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Botany (0001-)

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The study of the plant kingdom and how humans have influenced it.
c.    0004  CERomans terraced the steep slopes of the Mosel River for the cultivation of grapes.
c.    0050  CEThe first century Greek physician, Dioscorides, recommended the use of orchid tubers as an aphrodisiac.
    0538  CE(538-600) Buddhist missionaries introduced the art of flower arranging to Japan. The 1st school of flower arranging, ikenobo, was founded by Ono no Imoko in the early 7th century. Ikebana became the umbrella name for the schools of flower arranging.
    0552  CEAgents from Byzantium impersonating monks smuggled silkworms and mulberry leaves out of China.
c.    1100  CE(Between 1100-1200) The 12th century book 'Gyuschi' was a compilation of Tibetan medicine that described the making and applications of medications extracted from herbs, roots and minerals often served as hot teas.
    1190  CEMatthaeus Platerius, a teaching physician at the School of Salerno, wrote his manuscript 'Circa Instans,' a Latin work on the medicinal properties of plants.
c.    1500  CEBean and lima bean which were crops native to America became known to Europeans
c.    1500  CEThe sweet potato which was native to South America had been taken to Spain where it was in cultivation at mid-century
c.    1500  CE(Between 1500-1600) A Muslim pilgrim brought some coffee beans from Yemen and raised them in India. Yemen was the first great coffee exporter and in order to protect its trade had decreed that no living plant could leave the country.
    1502  CEPortuguese traders took peanuts from Brazil and Peru to Africa.
    1502  CEAdmiral Jaoa de Nova, a Portuguese explorer, discovered St. Helena Island. It would soon become a garden site for fresh provisions to break the several month voyage between Portugal and Mozambique.
    1505  CEThe Portuguese settled Ceylon and their exploitation of the cinnamon forests led to a system of slavery and a monopoly on trade in this spice.
    1506  CEThe Spaniards in the West Indies began raising sugar cane.
    1510  CESunflowers from America were introduced by the Spaniards into Europe.
    1511  CEHaving won battles over Muslim forces the Portuguese advanced their control over spice producing areas of India, Ceylon, Java, Sumatra and (by 1514)the Spice Islands.
    1511  CEWestern explorers discovered that the Molucca Islands (the Spice Islands) were the source of cloves.
    1511  CEPortuguese traders reached the Banda Islands, including Run, and broke the Venetian monopoly over nutmeg. Over the next century the Dutch muscled in an almost cornered the nutmeg market.
    1512  CEPortuguese explorers discovered the Celebes and found nutmeg trees in the Moluccas. This began an 84-year monopoly of the nutmeg and mace trades.
  2 Apr 1513  CESpanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. Juan Ponce de Leon, Spanish explorer, discovered Florida and planted orange and lemon trees there. He also discovered the Dry Tortugas, 10 small keys southwest of Key West.
    1514  CEAlvarez was the first European to reach China by sea and in the region of Canton the Portuguese encountered oranges 'superior in sweetness and fragrance even to those brought from India and Ceylon'.
c.    1515  CE(Between 1515-1519) Coffee from Arabia appeared in Europe.
    1516  CEThe banana was introduced to the New World from Africa.
    1516  CEThe first processed sugar was shipped from Santo Domingo to Spain which was originally brought there by Columbus and soon afterward Portugal began importing sugar from Brasil.
    1518  CEDuarte Barbosa in 'An Account of the Countries bordering on the Indian Ocean and their Inhabitants' describes sweet oranges in Ceylon.
 20 Sep 1519  CEPortuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan set out from Seville in Spain with 270 men and 5 ships on a voyage to find a western passage to the Indies and the Spice Islands. The members of this fleet would be the first to cicumnavigate the globe, although Magellan himself died en route.
    1520  CEChocolate was brought from the Aztecs in Mexico to Spain for the first time.
    1521  CEHernando Cortes conquered Mexico and while on reconnaissance in southeastern Mexico his soldiers were the first Europeans to discover the Aztec spice - vanilla.
    1522  CEFollowing three years of voyage to the Moluccas Pigaphetta finds evidence of cloves, ginger, sago (which is wood-bread), rice, pomegranates, both sweet and sour oranges, lemons, jasmine and the betel-nut.
    1523  CEAnthony Fitzherbert published the 'Book of Husbandry', the first English manual of agriculture.
    1523  CESugar was grown in Cuba for the first time.
    1523  CEThe first turkeys were introduced to Spain and Europe from America by the conquistadors.
    1524  CERepresentatives of Spain and Portugal met to review maps and charts in an attempt to agree over ownership of the Spice Islands and five years later Portugal paid 350 thousand gold ducats to Spain for relinquishment of their claims.
    1526  CEOviedo reported having often transported sweet potatoes (batatas) from the Caribbean to Castile and during this century Portuguese traders carried the crop to all of their shipping ports hence and the sweet potato was quickly adopted from Africa to India and Java
    1527  CEHernando Cortez and his conquistadores completed the conquest of New Spain. They brought back to Spain tomatoes, avocados, papayas, and vanilla.
    1528  CEWheat was introduced into New Spain.
    1528  CEHernando Cortes was recalled to Spain and he brought with him haricot beans.
    1529  CEThe Turks at Buda planted paprika from the New World.
    1529  CEMaize from America, grown in Turkey, was introduced to England as 'turkey corn'.
    1530  CEBrunfels published 'Herbarium Vivae Eicones' which was the first newly written and printed botanical book.
    1530  CEOpium known as laudanum was used as a pain reliever.
    1532  CESugarcane was first cultivated in Brazil.
    1533  CEA professorship in botany created at the university in Padua established plant study as a discipline separate from medicine.
    1536  CESpaniards invaders in Peru began to use potatoes as cheap food for sailors.
    1536  CEA Spanish conquistador noted oil seeping in the countryside of Colombia.
    1538  CEThe word 'Carnation' first appeared as a royal reminder of this plant's ancient Greek name Diosanthos which translates as 'the flowers of Zeus'.
    1540  CEThe first potato from South America reached Pope Paul III. It was then taken to France and grown as an ornamental plant.
    1541  CEA book to promote cooking with sugar was available in Venice (later Nostradamus wrote the first French book on this topic).
    1541  CEJacques Cartier introduced cabbage to Canada on his third voyage.
    1542  CEFuchs published 'De Historia Stirpium Commentarii' in which the illustrations for his herbals were based on studies of living plants rather than on the simplified images that had become commonplace (the text was taken essentially from Dioscorides).
    1543  CEFuchs published the German version of 'De Historia Stirpium Commentarii' (New Kreüterbuch).
    1543  CEOne of the first botanical gardens was established by Luca Ghini at the University in Pisa on a site different from that of the present garden.
    1543  CESugar cane was introduced to Brazil about this time. Fermented sugar cane later became the base for cachaca, a light rum that is the national spirit. Cachaca is used to prepare the national drink, the caipirinha.
    1543  CENew Spain received European vegetables and grains such as broad beans, chickpeas, barley, and wheat, transported by a new viceroy from Spain.
    1544  CEThe first herbarium was published by Italian botanist Luca Ghini.
    1545  CEThe botanical garden was established at Padua in Italy.
    1545  CEThe first European botanical garden was established in Padua.
    1550  CEBy 1550 tomatoes which were introduced from the New World were regularly consumed in Italy.
    1550  CECorn which was Introduced to China by 1550 grew so quickly in importance that this crop became a significant factor in the 18th century increase in the Chinese population particularly in inland areas where rice was not prolific.
    1550  CEDamiao de Goes described orange exports from Portugal to Spain.
    1551  CEJerome Bock published his Kreüterbuch which was one of the first herbals to include the author's own plant descriptions from first-hand observations, rather than copying the work of Dioscorides.
    1554  CEFirst written record of the tomato
    1554  CEThough the first description in Europe of kohlrabi was in this year it was not grown commercially (in Ireland) until 1734.
    1556  CETobacco cultivation began in Europe with an importation of seed by Andre Thevet (introduction to Europe is reported as 1559 by De Wolf).
    1558  CEAn illustration published by Andre Thevet documented the harvesting and processing of cashew by natives in Brasil.
    1558  CESmoking tobacco introduced in Europe by Francisco Fernandes.
    1559  CEIn this year Conrad Gesner recorded the earliest known instance of a tulip flowering in cultivation in Europe in the garden of Johann Heinrich Herwart in Augsburg.
    1560  CEThree olive saplings were planted in Lima in Peru by the Spaniards which formed the basis of today's South American olive industry
    1561  CEThe posthumously published work of Valerius Cordus established wholly new standards for systematic plant description which was the first work to uniformly address all aspects of a plant.
    1561  CEJean Nicot, French ambassador to Lisbon, sent tobacco seeds and powdered leaves back to France. The word 'nicotine' is derived from his name.
    1562  CEWilliam Cecil built the first conservatory in England to protect his subtropical plants and trees.
    1564  CEThe European grape vine was imported to California via Mexico which was brought by priests.
    1565  CEAccording to popular history John Hawkins introduced the potato to Ireland.
    1569  CEThe 'Joyful News' was published by Monardes from Seville (1569-1574) in which many new plants are discussed including tobacco and the first mention of a sunflower.
    1573  CEClusius became court gardener to Maximilian II in Vienna and remained in that position until 1587 when he later became a professor at the University of Leiden in Holland and introduced and popularized the tulip.
    1573  CEThe peanut is known to have been cultivated in Chekiang Province in China probably arriving with the Portuguese from stops sailors made in Brasil en route to the Orient
    1576  CECarolus Clusius, French botanist, published his treatise on the flowers of Spain and Portugal. It was the first modern work on botany.
    1581  CEIn a series of letters sent from Portugal (1581-1583) Philip II of Spain wrote to his two daughters about the love of plants and gardening describing a 'sweet lime' (an orange).
    1583  CEClusius is said to have taken the yellow-flowered Rosa foetida to Holland from Vienna where it became known as the Austrian Briar.
    1583  CEDe Plantis libri by Andrea Cesalpino became the greatest botanical book of the 16th century and the first general text to supersede ancient writings.
    1583  CEAndrea Cesalpino, Italian botanist, published 'De Plantis', the first modern classification of plants.
  1584  CEPortugal dominated the world's sugar trade and sold Brazilian sugar to Europe.
  1586  CESir Francis Drake lands at Roanoke in Virginia and hears tales of colonists who had survived on soup made from sassafras later returning to England with what may have been the first shipment
  1586  CESir Thomas Herriot introduces potatoes to England from Colombia.
  1587  CEFirst written description of Brussels sprouts, which is a form of cabbage.
  1592  CE'De Plantis Aegypti' by Prosper Alpini published the first picture of a coffee plant.
  1593  CECarolus Clusius established the Hortus Academicus in Leiden which was said to be the first botanical garden dedicated to ornamental plants.
  1594  CEA great famine struck Europe which was caused by four bad harvests.
  1595  CEPeople in France were forced to use bushes to fire their ovens because there remained no forest in the area to supply firewood and Europe would continue to face energy shortages based on dwindling forest reserves.
  1596  CEL. Shih Chen published Pen Ts'ao Kang Mu which was the most well-known and praised of Chinese herbals.
19 Aug 1597  CEDon Lorenzo Garcia took posession a land grant, issued by King Philip II, to start the first official winery for the new world at the San Lorenzo Hacienda in Mexico.
  1597  CEGerard published the first edition of his Herball followed eventually by a second edition in 1633.
  1597  CEThe 'Materia Medica Pharmacopeia' was written and detailed some 1,900 herbs, minerals and animals used by the Chinese to treat ailments through the ages.
  1599  CEJacob van Necks fleet leaves Bantam Java with pepper, clove and muskaat.
  1600  CEBritain's East India Company was founded.
  1600  CEPortuguese traders brought the cassava root (or manioc tuber) to Africa from Brazil to feed their slaves.
  1601  CEJean Robin published a catalog for his medicinal herb garden.
20 Mar 1602  CEShareholders formed The United (Dutch) East India Company. The company traded to 1798.
  1603  CESpigelius published instructions on making dried herbarium specimens which was a technique that had only come into practice during the previous 50 years.
  1605  CEJames I issued letters of incorporation to London's Worshipful Company of Gardeners.
  1605  CEThe Dutch began seizing control of Portuguese-held trade with the Spice Islands (historically called the Moluccas) gaining full control by 1621.
  1605  CEThe first scientific description of the dodo bird was made by the Dutch botanist Carolus Clusius from an observation of a dodo at the home of the anatomist Peter Paauw.
  1606  CEA million black mulberry trees were imported to England which was another step in an effort to start a silk industry. Production of silk in England was never successful.
  1608  CEJean Robin and Pierre Valet published the first European florilegium 'Jardin du Roy tres Chrestien Henri IV'.
  1609  CEJamestown colonists planted cucumbers and carrots in their gardens.
  1610  CEHuge sugar plantations were present in the province of Bahia in Brasil and were run by white settlers with black and indian slaves.
  1610  CETea was imported to Europe through the Dutch East India Company
  1610  CEThe first cargo of Asian tea arrived in Amsterdam
  1611  CEJean Theodore de Bry published 'Florilegium Novum' (1611-1614).
  1611  CEJohn Tradescant a gardener at Hatfield House submitted a bill for 800 tulip bulbs which represented a gardener's salary for about six months.
  1612  CELake Beemster in Holland was drained to create 17 thousand acres of fertile land which required 43 windmills.
  1613  CEAndre Le Notre (1613-1700), French architect and landscape designer, was born. He shaped the gardens at Vaux-le-Vicomte, Versailles, Marly, Chantilly, Saint Germain-en-Laye, Les Tuileries, saint cloud, Sceaux and Courances.
 Oct 1621  CEThe first American Thanksgiving feast was held by Plymouth Colony Pilgrims in appreciation of assistance from members of the Massasoit tribe and celebration of the first harvest.
  1621  CEIn Germany potatoes, native to the Andes, were first planted.
22 Mar 1622  CEThe Native Americans Powhattan Confederacy killed 350 colonists, a third of the Virginia population of European settlers, in apparent retaliation for the encroachment of these immigrants on Indian cornfields.
  1623  CEDutch representatives commit a brutal massacre of the British and Japanese working on the spice producing island of Amboyna.
  1623  CEGaspard Bauhin produced the 'Pinax' that pulled together the uncoordinated plant names and descriptions that had appeared in Theophrastus and Dioscorides and others.
  1625  CEFrancis Bacon published his essay 'Of Gardens' in which he imagined an ideal garden a princely 30 acre Eden.
  1625  CEThe first apple orchard in the US was planted on Boston's Beacon Hill.
  1629  CEJohn Parkinson published 'Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris'.
  1634  CEUntil 1637 the zeal of collectors inflated values of tulip cultivars and this Tulipomania eventually fell victim to a market collapse that affected the entire Dutch economy.
  1635  CEThe Jardin des Plantes was established in Paris by royal edict.
  1636  CEDuring the Dutch occupation of Ceylon, villagers were forced to supply quotas of cinnamon.
  1636  CEThe Portuguese were expelled from their Japanese trade island Deshima but the Dutch were allowed on-going contact with Japanese traders through Hirado and eventually Deshima in 1641.
  1637  CEFilius Tradescant made his first trip to Virginia in the US returning to England with living material of bald cypress and American sycamore.
  1637  CEJohn Tradescant introduced the South American sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica) to cultivation in England.
  1641  CEJean Theodore de Bry published 'Florilegium Renovatum'.
  1644  CEThe practice of drinking tea was first introduced to England.
  1646  CEJ. B. Ferrarius published his 500 page compendium of all known information on citriculture 'Hesperides sive De Malorum aureorum Cultura et Usus Libri Quator' (Hesperides or Four Books on the Culture and Use of the Golden Apples).
  1647  CECorrespondence from the Caribbean to the Governor of Massachusetts confirmed that workers at sugar plantations would require food provisions from the outside as the production of sugar was more profitable than the production of other food.
  1647  CERice was introduced into cultivation in the Carolinas and today this and the surrounding sttes are the main rice producing states of the US.
  1648  CEJean Baptiste van Helmont experimented in plant physiology and nutrition by planting and watering a willow tree and mesuring the weight of the tree and soil over a five year period after which he concluded that water is changed into plant material.
  1648  CESweet potatoes were in cultivation in Virginia in the US.
  1650  CEBy this year coffee had arrived in England and by 1675 there would be over 3 thousand coffee houses.
  1650  CEFrom this time until around 1900 the Caribbean was the world center for growing sugar cane.
  1651  CEBritain's Navigation Act required that all imports from the colonies be received on British ships or those from the country of origin.
  1651  CEThe book 'Rerum medicarum Novae Hispaniae' was published from the results of one of the earliest explorations of the natural history of the New World made in 1570 by Francisco Hernández the private physician to Philip II of Spain.
  1652  CEThe Dutch founded Cape Colony (Cape Town) in South Africa when they sent two ships to Table Bay to establish a garden to provide fresh foods and fruits for sailors on their voyages around the Cape of Good Hope.
  1652  CEThe first New England pine trees were felled for British ship masts.
  1654  CEFilius Tradescant made his third trip to Virginia in the US. By this time he had introduced tulip poplar and red maple to England.
3 Sep 1658  CEOliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth, ruler over England's parliament, dies from malaria. He is suceeded by his son Richard Cromwell as Lord Protector. When Oliver Cromwell was dying, he refused to take the only known treatment (quinine from cinchona) because it was introduced by Jesuits.
 Sep 1658  CEThe first advertisement for Tea appeared in England.
  1661  CERobert Boyle carefully experimented with increase in plant biomass in an effort to determine what had happened to the water taken up by plants.
  1662  CENotes from lectures by Joachim Jung appear expressing a modern approach to the study of plant morphology and includes a contemporary definition of a plant.
16 Aug 1663  CEWilliam Penn observed that all native American plantations included peaches (which are native to Iran) of good quality. This demonstrated how quickly a valuable plant can be distributed and accepted.
  1664  CEStephen Blake wrote 'The Compleat Gardeners Practices'.
  1665  CEIn his 'Micrographia' Robert Hooke detailed the structure of cork and described the structure of 'cells' for the first time by using a microscope.
  1667  CEThe Treaty of Breda provided for cessation of hostilities between Holland and England and as part of this bargain the Dutch gained control of sugar plantations in Surinam.
  1669  CERobert Morison was named Professor of Botany at Magdalen College which was apparently the earliest recognition of botany as an academic discipline in England.
  1669  CEThe first written record of cabbage in the US.
  1671  CENehemiah Grew published 'The Anatomy of Plants Begun'.
  1672  CERobert Morison published the first scientific study of a single plant group (the carrot family).
  1673  CEThe Chelsea Physic Garden was established by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London.
  1675  CESlave traders brought cowpeas to Jamaica which was native of India.
  1676  CEJimsonweed (Datura) gained its common name when British soldiers in Jamestown in Virginia mistook it for an edible plant and subsequently experienced hallucinations for eleven days.
  1677  CEStephen Hales (1677-1761), English botanist and chemist, was born.
  1678  CEJohn Bannister arrived in Virginia and began to send plant material to England including Magnolia virginiana and Rhododendron viscosum.
  1679  CELeeuwenhoek published a scientific letter estimating the maximum population of the Earth to be 13 billion people by extrapolating the number of people supported per square kilometer in Holland.
  1686  CEJohn Ray in his 'Historia Plantarum' arrived at an early natural grouping of wordwide plants through looking at their many different characteristics hence establishing much of our modern botanical terminology.
  1693  CEFamine struck northern Europe and by 1694 ten percent of the population of northern France had perished.
  1693  CEThe first record of the grapefruit in the West Indies was made by Hans Sloane in a catalog of Jamaican plants and it is assumed that it originated there from chance hybrids between other cultivated citrus.
  1694  CEJoachim Camerarius (1534-1598) wrote a scientific letter that made the first clear case for the nature of sex in plants and the actual role of pollen and ovule in this process
  1694  CE(1694-1696) An outbreak of colic struck the region around Ulm, Germany. Eberhard Gockel, the city physician, was able to trace the cause to a wine sweetener that used a white oxide of lead.
  1696  CEDuke Eberhard Ludwig of Wurttemberg, Germany, learned of Eberhard Gockel's findings on lead poisoning in wine and banned all lead-based wine additives.
  1697  CEFather Francisco Cupani published the first scientific description of Lathyrus Odoratus a plant from Sicily and the parent stock of today's sweet pea.
  1697  CEEberhard Gockel published: 'A Remarkable Account of the Previously Unknown Wine Disease'.
  1700  CEAndre Le Notre (1613-1700) French landscape designer for Louis XIV died (Versailles - Chantilly - etc)
  1703  CERobert Hooke (1635-1703) British experimental scientist and inventor died
  1705  CEJohn Evelyn (1620-1705) English writer - government official - diarist - and landscape garden expert died
  1705  CEJohn Ray (1628-1705) English naturalist and theologian died
  1706  CECoffee trees were sent to the botanical garden in Amsterdam from Sri Lanka. A single tree survived which was the parent of a tree still at the conservatory in Paris.
  1709  CEAnthony Ashley Cooper in 'The Moralists' expressed the growing appreciation of the natural landscape as contrasted with formal order in a garden.
  1709  CEFamine struck Europe affecting Prussia on a great scale.
  1709  CEChinese Imperial Garden Yuan Ming Yuan (Garden of Perfect Brightness) near Peking.
  1711  CE'The Dutch Gardener or the Complete Florist' was published by Van Oosten.
  1712  CECaptain Frezier introduced the Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) to France and it arrived in Britain a few years later.
  1712  CEEngelbert Kaempfer published Amoenitates Exoticae which was the first western description of the Japanese flora. Kaempfer was a physician with the Dutch East India Company at Deshima during 1690-1692.
  1712  CE'La Theorie et la Pratique du Jardinage' was published by Dezallier d'Argenville the French garden designer.
  1712  CE'The Theory and Practice of Gardening' was translated and published by John James
  1716  CEThe first certain account of plant hybridization was provided in a letter written by Cotton Mather discussing the 'infectio' of Indian corn planted alongside yellow corn.
  1717  CEA British hybrid dianthus was described.
  1718  CESébastian Vaillant contributed to the development of the terminology necessary to discuss flower structure and function.
  1718  CE'Ichnographia Rustica' was published by Stephen Switzer (1682-1745)
  1721  CEA hybrid cabbage was reported.
  1722  CEBotanist Mark Catesby made a trip to South Carolina.
  1722  CEPhilip Miller began management of the Chelsea Physic Garden.
  1723  CEde Cliey carried a single offspring from a Coffee tree in the conservatory in Paris to Martinique which yielded thousands of trees there by 1777.
  1723  CEA. Van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723) the Dutch botanist who analyzed the cellular tissue of wood died
  1727  CEStephen Hales (1677-1761) publishes the first significant work in plant physiology (Vegetable Staticks). He explained evaporation of water from leaves and some aspects of liquid movement through roots and plants.
  1727  CECoffee plantations are established in Brazil.
  1729  CEChina banned opium importation which would be seriously compromised by the British East India Company until 1839.
  1730  CEBy this time Ginkgo biloba was in cultivation in the botanical garden at Utrecht.
  1730  CEKew Royal Botanical Gardens were designed by William Kent.
  1730  CEThe 'History of American Agriculture the Colonial Years' was published by John Chapman.
  1731  CEThe Gardener's Dictionary was published by Philip Miller (1691-1771) head of Apothecaries Garden in Chelsea.
  1732  CEPhilip Miller of the Chelsea Physic Garden sends the first cotton seeds to Georgia in the USA.
  1733  CEJohn Bartram of Philadelphia began correspondence with Collinson, Miller and others. This is the likely source of pawpaw (sourwood) and other American plants introduced to cultivation in Europe.
  1733  CEJohn Kay invented and patented the flying shuttle loom which enabled broader cloth could be woven at a quicker rate.
  1733  CE'History of the Dividing Line Betwixt Virginia and North Carolina' was published by William Byrd II.
  1735  CE'Tsukiyama Teizoden' ('Creating Landscape Gardens') was published by Kitamura Enkin
  1736  CE'Fundamenta Botanica' was published by Carolus Linnaeus
 Aug 1737  CEThe magnificent Southern magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora), which was introduced from Southeastern North America to Europe, flowered at the London home of Charles Wagner First Lord of the Admiralty.
  1737  CELinnaeus authored 'Hortus Cliffortianus', with illustrations by Ehret. This was a record of plants cultivated by George Clifford in his garden at Hartekamp (Holland) and is the forerunner of Species Plantarum.
  1737  CE'Systema Naturae', 'Critica Botanica', and 'Genera Plantarum' were published by Carolus Linnaeus.
  1739  CEAbout 500,000 people died in Ireland due to widespread crop failure of potatoes.
  1739  CEBuffon was appointed to oversee the Jardin du Roi which was under the direction of Antoine de Jussieu.
  1741  CEHenry Middleton, the President of the First Continental Congress, began creating his gardens at Middleton Place in South Carolina.
  1741  CEJethro Tull (1674-1741), English agriculturalist, perfeced a machine drill for sowing seed and advocates turning the soil around plants to increase productivity.
  1742  CEFrom Rio de Janeiro, the mango was introduced to Barbados.
  1743  CEThe American Philosophical Society organized by Benjamin Franklin and John Bartram.
  1743  CEPrussian peasants are forced to plant potatoes by Frederick II.
  1744  CERubber was first introduced to Europe by Charles Marie de la Condamine.
  1744  CEThe rules were established for the game of cricket. Although a variety of woods have been utilized to manufacture bats for this game a variety of white willow (Salix alba var. caerulea) has proven to provide the best wood.
  1747  CEA process to extract sugar from beet roots was developed by Andreas Margraff. It was not until 1877 that a highly productive process would be devised.
  1747  CEBernard de Jussieu received seed of Sophora japonica from d'Incarville in Beijing via Moscow and this shipment probably also included Koelreuteria paniculata.
  1747  CEDoctor James Lind experimented with 12 sailors who had scurvy and discovered that consuming lemons and oranges for 6 days produced a great improvement by ensuring an adequate intake of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
  1747  CE'The Natural History of Carolina - Florida - and the Bahama Islands' was published by Mark Catesby a plant collector
  1748  CEMichel Adanson (a student of Bernard de Jussieu) arrived in Africa to collect botanical specimens, until 1754.
  1748  CEPainshill Gardens in England was created by Charles Hamilton.
  1750  CEThe controversy of plants having different sexes was in the news.
  1750  CE'Philosophia Botanica - and Species Plantarum' was published by Carolus Linnaeus which was the beginning of scientific nomenclature for plants
  1750  CE'Story of the Stone' was published by Cao Xuequin (a Chinese novel with numerous descriptions of Chinese gardens)
  1750  CEEuropean Garden History Presented by Trans Europe Tours
  1751  CEFirst printed record of Chinese cabbage and Chinese mustard in England.
  1751  CEMiller planted tree of heaven seed (Ailanthus altissima) introducing it to North America it was received from French Jesuit Father Pierre Nicholas le Cheron d'Incarville from the mission in Beijing
  1751  CEPeter Kalm a Linnean student and botanical explorer noted that Native Americans treated eye diseaes with a concoction of water in which witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) had been boiled.
  1753  CELinnaeus' Species Plantarum established a new standard for plant classification as well as nomenclature. This treatise eventually became recognized as the beginning point for today's binomial nomenclature.
  1753  CE'Analysis of Beauty' was published by William Hogarth
  1753  CEVauxhall Public Gardens were created in London
  1753  CERoses from China begin arriving in Europe
  1756  CEThe British government purchased the right to export 600,000 Russian trees each year to supply the Royal Navy.
  1757  CE'A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful' was published by Edmund Burke
  1759  CEThe Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew was established on the property belonging to the Dowager Princess of Wales. It was to remain a private activity of the royal family for 82 years.
  1759  CEThe mother of King George III (Augusta) helps establish the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew Gardens on part of her estate.
  1760  CEGovernor Arthur Dobbs discovered Venus Fly-trap in North Carolina and sent a description to Collinson in England.
  1760  CEKew received one of its first tropical orchids Epidendrum rigidum.
  1761  CEBy this year British land grants in New England required that pine trees (most notably white pine), that were suitable as ship masts, be conserved and could only be cut under license by the crown.
  1761  CEJohn Hill established an association between tobacco snuff and malignant (and fatal) nose polyps.
  1761  CEJoseph Kolreuter was the first scientist to report making hybrids between plants and the first to observe the role of insects in pollination.
  1762  CE'Julie ou La Nouvelle Heloise' was published by Jean Jacques Rousseau
  1763  CEMichel Adanson's 'Familles des Plantes' became the first general attempt to group plants based on their similarity so that the entry for each group presents a variety of common characteristics.
  1763  CEObservations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and the Sublime' was published by Immanuel Kant
  1765  CEThe Bartrams discovered the Franklin tree.
  1766  CEA colonial garden was established on St. Vincent receiving mango trees as well as East Indian spice trees.
  1766  CEJoseph Banks explored Newfoundland and Labrador charting waters and making collections.
  1766  CEThe Fisherman's Garden in China was created.
  1768  CE'Essay on Design in Gardening' was published by W. Mason
10 Oct 1769  CEPortola's exploration of the California coast reached low hills forested by very tall trees that were red in colour which became the first recorded siting of the coast redwoods.
  1769  CESweet oranges were established at San Diego mission.
  1769  CE'Every Man His Own Gardener' was published by Thomas Mawe and John Abercrombie
29 Apr 1770  CECaptain Cook's ship stood in Botany Bay which Cook originally called Sting Ray Harbor but the great collection of new plants by naturalists Joseph Banks and Daniel Charles Solander provoked him to change the name
  1770  CEWilliam Hamilton built his magnificent 300 acre estate 'The Woodlands' near Philadelphia.
  1770  CEAn entire year's supply of nutmeg and cloves was destroyed in Amsterdam with the goal of maintaining high prices.
  1770  CEAustralia was 'discovered' by James Cook when he arrives in New South Wales
  1770  CEJoseph Priestly coined the name 'rubber' for the natural latex of the South American tree 'Hevea brasiliensis'.
  1770  CEEnlightenment views towards science and reason begin to influence gardeners
  1770  CE'Observations on Modern Gardening' was published by Thomas Whately
  1770  CEKew Royal Botanical Gardens directed by Joseph Banks
  1771  CEBy this year the Prince Nursery on Long Island in the US offered 42 varieties of pear.
  1771  CEJoseph Priestly discovers that plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.
  1772  CEAn uprising against British authority in New England (the Pine Tree Riot) resulted from the levying of fines on a New Hampshire man for cutting what were determined to be the King's pines.
  1772  CECarl Pieter Thunberg arrived in South Africa on a mainly scientific study and he sent such specialties to Sweden as the strelitzia.
  1772  CEFrancis Masson arrived in South Africa and send over 500 plant species to Kew.
  1772  CEJoseph Banks was appointed scientific advisor for the royal gardens by George III.
  1773  CEAmericans were displeased by a 3% tax imposed by the English Parliament on tea and other products and led to an increase in smuggling of tea from Holland.
  1773  CEFrench explorer Pierre Poivre was able to take propagation material of spices (clove, nutmeg, cinnamon, and black pepper) from the Dutch controlled Molucca Islands to Mauritius and Reunion thus breaking the Dutch monopoly.
  1773  CEWilliam Bartram begins plant collecting in eight southern US colonies.
  1780  CEJohn Fraser traveled from England to Canada to collect plants and he entered US territory in 1785.
  1780  CEJohn Hannon (financed by Dr. James Baker) started the first chocolate factory in the US in Dorchester and James Baker later founded Baker's Chocolate.
  1780  CE'The History of the Modern Taste in Gardening' was published by Horace Walpole
  1780  CE'Letters From an American Farmer' was published by Michel-Guillaume St. Jean de Crevecoeur (1735-1813)
  1780  CE'Historie Naturelle' was published by Georges-Louis Leclerc in 44 volumes
  1782  CEOliver Evans contracted to build a flour mill on Red Clay Creek north of Wilmington in Delaware. He subsequntly improvied it to produce the first automated mill.
  1783  CELavoisier verified conclusions by Cavendish, Priestley and Watt that water is the sole product when an inflammable air (hydrogen) is burned in oxygen. This was the first evidence that water is not an element but a combination of oxygen and another element.
  1783  CE'De la Composition des Paysages' was published by Girardin
  1783  CEBotanical garden at Calcutta India wqs established
  1784  CEHamilton introduced ginkgo (Acer platanoides) and tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) to his garden near Philadelphia.
  1784  CEJunipero Serra died and was interred beneath the floor of Mission San Carlos Borrome in Carmel - in a redwood coffin.
  1784  CEThunberg published 'Flora Japonica'.
  1784  CEThe first American seed 'bAmericaniness' is established by David Landreth, Philadelphia.
  1784  CESeeds sold in paper packets by Shakers in New England in the US
  1785  CEAndre Michaux sailed to southeastern America and encountered wild populations of Cherokee rose, which he believed to be native. The plant appears to have come to North America with early Spanish explorers or settlers as it is native to China.
  1785  CEDr. Edward Bancroft was awarded exclusive rights by the British Parliament to use the yellow coloring agent 'quercitron' for the dyeing and printing of fabrics. It was extracted from the black oak 'Quercus velutina'.
  1785  CEWilliam Withering, an English country doctor, published a study about a home remedy for dropsy which was based on foxglove. It both slowed heart rate and increased the strength of each heart beat which improves circulation and therefore alleviates edema.
  1785  CEThe Philadelphia Society for the Promotion of Agriculture forms.
  1787  CEPublication of 'Botanical Magazine' by William Curtis began. It became the world's longest-running journal which was dedicated to introducing exotic plants to an avid audience.
  1788  CEJean Senebier in his 'Experiences sur l'action de la lumiere solaire dans la vegetation' established the relationship between the presence of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the production of oxygen by plants.
  1788  CE'Les Epoques de la Nature' was published by Georges-Louis Leclerc and gave revised timescales for history of the earth
  1789  CEAiton's Hortus Kewensis recorded 15 exotic species of orchid at Kew.
  1789  CEAntoine Laurent de Jussieu achieved a workable system of naming and grouping plants in his 'Genera Plantarum' by combining Linnaeus's nomenclature with Adanson's natural system of classification. This provided the basis for the system of classifying plants we use today.
  1789  CEBaptist Reverend Elijah Craig of Scott County, Kentucky, is given credit for first aging Kentucky corn whiskey, thus creating America's first bourbon whiskey.
  1789  CECaptain Bligh was relieved of his authority on the HMS Bounty shortly after water-starved sailors cast 1 thousand breadfruit plants (that required water to survive) into the ocean. This became known as the 'mutiny on the Bounty'.
  1789  CEGinkgo was planted at Pierce Arboretum (now part of Longwood Gardens) in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania. By 1968 that tree was 105 feet tall.
  1789  CEUS Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson began a career of plant introduction that included vanilla, tea and tomato.
  1789  CEFirst People's Park in Munich Germany was designed by Ludwig von Skell
  1790  CEArchibald Menzies journeyed as surgeon-naturalist on Captain George Vancouver's expedition to the Pacific Northwest and collected some dried herbarium material.
  1790  CEJohann Wolfgang von Goethe published his interpretation of plant structure. This provided one of the earliest statements concerning the similar origins of leaves and floral parts.
  1790  CEThe soya bean was grown at Kew but had no crop significance at that time for Europe.
  1790  CEChrysanthemums are introduced into England from China.
  1791  CETo help recover debts from the US Revolutionary War an excise tax on whiskey prompted the Whiskey Rebellion that peaked in 1794 near Pittsburgh. The tax was repealed 8 years later.
  1791  CE'Travels Through North and South Carolina' was published by William Bartram
  1792  CEOranges were introduced to Hawaii.
  1792  CE'Remarks on Forest Scenery and Other Woodland Views' was published by William Gilpin
  1792  CE'The Farmer's Almanac' first published by Robert B. Thomas
  1793  CEChristian Sprengel was the first researcher to publish detailed descriptions of the manner in which different flowers are pollinated. He made the original drawings himself.
  1793  CEOn his second voyage, Captain Bligh carried mango trees from Timor to British gardens in Jamaica and St. Vincent.
  1793  CEEli Whitney invented the cotton gin and applies for a patent which was granted in 1794. By 1807 the US supplied 60% of Britain's cotton becoming the world's largest producer by 1820.
  1793  CEEli Whitney patented the first cotton ginning machine
  1794  CE'Essays on the Picturesque' was published by Price
  1794  CE'Zoonomia - or - The Laws of Organic Life' was published by Erasmus Darwin
  1795  CEBritish colonists planted clove trees in Panang. By 1796 the English had gained control of all Dutch East Indian possessions except Java.
  1795  CEThomas Seddal harvests an 8.3 kg potato from his garden in Chester, England.
  1795  CE'Observations on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening' was published by Humphry Repton
  1797  CEThe Salem ship 'Rajah' returned to New York with full cargo of bulk pepper from Sumatra. Investors made 700% profit and so it spawned investment by other Salem merchants which created some of the first great fortunes in the US.
  1798  CEFrenchman Nicholas Robert invented the first machinery to manufacture paper.
  1798  CEThomas Malthus discusses human population growth and food production in 'An Essay on the Principle of Population'.
  1799  CEAgriculturists first described sweet corn which long grown by Iroquois. It's value was not immediately recognized, but by 1980 sweet corn was the most popular canned 'vegetable' in the United States.
  1799  CEJohn Lyon began collecting North American plants. He may have contributed to the extinction of the Franklin tree by his aggressive and successful collecting.
  1799  CEThe Dutch East India Company fell bankrupt.
  1799  CEThe first American patent for a seeding machine was granted to Eliakim Spooner of Vermont.
  1799  CE'A British Garden' was published by Charlotte Murray
  1799  CE'A Collection of Roses from Nature' was published by Mary Lawrance
  1801  CEElgin Botanical Garden was under development at the northern edge of New York City.
  1801  CEJohn Wedgwood (son of Josiah Wedgwood and uncle to Charles Darwin) wrote to William Forsyth (George III's gardener) and Joseph Banks about starting the Royal Horticultural Society
  1801  CEThe cast iron process was invented - playing eventually into systems for constructing large conservatories.
  1801  CEThe first Harvard Botanic Garden was established.
  1801  CEThe later-day owner of Alexander Pope's renowned estate was driven to removing the garden's famous willow tree in an effort to discourage tourists.
  1802  CEBernard M'Mahon established his nursery in Philadelphia and began his own limited publication series similar to Curtis in 1806.
  1802  CEJohn Champneys of Charleston in the US created the 'Champneys' Pink Cluster' rose.
  1802  CERobert Brown arrived at Sydney on the Investigator along with botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer.
  1802  CEThe first seed sold in packages in America were marketed by a Shaker community at Enfield in Connecticut.
  1803  CEGerman pharmacist F.W. Serturner isolated morphine from opium latex
  1803  CEHenry and Sealy Fourdrinier improved on Robert's paper making machine.
  1804  CEAmerican and European traders began stripping Pacific Islands for sandalwood for use in Europe and China. Sandalwood trees were wiped out on Fiji by 1809, on the Marquesas by 1814, on Hawaii by 1825.
  1804  CECaptain John Chester brought the first shipload of bananas to the US on the Reynard to New York, however, bananas did not become common until after 1870.
  1804  CEChristopher Gore and his wife began collecting with neighbor Theodore Lyman and both families imported plants from Europe and built greenhouses for tropicals.
  1804  CEEngland's Royal Horticultural Society was formed.
  1804  CELewis and Clark began their expedition, setting out from St Louis for the Pacific Coast.
  1804  CENicholas T. de Saussure's book 'Recherches chimiques sur la vegetation' marked the beginning of modern plant physiology because of its well thought-out and documented experiments and attention to good experimental methodology.
  1804  CEThe Japanese devil lily (Lilium lancifolium) was brought into cultivation at Kew and gardeners were able to propagate and distribute over 10 -000 plants within a decade. The plant is known today by its common name - tiger lily.
  1805  CEAlexander von Humboldt published his 'Essai sur la géographie des plantes'. This is considered by some as the beginning of the science of ecology.
  1806  CENapoleon offered 100 thousand francs to anyone who could create sugar from a native plant. Russian chemist K. S. Kirchhof later discovered that sulfuric acid added to potato starch would make the conversion.
  1810  CEGoats were introduced to St. Helena Island and began the devastation that eventually caused extinction of 22 of the 33 endemic plants.
  1810  CELiverpool Botanic Garden received the first Cattleya known to be cultivated.
  1810  CERobert Brown's 'Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae' marked the beginning of his publications on the flora of Australia.
  1813  CEThe first pineapples are planted in Hawaii.
  1814  CEFrederick Pursh published his 'Flora Americae Septentrionalis'.
  1814  CECharles Waterton experimented with a donkey using a mixture of Amazonian plant mixture called 'curare'. This later led to the observation that curare immobilizes voluntary muscle tissue through blocking transmission of nerve impulses to muscles.
  1815  CEGerman Johann Friedrich Elsholz died while participating in a Russian expedition to California. The Italian botanist Ludolf Chamisso later honored him by naming a new genus Eschscholzia for the California poppy, but misspelt his name.
  1816  CECrop failure was widespread in Europe resulting in food riots in England, France and Belgium.
  1816  CEHenry Hall is credited as the first person to cultivate cranberries.
  1816  CEJohn Reeves introduced Wisteria sinensis to European gardening from Canton nurseries in China.
  1817  CEPierre-Joseph Pelletier and Joseph-Bienaimé Caventou isolate chlorophyll.
  1817  CEThe first Bourbon rose flowered on the French colonial Isle de Bourbon in the Indian Ocean. This was a chance hybrid between Rosa ´damascena 'Bifera' and 'Parson's Pink China'.
  1817  CEThe first coffee planted in Hawaii on Kona coast.
  1818  CEThe wrought iron process was industrialized changing the way designers would create conservatory structures.
  1820  CEFrench chemists isolated quinine from the bark of Cinchona making possible the production of a purified chemical treatment for malaria.
  1820  CEThe first general pharmacopoeia in US published, Boston.
  1820  CEThe Tomato is proven to be nonpoisonous.
  1823  CECharles MacIntosh of Scotland found that fabrics could be made waterproof by treating with natural rubber and so begins selling raincoats.
  1823  CEDavid Douglas was sent by The Royal Horticultural Society to the Eastern US to procure any new varieties of fruit trees and vegetables that might have been developed there.
  1823  CEEast India Company employees Charles Alexander and Robert Bruce discovered a kind of tea previously unknown to Europeans (Camellia sinensis var. assamica). It was growing in Assam a province of northern India. The first shipments of Assam tea arrived in England in 1838.
  1823  CEPhilipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold arrived in Japan to live there until 1830 as surgeon major in the Dutch East Indies Army. He restored order to the botanical garden at Deshima.
  1824  CEAfter decades of battles between the Dutch and English over control of East Indian spice trade a formal treaty gave the Dutch control of the Malay Archipelago minus North Borneo. The British retained control of North Borneo, the Malay mainland, India, Ceylon and Singapore.
  1825  CEDavid Douglas arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River. He returned to England in 1827. In 1829 he again arrived in the Pacific Northwest - collecting from California to Alaska.
  1826  CEAn act of the US Congress set off the mania of planting silkworm mulberry which was a short-lived industry.
  1826  CEPaxton left the Royal Horticultural Society garden to become head gardener to the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth.
  1826  CEThe unexploited forests of Burma gave impetus to the British conquest of the country. Tthe first area opened 'was stripped of teak within twenty years' and by the end of the century about 10 million acres of Burma forest had been cleared.
  1826  CETax records went to paper transactions in England. The archive of 'twigs' was burned and the resulting fire escaped control and took with it the Houses of Parliament. Noched 'twigs', predominately of basket willow, had prevoiusly been utilized in England to record tax payments.
  1827  CEScotish Botanist Robert Brown discovers the Brownian motion of pollen and dye particles in water resulting from molecular vibrations
  1828  CEAdolphe Brongniart published the first complete account of fossil plants establishing himself as the founder of modern paleobotany.
  1828  CEC. J. van Houten developed the first modern process for making cocoa powder.
  1828  CEAustrian botanist Wenzel Bojer discovered Delonix regia (the flame tree) in semi-cultivation on the eastern coast of Madagascar.
  1830  CERobert Brown published the first account of a cellular nucleus which he called the 'aureole'. This was also the first publication describing the growth of pollen tubes from the stigma to the ovule.
  1830  CEEnglish textile-mill engineer Edwin Budding develops the first machine for cutting lawns (a lawnmower) and signs an agreement to manufacture them.
  1832  CEBy this year 137 different European weeds were naturalized in the New York flora.
  1832  CEJames Busby introduced the Shiraz garpe variety to Australia.
  1833  CEAnselme Payen and J F Persoz first isolated an enzyme.
  1833  CEColley was hired by Bateman to collect orchids in the Demerara region of British Guiana and sixty species were returned alive from this expedition.
  1835  CEHugh Cuming commenced a 4-year trip to the Philippines and he was probably the first person to ship living orchids successfully from Manila to England.
  1835  CEJohn Gibson accompanied Lord Auckland to India via Madeira, Rio de Janeiro, and the Cape of Good Hope. He arrived in Calcutta in March 1836 with plants from Auckland destined for Calcutta Botanical Garden.
  1836  CEDanish archaeologist Christian Thomsen devised the Stone Bronze and Iron Age classification.
  1836  CEChatsworth conservatory construction was begun (1836-1840) measuring 83m x 20m the conservatory was designed and built by Paxton with the help of Decimus Burton.
  1837  CEGladiolus dalenii from Natal was introduced to breeding programs for these corm producing plants in Belgium.
  1837  CEIllinois blacksmith John Deere melded a steel share to a moldboard of wrought-iron to create a plow that cut the prairie soils.
  1837  CERobert Schomburgk discovered Victoria regia (a water lily) in British Guiana. Although early shipments of seed were not successful, Paxton later grew and flowered the plant in a heated tank of the tropical house at Chatsworth in England in 1849.
  1838  CECharles M. Hovey introduced a strawberry grown from seed produced by hybridization. This 'Hovey' strawberry is considered the first fruit variety that originated through breeding on the North American continent.
  1838  CEJohn Wright Boott received the first recorded shipment of tropical orchids to the US.
  1838  CEMatthias Schleiden discovers that all living plant tissue is composed of cells.
  1838  CEThe new viceroy in Canton destroyed the British East India Company's illegal opium imports a total of 2,640 thousand pounds.
  1839  CENathaniel Bagshaw Ward described his 'Wardian Case' in Gardener's Magazine. His work was subsequently expanded and published as a book.
  1839  CEThe Prickly pear was introduced to Australia for use as hedging.
  1839  CESalicylic acid was isolated from flowerbuds of Filipendula ulmaria (at that time called Spiraea ulmaria) a member of the rose family native to Europe.
  1839  CETheodor Schwann defines the cell as the basic unit of animal structure.
  1840  CEThe US palaeontologist Louis Agassiz established that there had been ice ages in the past.
  1840  CEFriedrich Keller patented a wood grinding machine that promoted the use of wood pulp for papermaking.
  1840  CEJohn Dresser of Stockbridge in Massachusetts devised a hand powered veneer lathe.
  1840  CEJustus von Liebig invents artificial fertilizer.
  1840  CEOrlando Jones patented an alkaline treatment for starch extraction which impacted the production of wheat, rice and corn starches.
  1840  CEThe Gould medicinal plant business began in Maldin in Massachusetts. Products such as catnip tea were sold under their own label. They also supplied botanicals to other makers of medicines.
  1840  CEThe Opium Wars ended mandarin control of British trade with China which was followed by the 1842 Treaty of Nanking which ceded Hong Kong to the British and opened numerous ports to Europeans and Americans.
  1841  CEAndrew Jackson Downing published his 'Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening Adapted to North America'. This was the most influential early American treatment of this subject.
  1841  CEThe Gardener's Chronicle began publication with J. Lindley as its horticultural editor.
  1841  CEKew Gardens was transferred to the British government and William Jackson Hooker became the first director.
  1842  CEMatthias J. Schleiden (and Theodor Schwann in 1847) established the theory that the cell is the basic unit of all life helping to create the new general study of biology.
  1842  CENathaniel B. Ward published 'On the Growth of Plants in Closely Glazed Cases'.
  1843  CEJohn Lyons published 'A Practical Treatise on the Cultivation of Orchidaceous Plants (2nd edition 1845)'. This was the first book on orchid culture.
  1843  CERobert Fortune made the first of four journeys to China (1843-1860) and never before had so many Chinese plants gotten to England his success being mainly based on the newly invented Wardian case.
  1843  CEThe first shipment of Peruvian guano arrived in Baltimore but retained popularity for only two decades as by 1849 the first US manufactured chemical fertilizers were marketed.
  1844  CEJohn Mercer invented a treatment for cotton that involves stretching the fibers under pressure in a cold bath of caustic soda. This gives the cotton increased sheen and durability and promotes the uptake of dyes.
  1845  CEPotato blight was imported to Europe from the Americas and by 1846 the potato crop in Ireland had totally failed. In 1841 the Irish population was about 8 million but about 1 million people died and another 1 million emigrated.
  1846  CEGerman chemist Christian Schonbein discovered that a mixture of sulfuric acid and saltpeter (usually potassium nitrate) could dissolve cotton fabric. This was found to be explosive when it dried. By 1885 Joseph Swan had tested strands of cellulose nitrate for use as elements in electric light bulbs.
  1846  CEC.F. Schoenbein obtains patent for cellulose nitrate explosive.
  1847  CEChocolate confectionary (candy) was first created.
  1847  CEThe first ancestor of the complex hybrid lines of tuberous begonias (Begonia tuberhybrida) was imported to Europe from the Bolivian Andes of South America.
  1848  CEJohn Curtis in Bangor in the US produced the first commercial chewing gum. It was made of resin from spruce trees. By 1852 the Curtises had built a large chewing gum factory in Portland.
  1849  CEWilliam Lobb was sent to the Pacific coast of America by Veitch and Sons to collect plants for the horticultural trade.
  1850  CEThe soybean was introduced to US California agriculture in San Francisco by direct importation from Japan.
  1850  CEJohn Jeffrey was sent to Oregon by a consortium called the Oregon Association of Edinburgh. His plant introductions to England included incense cedar and Jeffrey pine.
  1850  CEUS President Millard Fillmore invited Andrew Jackson Downing to design an arboretum and pleasure ground at the grounds for the Washington Mall.
  1850  CESeed of alfalfa (Medicago sativa or mustard cress) were brought by a gold miner from Chile to California where the plant thrived as a forage crop.
  1851  CEAn importation of California grapes to Europe introduced white mildew (oidium) which eventually was treated with flowers of sulphur. The subsequent introduction of California rootstocks as a possible cure brought phylloxera which is a much more problematic root aphid.
  1851  CEHofmeister described alternation of generations in higher plants.
  1851  CEHugh Low discovered the giant pitcher plant (Nepenthes rajah) on Mount Kinabalu in Borneo.
  1851  CEThe Crystal Palace designed by Joseph Paxton as the centerpiece of the first British Great Exhibition was opened.
  1852  CEThe Concord grape was discovered which although of uncertain origin became an important grape for eastern US states with humid climates.
  1853  CEAlbert Kellogg and six colleagues established the California Academy of Sciences.
  1854  CEUS Commodore Matthew C. Perry opened Japan's doors to the West with signing of the Treaty of Kamagawa which opened Japanese ports to foreign trade.
  1855  CEThe first steps were taken toward eventual production of rayon which is derived from cellulose extracted from wood chips.
  1856  CEThe world's first planned orchid hybrid flowered (Calanthe dominii) which was raised by John Dominy for Veitch & Sons.
  1857  CECrossing of China tea roses with Hybrid Perpetuals yielded 'La France' the first Hybrid Tea rose.
19 May 1858  CEFriedrich August Kekule published his structural theory of chemical compounds in a paper describing concepts concerning the tetravalent nature of carbon and its chain-forming capabilities.
  1858  CECharles Darwin and Alfred Wallace were hastily paired to jointly present their ideas 'On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection' before the Linnean Society
  1858  CEInvention of the Mason jar stimulated use of large quantities of white sugar for preserves reducing traditional reliance on maple sugar and molasses for home cooking.
  1858  CERudolf Virchow proposes that cells can only arise from pre-existing cells.
  1858  CEThe Royal Horticultural Society instituted its First Class Certificate of Merit (FCC). By the following year the Floral Committee was established and given management of the Certificate.
  1859  CEAsa Gray published his idea that the north American and Eurasian floras had at one time been homogeneous beacuse Pleistocene glaciation had separated the floras and through evolution.
  1859  CECharles Darwin published 'On the origin of species by means of natural selection' explaining that evolution is a simple change in the overall character of a population of either plants or animals.
  1859  CEIn 'A Tale of Two Cities' Charles Dickens ridiculed the French aristocracy through description of the ritual of chocolate consumption.
  1860  CEAn 1860 report stated that 70 thousand weed seeds were isolated from 2 pints of clover seeds imported from England to the US.
  1860  CEE. Douwes Dekker published his novel 'Max Havelaar' under a pseudonym revealing the inhumane treatment of native workers in Dutch East Indian colonies.
  1860  CEJohn Gould Veitch sent 17 new species of conifer from Japan to England as well as seed and plants of other horticulturally valuable stock.
  1860  CEMr. Shaw's Garden (later to become the Missouri Botanical Garden) in St. Louis is opened to the public.
  1860  CEThomas Clemson takes office as the first US superintendent of agriculture.
  1861  CEThe process of osmosis was discovered.
  1862  CECharles Darwin published the first thorough study of orchid pollination.
  1862  CEUS Congress passed bills constituting the US Morrill Land-Grant College Act which were signed by President Abraham Lincoln.
  1862  CEThe US Department of Agriculture was created. It had been established earlier as a division of the Patent Office with Issac Newton continuing as Commissioner.
  1862  CEGeorge Rogers Hall returned to Flushing in the US from Japan and brought seed - plants - and Wardian cases of material which he entrusted to the Parsons & Co. Nursery.
  1862  CEJoseph Hooker reported on the discovery two years earlier in West Africa of Welwitschia mirabilis.
  1862  CEUS Congress established a Commissioner of Internal Revenue partially to deal with Civil War debt and one tax collected was on whiskey
  1862  CESpecimens obtained by Jean Pierre Armand David from China formed the basis of Plantae Davidianae in which Adrien Franchet of the Museum at the Jardin des Plantes described nearly 1500 new species.
  1865  CEGregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, presents his experiments on the crossbreeding of pea plants and postulates dominant and recessive factors but achieved little recognition.
  1865  CEJoseph Dalton Hooker became Director of Kew.
  1866  CEEighteen year old Jack Newton Daniel established his distillery in Tennessee.
  1866  CEGregor Mendel discovered and published the basic patterns of inheritance and his understanding of the hereditary nature of variation between individuals in a population.
  1866  CEThe American Wood Paper Company was established in Philadelphia based on development of techniques for dissolving wood fibers using caustic soda to create the pulp needed for manufacturing paper.
  1866  CEThomas Newton Dickinson constructed a distillery in Connecticut to manufacture witch hazel extract.
  1867  CEThrough the work of Oliver Kelly - the first Granges (the Patrons of Husbandry) were organized.
  1868  CEJ. W. Hyatt was awarded a $10 thousand prize for his invention of a process to manufacture plastic billiard balls using a mixture of camphor and nitro-cellulose.
  1868  CEJames Arnold left a portion of his estate in trust and Harvard agreed to establish the Arnold Arboretum.
  1869  CEA biologist imported European gypsy moth to the US for study. A few escaped and established populations that have caused great devastation to eastern forests.
  1870  CESome time between 1870 and 1880 the Red Delicious apple would be discovered in the US, in Iowa.
  1870  CEThe Japanese plum (Prunus salicina) arrived in the US when a Californian grower imported it from Japan.
  1870  CEThe navel orange was brought from Brasil in by Saunders and given to the USDA for use as grafting stock for the industry.
  1873  CELegislation created Yellowstone as the first US National Park.
  1873  CESander built his first greenhouse at St. Albans in England. He began a system of tracking orchid hybrid (grex) names that was later institutionalized by the Royal Horticultural Society.
  1875  CEDaniel Peter and Henri Nestle added condensed milk to chocolate to create milk chocolate.
  1876  CEDarwin's book 'Cross and Self Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom' explained the concept of hybrid vigor.
  1877  CEBritish traders sent seed of the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) from Brasil to Malaya. This was followed three decades later by development of Dutch plantations in Sumatra.
  1877  CEFrederick William Burbidge was sent to Borneo by James Veitch and Sons to collect orchids and other exotic plants.
  1877  CEW. J. Beal working at Michigan State University (then Michigan Agricultural College) made the first controlled crosses of corn in an effort to increase yield.
  1878  CEBased on a new Hungarian mechanical process, the Washburn experimental flour mill in Minneapolis marked the beginning of modern milling in the US.
  1878  CECharles Curtis was sent by James Veitch & Sons to Mauritius and Madagascar to collect plants and sent back Angraecum sesquipedale.
  1878  CELuther Burbank relocated from Massachusetts to California to continue his plant breeding program.
  1880  CEBASF (the Baden Dye and Soda Company) had achieved control of indigo which was a dye produced principally in India. By 1880 Adolf von Baeyer and his laboratory successfully synthesized indigo.
  1880  CEFarmers began to cure tobacco using clean hot air rather than the smoky air of charcoal fires. This produced a milder more popular form of tobacco.
  1880  CEIn this decade over 25% of sailors in the Japanese Navy developed beriberi from insufficient quantities of the vitamin thiamine. It was not until several years later that C. Eijkman, a Dutch physician, working in the East Indies demonstrate that a diet of brown rice, as opposed to white rice, prevented the disease.
  1880  CEThe Reverend W. Wilks of Shirley parish in Surrey in England selected from among generations of seedlings to produce the Shirley strain of poppies.
  1881  CEChile defeated Bolivia in a war to take control of coastal and island areas. These areas were where huge deposits of guano (bird droppings) could be harvested for sale to Europe for use in agricultural fertilizers. The war left Bolivia landlocked.
  1881  CEH.F.C. Sander established his new 4-acre orchid nursery near St. Albans in England. By 1886 he had had done more to popularize orchids than any other grower of the time.
  1881  CEJohn Boyd Dunlop acquired the patent for a hollow tire made of rubber and cloth. From this point tires became the major use of natural rubber.
  1881  CEThe loganberry was introduced to commerce by James Logan from his garden in Santa Cruz County in Calafornia.
  1881  CECalifornia becomes the first state to pass plant quarantine legislation.
  1882  CESaintpaulia ionantha (African violets) were recognized as representing a new species in a new genus. In their native Usambara cloudforests the plants now are threatened with extinction.
  1882  CEBordeaux University professor Millardet noticed that the copper sulfate spray applied to grapes deterred downy mildew. By adding lime he invented 'Bordeaux mixture' which was an important early fungicide.
  1883  CEAddis Ababa became the Ethiopian capital. Within twenty years the surrounding 100 miles in radius was stripped of trees for charcoal production.
  1883  CEViscount Itsujin Fukuba built the first greenhouse in Japan and imported a collection of tropical orchids from England and France.
  1884  CEAn assistant to Sigmund Freud discovered purified cocaine could be used as a local anesthetic. Later a similar chemical compound was produced synthetically Procaine (or Novocain) which has replaced cocaine for anesthesis.
  1884  CEKate Greenaway, author of children's books, published her 'Language of Flowers'.
  1884  CEThe new edition of Miller's Dictionary included Aeschynomene the pith hat plant of India used to construct hats which were then covered with white cotton cloth and lined with green cloth to make them lightweight and durable
  1885  CESponsored by the Royal Horticulture Society, the first Orchid Conference was held in England.
  1886  CEThe Dutch government began a study of beri-beri a disease that was devastating the native Indonesian population.
  1886  CEAn Atlanta pharmacist (Jacob's Pharmacy) Dr John Styth Pemberton invents Coca Cola which contained cocaine. He used water (later carbonated water), caramel, kola nut, sugar, vanilla, cinnamon, lime, and coca leaf extractions.
  1887  CEThe US Hatch Act established a yearly grant to support an agricultural experiment station in each state.
  1889  CEA gigantic aroid from Sumatra (Amorphophallus titanum) flowered for the first time in cultivation at Kew.
  1889  CEThe US Pajaro Valley Evaporation Company of Watsonville in California began small-scale production of dehydrated onions.
  1890  CEA US St Louis physician formulated peanut butter as a food for invalids and in 1893 J. H. Kellogg made peanut butter for patients with poor teeth.
  1891  CERavenstein estimated Earth's carrying capacity at 5.994 billion people based on 73.2 million square kilometers in fertile lands.
 Nov 1892  CECaptain Carl Larsen of the 'Jason' lands near the Antarctic Peninsula on Seymour Island. Discovering a number of fossils, this becomes the first evidence of a prior warmer climate.
  1892  CECharles Sprague Sargent traveled to Japan to open the Arnold Arboretum's first Asian mission.
  1892  CEUS farmers first became aware that the boll weevil had crossed the Rio Grande River into Texas cotton fields. Within a decade it was threatening the destruction of the US cotton industry.
  1892  CEThe first gasoline powered tractor was built by John Froelich of Froelich in Iowa in the US.
  1893  CEA US Supreme Court decision declared the tomato to be a vegetable based on common usage of the word 'vegetable' as opposed to the word 'fruit'.
  1893  CEReid's Yellow Dent Corn gained the grand prize as 'the world's most beautiful corn' at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. This became a major force in US Midwestern agriculture and an important parent to modern hybrids.
 Jan 1895  CEHenryk Bull lands in the Antarctic at Cape Adare. A member of the party, Carsten Borchgrevink, finds lichen on an offshore island becoming the first signs of plant life.
  1895  CEDanish scientist Johannes Warming published his 'Oecoloty of Plants'.
  1896  CEHirase and Ikeno published their discovery of motile sperm in Ginkgo and Cycas.
  1896  CEThe New York Botanical Garden was established following legislation drafted in 1891.
  1896  CEThe standard impatiens (Impatiens walleriana) was introduced to the US from East Africa (the Busy Lizzie).
  1897  CEHaving discovered major improprieties in bourbon production the US Congress passed the Bottled-in-Bond Act controlling bourbon production at the source and setting standards for proof and aging.
  1897  CEThe USDA section on Seed and Plant Introduction was formed with David Fairchild as the 'Explorer in Charge'.
  1898  CEGifford Pinchot was appointed head of the US Division of Forestry
  1898  CEThe Bayer Company introduced heroin as a substitute for morphine and codeine. However, by 1917 this drug was found to be greatly addictive and its use in over-the-counter cough syrups was discontinued.
  1898  CEWheat rust is said to have cost the US $67 million and by 1904 significant research programs were established to discover control measures.
  1899  CEThe USDA and State Land Grant Colleges and other agencies cooperated to begin a national US Soil Survey.
  1899  CEThe founding of the American Society of Landscape Architects.
  1899  CENavaschin described double fertilization explaining the problem of xenia as well as establishing yet another distinction between flowering plants and gymnosperms.
  1899  CEThe holdings of Minor Cooper Keith were merged with the Boston Fruit Company to form the United Fruit Company and by 1981 half of all world banana exports came from the US.
  1899  CEWilliam Orton was sent to the South Carolina coastal islands by the US Department of Agriculture to investigate cotton wilt. He learned that local grower Elias Rivers had cotton plants resistant to the disease and had been saving the seed.
  1900  CEWilliam Orton published the earliest report on the value of selective breeding for crop resistance.
  1900  CEJoseph Pernet-Ducher introduced what is thought to be the first yellow hybrid rose called 'Soleil d'Or'. This provided the genetic source for yellow coloration in Hybrid Teas and Floribundas.
  1900  CEThe British owned Pacific Islands Company purchased rights to all minerals on 3-mile-long Ocean Island. Within 80 years 20 million tons of phosphate for agricultural fertilizer were extracted from the island which destroyed the original tropical vegetation and the homeland of the 2 thousand native islanders.
  1900  CEHugo de Vries rediscovers Mendel's laws of genetics.
  1901  CEA Japanese chemist invents 'instant' coffee.
  1901  CEAmericans Charles Hatt and Charles Parr built the first gasoline powered tractor.
  1901  CEMendel's paper on inheritance in peas was republished in the RHS journal.
  1903  CEAmericans Charles Hatt and Charles Parr established the first company dedicated exclusively to manufacturing gasoline powered tractors.
  1903  CEH. E. Huntington purchased a San Marino Ranch where he began to create his estate complete with museum collections and botanical gardens.
  1903  CEWilson, when collecting for Veitch, successfully reintroduced the blue poppy (Meconopsis) to Europe. His greatest triumph was the introduction of the regal lily (Lilium regale).
  1904  CEChestnut blight (Cryphonectria parasitica) from Japan was detected in the New York City area. The disease quickly advanced to destroy nearly the entire native population of American Chestnut.
  1904  CEIced tea was invented at the St. Louis World's Fair by an enterprising British salesman who realized that fair goers were not attracted to hot tea in summer weather.
  1904  CENetherlands Indies colony begins opium production.
  1906  CEPierre du Pont purchased the Pierce house and arboretum which was the property he would develop as Longwood Gardens.
  1906  CEThe first US county agent was employed to work with farmers to combat the ravages of the boll weevil on the cotton crop. This model was quickly adopted in other US Southern states.
  1907  CEThe first Portland Rose festival.
  1908  CEAvocados were planted at San Marino Ranch (today, the Huntington Botanical Gardens) constituting what was apparently the first commercial avocado grove in California.
  1908  CENew York tea importer Thomas Sullivan introduced the tea bag as a means of marketing samples. By 1934, 8 million yards of gauze were used annually to be sewn as tea bags.
  1909  CEDr. Colville and Ms. White begin making crosses to produce the first 18 cultivars of modern blueberries from native US stock.
  1910  CEA chemist with the Corn Products Refining Company discovered a process that would allow the refining of corn oil for cooking. This gave rise to the product 'Mazola'.
  1910  CEThe USDA purchased 475 acres of farmland near Beltsville to establish its Agricultural Research Center. This grew to over 10,500 acres by 1962.
  1911  CEA two year famine began in Russia and while people starved and died the country continued exporting a fifth of its annual grain production.
  1911  CEKudzu was brought to the US from Japan for soil improvement, erosion control and livestock forage.
  1912  CEBallod calculated that a US standard of life would support 2.333 billion people on Earth, a German standard would allow 5.6 billion and a Japanese standard could underwrite 22.4 billion people.
  1912  CEFrederick Hopkins showed that there were chemical substances obtained from food that are essential to human growth and maintenance. Casimir Funk termed these substances 'vitamines'.
  1912  CEThe GooGoo Cluster a chocolate - caramel - & peanut candy - was created in Nashville in the US.
  1912  CETokyo gave som cherry trees to the US to be planted in Washington DC.
  1912  CEThe US Plant Quarantine Act goes into effect.
  1915  CERichard Martin Willstätter was awarded the Nobel Prize for his work with plant pigments (particularly chlorophyll)
  1916  CEThe corn borer arrived in the US
  1916  CEYouth Farm Clubs established during World War I concentrated on the tomato as a crop helping to popularize it
  1917  CEFord's Fordson tractor was introduced in the US at $397
  1917  CEKnibbs calculated that (exclusive of the Arctic and Antarctic) the Earth could yield 752.4 trillion bushels of corn which could support a population of 132 billion
  1918  CEBeginning with a special tobacco plant W. W. Garner and H. A. Allard opened the field of daylength studies a phenomenon they named 'photoperiodism'
  1919  CEThe publication of 'Inbreeding and Outbreeding by E. M. East and D. F. Jones' gave scientific underpinnings to corn breeding. It introduced a system of double crossing through the use of four inbred lines for US corn.
25 Mar 1920  CEThe American Orchid Society began with its first organizational meeting at Horticultural Hall in Boston Massachusetts.
  1921  CEGeorge Washington Carver appeared before the US Congressional Ways and Means Committee promoting a protective tariff on peanuts.
  1922  CEKnudson published his asymbiotic method of seed germination 'Nonsymbiotic Germination of Orchid Seeds' in Botanical Gazette which revolutionized the propagation of orchids.
  1922  CEW. J. Robbins initiated plant tissue culture studies.
  1924  CEFrank Kingdon-Ward tracing routes of plantsmen through southern Tibet collected seeds of the famous blue poppy (Mecanopsis betonicifolia).
  1924  CEInternational Harvester Company introduced their gasoline powered tractor, the Farmall, which was fitted with removable attachments.
  1925  CEThe Los Angeles-base Armacost and Royston nursery acquired seed of Saintpaulia (African violets) from Europe
  1926  CEScientists began to formulate genetic solutions to long-known plant problems when East and Manglesdorf resolved the issue of self-sterility in Nicotiana and Filzer and Lehmann conducted similar studies of Veronica.
  1927  CEA US congressional bill directed the Secretary of Agriculture to establish and maintain a national arboretum for purposes of reserach and education concerning tree and plant life
  1928  CEFollowing on similar work with Drosophila - Stadler used X-rays to produce mutations in corn (Zea mays). (C. Zirkle in Ewan - 1969)
  1929  CEThe Cactus and Succulent Society of America was founded in Southern California in the US.
  1930  CEThe Sanforizer Company introduced an ammonia-based process (devised by Sanford Cluett) that causes cotton fibers to swell preventing shrinkage when washed
  1930  CEVita Sackville-West and her husband Harold Nicolson purchased Sissinghurst Castle and the surrounding 10 acres and began creating their famous garden of rooms
  1932  CEThe first patent issued for a tree, to James Markham for a peach tree
  1934  CEA major windstorm in the US plains states removed 350 million tons of topsoil scattering it over the eastern US and out into the Atlantic
  1935  CEAnalysis by botanist A. Koehler demonstrated that a homemade wooden ladder used during the abduction and murder of the son of Charles and Anne Morrow Lindbergh was made from the same wooden planks that floored Bruno Hauptmann's attic which resulted in his conviction
  1935  CEThe US Rural Electrification Administration (REA) was created through executive order by President F. D. Roosevelt which offered loans to cooperatives and power districts in order to finance supply of power to rural areas
  1936  CEUSDA entomologists Hurd-Karrer and Poos discovered that selenium applied to roots of wheat plants could kill aphids feeding on the leaves and by 1945 selenium was used commercially (applied with fertilizer) to control spider mites in carnations and chrysanthemums
  1936  CEThe first US TV Gardening show
  1936  CESyrah grape variety cutting were brought to California by oenologist Doctor Harold P Olmo of the University of California.
  1937  CEGeorge Russell of York in England exhibited his 'lupins' which were the product of years of hybridizing and selection
  1937  CEThe Nobel Prize was awarded to Albert Szent-Gyogyi who was the first person to isolate vitamin C by extracting it from paprika
  1937  CEThe US Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act provided loans for farm workers to purchase their own lands and created a land conservation program that supported the retirement/purchase of marginal farmland
  1938  CESzent-Gyogyi withdrew his suggestion that 'citrin' (now known to be various flavonoids) which was present along with vitamin C in citrus peels could help maintain small blood vessels
  1939  CESwiss chemist Paul Müller discovered the insecticidal qualities of DDT (a compound first synthesized by German chemist Othmar Zeidler in 1874)
  1940  CESteroids discovered in yam (Dioscorea) proved useful for the manufacture of cortisone and sexual hormones and consequently the cost of hormones dropped from $80 to $2 per gram in the US
  1943  CEAbout 3 million people died from famine-based starvation in Bengal
  1944  CEChinese botanists reported the discovery of the dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides.) which previously had been known only from fossil material that was at least 20 million years old
  1945  CEWhite doves were released in Pasadena in California in the US with the statement 'We are persuaded that this greatest new rose of our time should be named for the world's greatest desire - PEACE'.
  1947  CEDeveloped during WW II - the herbicide 2-4-D was introduced for weed control
  1947  CEThor Heyerdahl sailed a raft made of balsa logs the 'Kon Tiki' from South America far into the Pacific Ocean to support his contention that prehistoric people could have made such journeys
  1949  CEEnglish scientist Kathleen Drew-Baker described the complex life cycle of Porphyra (nori) which allowed commercial farming in Japan to flourish
  1950  CEThe US National Science Foundation was established.
  1954  CEBrown estimated that if humans were willing to sustain themselves through algae farms and yeast factories 50 billion people could be supported on Earth
  1956  CEG. Pincus disclosed that a drug derived from the yam (Dioscorea) could stop ovulation therefore preventing conception allowing production of a birth control 'pill' to replace the previous need for an injection
  1957  CEExtracts from the common periwinkle were found effective in the treatment of childhood leukemia
  1958  CEClark estimated that with 77 million square kilometers of temperate zone agriculturally useful land - the Earth could support 28 billion people. (Cohen - 1995)
  1958  CEThe US established its main seed bank - the National Seed Storage Laboratory - in Ft. Collins - Colorado - where over 250 -000 seed samples are maintained. This is one of the 19 seed-storage facilities in the US that constitute the National Plant Germplasm System. (Levetin & McMahon - 1996)
  1960  CERobert Woodward synthesizes chlorophyll
  1960  CEKey Largo Coral Reef Preserve established (1st underwater park)
  1961  CEKleiber stated that there is sufficient carbon on the planet to allow for 1x10^21 people but allowing for food a population of 800 billion could be supported.
  1961  CEMelvin Calvin was awarded the Nobel Prize in association with Andrew Benson, James Bassham and other scientists. He described the light-independent reactions (often called the dark reactions - or the Calvin cycle) of the photosynthetic system.
  1962  CERachael Carson published 'Silent Spring' spurring an entirely new era of environmental concern and awareness.
  1964  CEThe US Surgeon General's Report connected smoking with lung cancer - heart disease - emphysema and other diseases
  1967  CEDe Wit calculated the Earth's potential photosynthetic output and using a human requirement of 1 million kilocalories per year and by allowing for city and recreation space he calculated Earth's maximum population at 146 billion people
  1967  CEHigh-fructose corn syrup was introduced commercially by Clinton Corn Processing Co which was manufactured using their patented enzyme Isomerose and with rising sugar prices 'Isosweet' became the sweetener for all major soft drinks
  1968  CEHead of the US Foreign Aid Program W. Gaud coined the term 'Green Revolution'
  1970  CENorman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for development of high yielding dwarf strains of wheat while working at the Rockefeller-financed CIMMYT Agricultural Station in Mexico City
  1972  CEDDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) usage was banned in the US
  1972  CEString trimmers were introduced
  1973  CELieth calculated the annual net primary production for land vegetation on Earth to be 100 billion tonnes of dry matter having a caloric content of 426 thousand trillion kilocalories
  1975  CEUnited Farm Workers won the concession to eliminate use of the short-handled hoe in lettuce cultivation
  1977  CEThe perfectly preserved corpse (from the 2nd century B.C.) of the wife of the Marquis of Tai was found in Ch'ang-sha China and in addition to melon seed discovered in her intestines the tomb contained a bowl of peaches
  1978  CERafael Guzman discovered an extant stand of perennial corn (a kind of teosinte) in the mountains near Jalisco
  1979  CELiquid balsam produced by species of Copaifera (copaiba tree) was found to be so similar in composition to diesel fuel that it could be utilized (with no further processing) to power a diesel engine
  1981  CEHundreds of people in Spain became sick and died from consuming cheap olive oil that had been adulterated with French rapeseed oil which contained industrial aniline dyes and was manufactured only for use in steel mills
  1982  CEThe first genetically engineered crop was developed at Washington University in St Louis Missouri and by 1994 the Flavr-Savr tomato became the first such plant approved for commercial marketing which slowed fruit ripening and increased shop life
  1983  CEBarbara McClintock received the Nobel Prize for her work with the complex color patterns of Indian corn when her studies that revealed moveable genetic elements termed 'jumping genes'.
  1983  CEKary B. Mullis devised the polymerase chain reaction which is a system to replicate large quantities of DNA from a small initial sample
  1990  CEProject SEEDS was launched by NASA and The George W Park Seed Co which allowed school students around the USA to compare growth of seed exposed to conditions of space with that of seed stored on earth
  1993  CEThe Convention on Biological Diversity was established.
  1994  CEAn unusual stand of trees was discovered in Wollemi National Park within 200 kilometers of Sydney in Australia and they were found to represent an entirely new genus and species (Wollemia nobilis) in the Araucariaceae (the monkey-puzzle tree family)
  1997  CEControl of Hong Kong was returned to China in response to treaty conditions negotiated following the Opium Wars with Britain.
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