawn to Jakarta, a fishing village which they called Batavia, for the spice trade.
20 Aug 1619  CEThe first black Americans land at Jamestown, Virginia. This group of twenty Africans were brought as indentured servants.
  1619  CEDutch settlement on Java changes name to Batavia.
31 Jan 1620  CEVirginia colony leaders wrote to the Virginia Company in England, asking for more orphaned apprentices for employment.
10 Feb 1620  CESupporters of Marie de Medici, the queen mother, who had been exiled to Blois, were defeated by the king's troops at Ponts de Ce, France.
16 Sep 1620  CEPilgrim Fathers sail from Southampton in England in the Mayflower. The Pilgrims were actually Separatists because they had left the Church of England. The 4 children of William Brewster, who arrived on the Mayflower, were named Love, Wrestling, Patience, and Fear.
8 Nov 1620  CEThe King of Bohemia was defeated at the Battle of Prague. With Hapsburg support in Bohemia the Catholics defeated the Protestants at the Battle of the White Mountain.
11 Nov 1620  CE41 pilgrims aboard the Mayflower, anchored off Massachusetts at Cape Cod, sign the Mayflower Compact for 'just & equal laws'.
20 Nov 1620  CEPeregrine White was born aboard the Mayflower in Massachusetts Bay, the first child born of English parents in present-day New England.
11 Dec 1620  CE103 Mayflower pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock in Massachusetts. They called themselves Saints and others Strangers. One passenger died enroute and 2 were born during the passage. Their military commander was Miles Standish.
  1620  CEPrince Bethlen Gabor signs peace with emperor Ferdinand II. 
  1620  CEThe chronicle of the Pilgrims voyage to and settlement in America was begun by Nathanial Morton, keeper of the records of Plymouth Colony, based on the account of William Bradford, sometime governor thereof.
3 Jan 1621  CEWilliam Tucker was born. He is believed to be first American born African-American.
16 Mar 1621  CENative American chief visits colony of Plymouth. Samoset, an English speaking Indian, and his friend Tisquantum of the Wampanoag tribe, became friends with the Pilgrims.
1 Apr 1621  CEThe Plymouth, Massachusetts colonists created the first treaty with Native Americans.
5 Apr 1621  CEMayflower sails from Plymouth on a return trip to England. By this time 44 of the landing party had died and 54 people, mostly children, were left to build the colony.
3 Jun 1621  CEDutch West India Company receives charter for 'New Netherlands', later to become 'New York'.
 Oct 1621  CEThe first American Thanksgiving feast was held by Plymouth Colony Pilgrims in appreciation of assistance from members of the Massasoit tribe and celebration of the first harvest.
  1621  CEJan Pieterszoon Coen's fleet sets sail to the Moluccas from Jacarta.
  1621  CEJohn Pieterszoon Coen's troops land on Lontor, East Indies.
  1621  CEMassasoit & Pilgrims agree on league of friendship at Plymouth.
  1621  CEMiles Standish appointed first commander of Plymouth colony.
22 Mar 1622  CEThe Native Americans Powhattan Confederacy killed 350 colonists, a third of the Virginia population of European settlers, in apparent retaliation for the encroachment of these immigrants on Indian cornfields.
24 Jun 1622  CEThe Dutch defeated Macao.
  1622  CEGermany & Transylvania sign Peace of Nikolsburg.
  1622  CEQueen Nzinga of Matamba visited Portuguese officials to plead for peace.
  1623  CEFire at Plymouth, Massachusetts destroys several buildings.
  1623  CEIn Massachusetts Governor William Bradford instituted private property so that the pilgrims could cultivate food at a profit. He assigned every family a parcel of land.
5 Mar 1624  CEClass-based legislation was passed in the colony of Virginia, exempting the upper class from punishment by whipping.
24 May 1624  CEAfter years of unprofitable operation, Virginia's charter was revoked and it became a royal colony.
  1624  CEAdmiral Hermites conquering fleet reaches Callao the Lima, Peru.
  1624  CEHung King Bethlen Gabor and Emperor Ferdinand II sign the Treaty of Vienna. 
  1624  CESpanish silver fleet sails to Panama.
  1624  CEThe Dutch conquered Salvador, Brazil.
  1624  CECaptain John Smith published his 'General Historie of Virginia'. His adventures are pictured in the book's engravings.
2 Jul 1625  CEThe Spanish army took Breda, Spain, after nearly a year of siege.
 Sep 1625  CEDutch General Bowdoin Hendrik and his fleet of 17 ships sailed into San Juan and attacked El Morro. He held the garrison under siege for 3 weeks and then set the town to flames. This infuriated the Spanish who attacked and sent the Dutch fleeing.
  1625  CEDutch found New Amsterdam (later New York).
  1625  CE16 rebellious farmers were hanged in Vocklamarkt Upper-Austria.
  1625  CEBoers besiege Frankenburg estate in Upper-Austria.
  1625  CEDutch attack San Juan, Puerto Rico.
  1625  CEPortuguese and Spanish expedition recaptures Salvador (Bahia).
  1625  CESt. Croix island in the West Indies was settled by the Dutch and English.
16 Feb 1626  CEHuguenot rebels and the French sign Peace of La Rochelle.
4 May 1626  CEDutch explorer Peter Minuit landed on what is now Manhattan island. Indians sold Manhattan Island for 60 guilders ($24) in cloth and buttons. The site of the deal was later marked by Peter Minuit Plaza at South Street and Whitehall Street.
7 Nov 1626  CEPeter Schager of Amsterdam informed the States General that the ship 'The Arms of Amsterdam' had arrived with a cargo of furs and timber from New Netherlands and that the settlers there had bought the Island of Manhattes for 60 guilders.
15 Nov 1626  CEThe Pilgrim Fathers, who settled in New Plymouth, bought out their London investors.
  1626  CEPeter Minuit becomes director-general of New Netherlands.
23 Jul 1627  CESir George Calvert arrived in Newfoundland to develop his land grant.
  1627  CEPiet Heyn conquerors 22 ships in Bay of Salvador, Brazil.
8 Sep 1628  CEJohn Endecott arrived with colonists at Salem, Massachusetts, where he would become the governor.
28 Oct 1628  CEAfter a fifteen-month siege, the Huguenot town of La Rochelle surrendered to royal forces.
  1628  CEMassachusetts colony founded by Englishmen.
14 Mar 1629  CEA Royal charter was granted to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The official seal to the document was reported found in 1997.
  1629  CEEmperor Ferdinand II and Danish King Christian IV sign Peace of Lubeck.
  1629  CEFrench Huguenot leader duke De Rohan signs accord with Spain.
13 Aug 1630  CEEmperor Frederick II of Bohemia fired Albrecht von Wallenmanders, his best military commander.  
  1630  CEFrench troops occupy Pinerolo Piedmont.
  1630  CEPatent to US Plymouth Colony issued.
  1630  CEStaten Island was acquired by Dutch settlers.
5 Feb 1631  CEA ship from Bristol, the Lyon, arrived with provisions for the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
5 Feb 1631  CEThe founder of Rhode Island, Roger Williams, and his wife arrived in Boston from England.
23 Jul 1631  CESweden's King Gustavus II repulsed an imperialist force at Werben, Russia.
  1631  CEBritish colony of Massachusetts Bay grants puritarians voting rights.
  1631  CEFrance and Sweden sign the anti-German Treaty of Barwald.
  1631  CEMaximilian van Bavarian signs Accord of Fontainebleau.
  1631  CEGerman army under earl Johann Tilly conquerors Maagdenburg.
  1631  CEJohn Winthrop is elected the first governor of Massachusetts.
  1632  CEAlbrecht von Wallenstein recaptures Prague on Saksen.
  1632  CEBritain grants 2nd Lord Baltimore the rights to the Chesapeake Bay area.
1 Feb 1633  CEThe tobacco laws of Virginia were codified, limiting tobacco production to reduce dependence on a single-crop economy.
25 Mar 1634  CECatholic colony of Maryland was founded by English colonists sent by the second Lord Baltimore.
  1634  CEBattle at Smolensk when Polish King Wladyslaw IV beats the Russians.
  1634  CEEmperor Ferdinand II declares Albrecht von Wallenstein a traitor. 
  1634  CEIrish captain Walter Devereaux kills duke Wallenstein. 
  1634  CEUS colony Massachusetts Bay annexes Maine colony.
  1634  CEFinland is fully incorporated into Sweden.
19 May 1635  CECardinal Richelieu of France intervened in the great conflict in Europe by declaring war on the Hapsburg dynasty in Spain.
28 Jun 1635  CEThe French colony of Guadeloupe was established in the Caribbean.
  1635  CEEmperor Ferdinand II and Saksen sign Peace of Prague.
  1635  CEFrance declares war on Spain, the beginning of the 'thirty years war'.
  1635  CEFrench colony of Guadeloupe established in the Caribbean.
  1635  CEEuropean ships carrying African slaves to the West Indies sank off the coast of St. Vincent. The surviving salves escaped and gradually intermarried with the island's Carib Indian natives.
8 Aug 1636  CEThe invading armies of Spain, Austria and Bavaria were stopped at the village of St.-Jean-de-Losne, only 50 miles from France.
17 Nov 1636  CEHenrique Dias, Brazilian general, won a decisive battle against the Dutch in Brazil.
  1636  CEDuring the Dutch occupation of Ceylon, villagers were forced to supply quotas of cinnamon.
  1636  CEThe Dutch began thier occupation of Ceylon.
5 Jun 1637  CEThe English and their Mohegan allies slaughtered as many as 600 Pequot Indians (in the area of Connecticut). The survivors were parceled out to other tribes. Those given to the Mohegans eventually became the Mashantucket Pequots. American settlers in New England massacred a Pequot Indian village.
23 Jul 1637  CEKing Charles of England handed over the American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Fernando Gorges, one of the founders of the Council of New England.
  1637  CEThe first battle of Pequot at New Haven CT kills 500 Indians.
22 Mar 1638  CEReligious dissident Anne Hutchinson was expelled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
29 Mar 1638  CEThe first permanent white settlement was established in Delaware. Settlers from Sweden who came to Delaware were the first to build log cabins in America.
24 Dec 1638  CEThe Ottomans under Murad IV recaptured Baghdad from Safavid Persia.
  1638  CEAdmiral Adam Westerwolt conquerors Batticaloa in Ceylon.
  1638  CEDutchman Cornelis S Goyer takes possession of Mauritius which was uninhabited.
  1638  CEJonas Bronck of Holland becomes the first European settler in the Bronxin the USA.
  1638  CEThomas Emerson came from England and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. Ralph Waldo Emerson came along 5 generations later.
24 Jan 1639  CERepresentatives from three Connecticut towns banded together to write the Fundamental Orders, the first constitution in the New World.
28 Aug 1640  CEThe Indian War in New England ended with the surrender of the Indians.
  1640  CE(crica 1640s) In England the parliamentary battles that led up to the English Civil War were recorded in 7 tomes known as Rushworth's Collections.
6 Jun 1641  CESpain lost Portugal.
  1641  CEPaul de Chomedy de Maisonneuve claims Montreal.
  1641  CEIn Ireland a Catholic uprising in Ulster was suppressed. English Gen'l. Oliver Cromwell took away the land rights of 44,000 Catholics in Ulster and adjacent counties.
4 Jan 1642  CEEnglish King Charles I attempted to arrest five members of the English parliament. This attempt failed, since they were spirited away before the king's troops arrived.
 Jul 1642  CERobert Devereux 3rd Earl of Essex was appointed Lord General of the English Parliamentary army, until 1645.
22 Aug 1642  CECivil war in England officially began as Charles I declared war on Parliament from Nottingham. Charles I went to the House of Commons to arrest some of its members and was refused entry. From this point on no monarch was allowed entry. The war ended in 1651.
23 Oct 1642  CEThe battle of Egehill, when the English Parlimentariand fought the Royalists under Chales I. The result was inconclusive.
29 Oct 1642  CEKing Charles I and his Royalist army enter Oxford.
11 Nov 1642  CEKing Charles I and his Royalist army move East and entered Colnbrook.
12 Nov 1642  CEThe Battle of Turnam Green, West of London, between the Royalist army under King Charles I and the Parliamentarians under Robert Devereux. No actual battle was fought as Charles had no chance against 24,000 men so turned south to Kingston and then withdrew to Reading.
  1642  CEBritish King Charles I with 400 soldiers attacks the English parliament.
13 Jul 1643  CEIn England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, were defeated by royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
  1643  CEBattle at Grantham when English Parliamentary armies beat the Royalists.
  1643  CEBattle at Rocroi/Allersheim when the French army beat the Spanish army.
  1643  CEBritish leader Sir Thomas Fairfax takes Leeds for the Parliamentarians.
  1643  CEDutch US colonists kill Algonquin-Indians.
  1643  CEIn England the bloody battle of Chalgrove Field occurred. Royalist strategy meetings were held at the Horsenden Manor at Buckinghamshsire.
25 Apr 1644  CEThe Ming Chongzhen emperor committed suicide by hanging himself. The Qing, or Chi'ing, dynasty of China began when the Manchus invaded from Northeast China and overthrew the 300-year-old Ming Dynasty.
2 Jul 1644  CELord Cromwell crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor near York, England.
  1644  CEBattle at Nantwich Cheshire British Parliamentary armies win.
  1644  CEBritain grants patent for Providence Plantations (now Rhode Island).
10 Jan 1645  CEThe Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, was beheaded on Tower Hill, accused of acting as an enemy of the Parliament.
14 Jun 1645  CEOliver Cromwell's army routed the King's army at Naseby.
  1645  CEBattle at Jankov Bohemia when Sweden beats Roman Catholic emperor Ferdinand III.
  1645  CEThe Dutch and North American Indians sign a peace treaty.
  1645  CETurkish invaders of the Ottoman Empire captured Hania on the island of Crete and built a mosque.
  1646  CEEnglish Royalist leader, King Charles I, surrenders in Scotland.
  1646  CESpain and the Netherlands signs a temporary cease fire.
14 Mar 1647  CEThe 1647 Treaty of Ulm was reached between the French and the Bavarians during the Thirty Years' War. In negotiations with the French, Maximilian I of Bavaria abandoned his alliance with the Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand III through the Treaty of Ulm. In 1648 Bavaria returned to the side of the emperor.
26 May 1647  CEA new law banned Catholic priests from the colony of Massachusetts. The penalty was banishment or death for a second offense.
4 Jun 1647  CEThe English army seized King Charles I as a hostage.
10 Nov 1647  CEThe all Dutch-held area of New York was returned to English control by the treaty of Westminster.
  1647  CEScottish Presbyterian army seizes King Charles I as a prisoner.
  1647  CEScottish Presbyterians sell captured Charles I to English parliament for £400.
  1647  CEWillem II sworn in as viceroy of Holland.
8 Aug 1648  CEIbrahim, the sultan of Istanbul, was thrown into prison, then assassinated.
24 Oct 1648  CEThe Peace of Westphalia ended the German Thirty Years War and effectively destroyed the Holy Roman Empire.
  1648  CEBattle at Zolty Wody when Bohdan Chmielricki's cosacks beat John Casimir.
  1648  CEEmperor Ferdinand III defeats Maximilian I of Bavaria.
  1648  CEPeace of Westphalia ends 30 year war and Holy Roman Empire. 
  1648  CEThe island of St. Martin in the Lesser Antilles was divided between the French and Dutch. The southern half went to the Dutch as Sint Maarten, while the northern half, Saint Martin, became part of the French department of Guadeloupe.
  1649  CEMarblehead, Mass., was founded by Cornwall fishermen.
  1649  CEGov. Peter Stuyvesant granted Lambert Jochemse Van Valckenburg and his wife Annetje 50 acres, now nine blocks in the heart of Manhattan.
3 Sep 1650  CEThe English under Cromwell defeated a superior Scottish army under David Leslie at the Battle of Dunbar.
  1650  CEFrench Prince Louis II of Conde is captured.
  1650  CESt. Croix island in the West Indies was taken over by the French and then abandoned in 1695.
3 Sep 1651  CEThe Battle of Worcester when Charles II and his Scottish army was defeated by Oliver Cromwell and the parliamentarian army.
7 Apr 1652  CEThe Dutch established settlement at Cape Town, South Africa.
 Apr 1652  CEOfficials (farmers) of the Dutch East India Company were sent from Europe to run the small victualing station at the cape of South Africa. They were distinguished from the native born Dutch people who are called Afrikaner. It marked the beginning of Cape Town.
 Jul 1652  CEPrince Conde's rebels narrowly defeated Chief Minister Mazarin's loyalist forces at St. Martin, near Paris.
  1652  CEThe Dutch founded Cape Colony (Cape Town) in South Africa when they sent two ships to Table Bay to establish a garden to provide fresh foods and fruits for sailors on their voyages around the Cape of Good Hope.
  1652  CEBattle at Etampes when the French army under Turenne beats tthe Fronde rebels.
  1652  CEBritish Admiral Robert Blake drives out Dutch fleet under Lieutenant-Admiral Tromp.
  1652  CEDuke of Orleans joins Fronde rebels.
  1652  CESpanish troops occupy Grevelingen.
  1652  CEUnder the 'Liberty Tree', a tulip poplar at St. John's College campus in Annapolis, Md., Virginia Puritans were welcomed as colonists by Lord Baltimore, and smoked peace pipes with the Susquehanna Indians.
2 Feb 1653  CENew Amsterdam, now New York City, was incorporated.
5 Nov 1653  CEThe Iroquois League signed a peace treaty with the French, vowing not to wage war with other tribes under French protection.
16 Dec 1653  CEOliver Cromwell took on dictatorial powers with the title of lord protector' of England, Scotland and Ireland. He served as dictator of England to 1658.
  1653  CEDefeat of Dutch fleet under Admiral Van Tromp by Admiral Blake in a 3 Day Sea battle off Portsmouth.
  1653  CEJohan van Galen beats English fleet at Livorno.
  1653  CEPeter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherlands, ordered a wall built to protect the Dutch settlers from the Indians. The wall gave New York's Wall Street its name.
  1654  CEPortuguese troops conquer the last Dutch base on Recife in Brazil.
  1654  CEVenetian fleet under Admiral Adeler beats the Turkish.
  1655  CEEnglish captured Jamaica from the Spanish.
  1656  CERobben Island in Cape Town's Table Bay, South Africa, from this time on was variously used by European settlers as a mental institution, leper colony and prison.
23 Mar 1657  CEFrance and England formed an alliance against Spain.
20 Apr 1657  CEEnglish Admiral Robert Blake fought his last battle when he destroyed the Spanish fleet in Santa Cruz Bay.
  1657  CEFrance and England form alliance against Spain and England gets Dunkirk in exchange.
  1658  CEThe Battle of Dunes (Spanish-French War) is fought.
  1658  CEPeace of Roskilde between Sweden and Denmark.
  1659  CEBattle at Elvas Portuguese beat Spanish.
  1659  CENetherlands, England and France sign the Treaty of The Hague.
  1659  CECornelius Meylin, patroon of Staten Island, wrote in his recollections that Staten Island was acquired in 1630 in exchange for 'kittles, axes, Hoos, wampum, drilling awles, Jews Harps and diverse small wares'.
  1660  CEDenmark and Sweden sign a ceasefire agreement.
  1660  CESweden, Poland, Brandenburg and Austria sign Peace of Oliva.
29 Apr 1661  CEChinese Ming dynasty occupied Taiwan.
  1661  CEChinese Ming dynasty occupies Taiwan.
  1662  CEDutch garrison on Formosa surrenders to Chinese pirates.
  1662  CEDutch invasion of Macau repulsed (now called Macau Day).
  1662  CEDutch fortune seekers killed over 400 members of the Nayar warrior caste in Kerala, India.
24 Mar 1663  CECharles II of England awarded lands known as Carolina in North America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration. This established the American Colony of North Carolina.
8 Jul 1663  CEKing Charles II of England granted a charter to Rhode Island guaranteeing freedom of worship..
  1663  CEKing Charles II affirms charter of Royal African Company.
  1663  CEKing Louis XIV affirms covenant with Rynstaten.
  1663  CEQuebec became the capital of New France.
12 Mar 1664  CENew Jersey became a British colony as King Charles II granted land in the New World to his brother James, the Duke of York.
22 Mar 1664  CECharles II gave large tracks of land from west of the Connecticut River to the east of Delaware Bay in North America to his brother James, the Duke of York.
24 Mar 1664  CEA charter to colonize Rhode Island was granted to Roger Williams.
 Aug 1664  CEThe Turkish army was defeated by French and German troops at St. Gotthard, Hungary.
5 Sep 1664  CEAfter days of negotiation, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam,under Peter Stuyvesant, surrendered to 300 British, soldiers. The British later renamed it New York.
  1664  CECount Miklos of Zrinyi sets out to battle Turkish invasion army.
  1664  CEKing Louis XIV of France and the Emperor of Brandenburg sign a covenant.
  1664  CETurkish great Koprulu attacks 120,000 Donau soldiers.
  1665  CEBattle at Elmina when Gold Coast Vice-Admiral De Ruyter beats the English.
  1665  CEBritish King Charles II declares war on The Netherlands at the beginning of the Second Anglo-Dutch War (1665-1667).
  1665  CEThe British briefly recaptured the Banda Island of Run from the Dutch.
  1666  CENetherlands and Brandenburg sign a treaty.
18 Jun 1667  CEThe Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames and threatened London.
21 Jul 1667  CEThe Peace of Breda ended the Second Anglo-Dutch War and ceded Dutch New Amsterdam to the English. The South American country of Surinam, formerly Dutch Guiana, was ceded by England to the Dutch in exchange.
  1667  CEA Duch fleet under Abraham Crijnssen conquerors Fort Willoughby (Zeelandia) and then the British colony of Suriname on the Suriname river.
  1667  CEThe French and the British sign an anti-Dutch military accord.
  1667  CEFrench troops attack into Southern Netherlands.
  1667  CEKing Afonso VI of Portugal flees.
  1667  CETreaty of Andrussovo ends the 13 year war between Poland and Russia.
  1667  CEThe Cossack Stench Razing led a peasant uprising.
7 Feb 1668  CEThe Netherlands, England and Sweden concluded an alliance directed against Louis XIV of France.
2 May 1668  CEPeace of Aix-la-Chapelle ended the War of Devolution in France.
  1668  CEBritain takes control of Bombay in India.
  1668  CEBritain, Netherlands and Sweden sign a Triple Alliance against French.
  1668  CEEnglish King Charles II gives Bombay to East India Company.
  1668  CEKing Louis XIV and Emperor Leopold I sign a treaty dividing Spain.
  1668  CEThe first peace of Aken which ends French-Spanish war in The Netherlands.
  1668  CETreaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ends the War of Devolution. 
  1668  CETreaty of Lisbon when Spain recognizes Portugal.
27 Aug 1669  CEThe island of Crete in the Mediterranean Sea fell to the Ottoman Turks after a 21-year siege.
 Apr 1670  CEColonists landed on the western bank of the Ashley River, five miles from the sea, and named their settlement Charles Town in honor of Charles II, King of England.
26 May 1670  CEA treaty was signed in secret in Dover, England, between Charles II and Louis XIV ending hostilities between them.
 May 1670  CEThe Hudson Bay Co. was chartered by England's King Charles II.
  1670  CEFrance and Bavaria sign military assistance treaty.
  1670  CEThe Cayman Islands came under British rule. They were named after an indigenous type of crocodile that no longer lives there.
  1671  CECossack rebel leader Stenka Razin tortured, executed in Moscow.
29 Apr 1672  CEKing Louis XIV of France invaded the Netherlands.
  1672  CEBrandenburgs monarch Frederik Willem signs a treaty with the Netherlands.
  1672  CEBritain declares war on the Netherlands at the beginning of the third Anglo-Dutch war (1672-1674).
  1672  CEThe Royal African Co. was granted a charter to expand the slave trade and its stockholders included philosopher John Locke. The operation supplied English sugar colonies with 3,000 slaves annually.
  1673  CEDutch briefly recapture New York from the British which was regained by the British in 1674.
  1673  CEMichiel A de Ruyter is appointed Lieutenant-Admiral-General of the Dutch fleet.
  1674  CEBritish re-conquer New York from the Netherlands.
  1674  CEGerman Parliament declares war on France.
  1674  CEThe Netherlands and Cologne sign a peace treaty.
  1674  CENetherlands and England sign Peace of Westminster when New York City formally becomes British, ending the third Anglo-Dutch War (1672-1674).
24 Jun 1675  CEKing Philip's War began when Indians, retaliating for the execution of three of their people who had been charged with murder by the English, massacred colonists at Swansee, Plymouth colony.
28 Jun 1675  CEFrederick William of Brandenburg defeated the Swedes.
19 Dec 1675  CEWakefield, Rhode Island, USA, The Great Swamp Memorial marks the site where 4,000 Indians died in defense of a secret fort.
  1675  CEBattle at Turkheim (Colmar) when the French army beat the Brandenburg army.
  1675  CEDon Carlos de Gurrea of Aragón becomes the Spanish land guardian of South Netherlands.
29 May 1677  CEKing Charles II and 12 Virginia Indian chiefs signed a treaty that established a 3-mile non-encroachment zone around Indian land. The Mattaponi Indians in 1997 invoked this treaty to protect against encroachment.
  1677  CEBritich King Charles II agrees to an anti-French covenant with Netherlands.
  1678  CEEarl of Shaftesbury is freed from the Tower of London.
  1678  CEFrench Admiral Jean d'Estrees' fleet runs aground on Aves-islands, Curacao.
  1678  CEFrench conquering fleet arrives at Curacao, when 1,200 die.
  1678  CELouis XIV claimed the region of Alsace from Germany.
10 Jul 1679  CEThe British crown claimed New Hampshire as a royal colony.
  1679  CEGerman emperor Leopold I signs peace with France.
  1680  CEParliament of Breisach accept French sovereignty over Elzas.
8 Jan 1681  CEThe treaty of Radzin ended a five year war between the Turks and the allied countries of Russia and Poland.
4 Mar 1681  CEEngland's King Charles II granted a charter to British Quaker William Penn making him sole propritor of an area of land that later became Pennsylvania. Penn laid out the city of Philadelphia as a gridiron about 2 miles long, east to west, and a mile wide.
17 May 1681  CELouis XIV sent an expedition to aid James II in Ireland. As a result, England declared war on France.
29 Oct 1682  CEThe founder of Pennsylvania, William Penn, landed at what is now Chester, Pa. William Penn founded Philadelphia.
  1682  CELa Salle claims American lower Mississippi (Louisiana) for France.
  1682  CEIn Russia a rebellion by government Streltsy regiments killed the grandfather, aunts and other relatives of Peter the Great. The Monastery of Peter the Metropolitan was reconstructed and as served as the family necropolis.
12 Feb 1683  CEA Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
23 Jun 1683  CEWilliam Penn signed a friendship treaty with Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania. The only treaty 'not sworn to, nor broken'.
29 Sep 1683  CEA small armada sailed from the Mexican mainland across the Sea of Cortez to the Baha Peninsula. Hostile natives had forced them back to the mainland on a first landing and a storm forced them back on a 2nd attempt.
6 Oct 1683  CEThe small armada from the Mexican mainland landed on their 3rd attempt at crossing to the Baha peninsula and settled at the mouth of a river that they named San Bruno. The site was abandoned after 2 years.
  1683  CE13 German families arrive in present day Philadelphia.
  1683  CEEmperor Leopold I and Poland sign a covenant against Turkey.
  1683  CEPrince Eugene of Savoy repelled an invasion of Vienna, Austria by Turkish forces.
8 Jul 1686  CEThe Austrians took Buda, Hungary, from the Turks and annexed the country.
  1686  CETwo Mohican Indians signed a mortgage for their land in Schaghticoke, New York, with simple markings. It was notarized by Robert Livingston, whose family became one of the greatest agricultural landlords and international merchants in the colony of New York.
12 Aug 1687  CEAt the Battle of Mohacs, Hungary, Charles of Lorraine defeated the Turks.
26 Sep 1687  CEIn Greece marauding Venetians sent a mortar through a gable window of the Parthenon and ignited a Turkish store of gunpowder. This damaged the northern collonade of the Parthenon.
6 Aug 1688  CEImperial troops defeated the Turks and took Belgrade, Serbia.
26 Nov 1688  CELouis XIV declared war on the Netherlands.
  1688  CEIn northern Ireland the gates of Londonderry were shut in the face of Catholic forces. The event was later celebrated by the Protestant Apprentice Boys as the Lundy's Day demonstration.
11 May 1689  CEThe French and English naval battle took place at Bantry Bay.
1 Aug 1689  CEJames II's 15-week siege of Londonderry, Ireland, ended in failure. The Catholic Army of King James II besieged Londonderry where 13 Protestant apprentices stood in defense. The Protestants were victorious and the event led to the annual Apprentice Boy's March.
  1689  CEBattle of Bantry Bay, a naval battle between the French and the English.
  1689  CEBritain and the Netherlands form the League of Augsburg.
  1689  CEThe German Parliament declares war on France.
  1689  CEMontreal is taken by the Iroquois.
  1689  CEThe Abnaki War (Abenaki) of in North America is better known as King William's War. It was the first of the intercolonial wars between France and England in North America, pitting the English and their Iroquois allies against the French and their Abnaki allies. Until 1697.
1 Jul 1690  CELed by Marshall Luxembourg, the French defeated the forces of the Grand Alliance at Fleurus in the Netherlands.
1 Jul 1690  CEThe Battle of the Boyne when Protestant English King William III of Orange was victorious over the Irish Catholics led by his father-in-law Catholic King James II. Protestants took over the Irish Parliament. This marked the beginning of the annual Drumcree parade, held by the Loyal Orange Lodge on the first Sunday of July.
8 Oct 1690  CEBelgrade was retaken by the Turks.
  1690  CEBritish troops of W Phips conquer Port Royal, Nova Scotia.
  1690  CEFrench and Indian troops set Schenectady settlement, New York, on fire.
  1690  CEFrench King Louis XIV sends troops to Ireland.
  1690  CEIroquois tribes renew their allegiance to the British against the French.
26 May 1691  CEJacob Leiser, leader of the popular uprising in support of William and Mary's accession to the thrown, was executed for treason.
12 Jul 1691  CEWilliam III defeated the allied Irish and French armies at the Battle of Aughrim, Ireland.
13 Feb 1692  CEIn the Glen Coe highlands of Scotland, thirty-eight members of the MacDonald clan were murdered by soldiers of the neighboring Campbell clan for not pledging allegiance to William III of Orange. Ironically the pledge had been made but not communicated to the clans. The event is remembered as the Massacre of Glencoe.
3 Aug 1692  CEFrench forces under Marshal Luxembourg defeated the English at the Battle of Steenkerke in the Netherlands.
  1692  CEBattle at La Hogue when the English and Dutch fleet beat France.
4 Jul 1693  CEBattle at Boussu-lez-Walcourt: French-English vs. Dutch army.
29 Jul 1693  CEThe Army of the Grand Alliance was destroyed by the French at the Battle of Neerwinden in the Netherlands.
  1693  CEHeidelberg was torched by the troops of Louis XIV in a dispute over a royal title.
11 Sep 1695  CEImperial troops under Eugene of Savoy defeated the Turks at the Battle of Zenta.
20 Nov 1695  CEZumbi dos Palmares, Brazilian leader of a hundred-year-old rebel slave group, was killed in an ambush.
6 Oct 1696  CESavoy Germany withdrew from the Grand Alliance.
12 May 1697  CEThe fall of the Venetian Republic.
30 Sep 1697  CEUnder the Treaty of Ryswick, France recognized William III as King of England. The signees included France, England, Spain and Holland.
30 Oct 1697  CEThe Treaty of Ryswick ended the war between France and the Grand Alliance.
  1697  CEHannah Duston in what is now New Hampshire was attacked and captured by 12 Indians who killed her daughter. She managed to kill 10 of them with a knife and took home their scalps for the bounty money. She was the first woman in the US to have a statue erected in her honor.
1 Jan 1698  CEThe Abenaki (Abnaki) Indians and the Massachusetts colonists signed a treaty ending the conflict in New England.