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Exploration of Land & Sea
Exploration of Land & Sea
Exploration of Land & Sea

Exploration of Land & Sea (0150-1986) [Partial Topic]

Man's exploration of the world's enviroment by land, air and sea.

Man's natural urge to explore the his environment has led to the population of most of the world's surface.  Often these activities are intended to be purely peaceful or scientific in nature but inevitably end in some kind of exploitation of either the land or indigenous people.

This topic covers the peaceful and often ingenious attempt to explore the world over both land and sea using navigational and other technological aids developed for this purpose.

  2 May 1497  CEJohn Cabot set sail from Bristol in England, in the 'Matthew', a ship less than 70 feet long, with a crew of 18 men.
 24 Jun 1497  CEJohn Cabot sights Newfoundland (Eastern Canada ) and claims it for England.
 24 Jun 1497  CEAfter 5 weeks at sea, John Cabot's crew sighted land somewhere in Newfoundland.
  6 Aug 1497  CEJohn Cabot returned to England after his first successful journey to the Labrador coast.
  6 Aug 1497  CEJohn Cabot returned to England. Although he brought no spices or treasure back with him, he was able to map out the first details of the North American coast.
    1497  CEJohn Cabot departs from England for North America.
   May 1498  CEJohn Cabot in one of five ships set sail for America. King Henry approved a Cabot's second voyage and financed one ship. Four other ships were financed by merchants hoping to cash in on the new route to the Orient. Only one ship returned for repairs and the other four, with John Cabot as captain, disappeared and never returned.
    1501  CEThe Anglo-Portuguese Syndicate completed the first of five voyages to Newfoundland.
    1508  CESebastian Cabot, son of John Cabot, an accomplished mapmaker and navigator, with King Henry VII's support, set sail to discover western lands.
    1509  CESebastian Cabot arrived back in England only to find that King Henry VII had died and Henry VIII was King. The new King was not as supportive of Cabot's exploration as his predecessor.
    1517  CESir Thomas Pert reached Hudson Bay.
    1526  CEHaving moved to Spain, Sebastian Cabot secured the Spanish ruler's support to find an easier and safer strait than Magellan's. In 1526, he set sail with four ships. He spent four years sailing off the east coast of South America.
    1528  CEEngland established its first colony in the New World at St. Johns, Newfoundland.
    1530  CEExplorer Sebastian Cabot returned to Spain in disgrace as he had not found a better passage around the continent.
    1553  CEIn London, 'The Mysterie and Compagnie of the Merchant Adventurers for the Discoverie of Regions, Dominions, Islands and Places Unknown' offered stock to finance a quest for a passage to the riches of the East.
 10 Nov 1556  CEThe Englishman Richard Chancellor was drowned off Aberdeenshire on his return from a second voyage to Russia.
    1557  CESebastian Cabot, having returned to England from Spain to live as a mapmaker, died.
    1558  CEJohn Dee, English mathematician, invented two compasses for master pilots.
    1566  CESir Francis Drake visited an island off Roanoke, Va., with a ship full of Turkish prisoners. Only half the prisoners were recorded as taken back to England.
    1573  CEThe first European, Sir Francis Drake sees the Pacific (from Panama).
    1573  CEThe first maps in England were made by Christopher Saxton. He produced an atlas with 37 county maps and a large country map.
    1576  CEMartin Frobisher, English navigator, discovered Frobisher Bay in Canada. He explored the Arctic region of Canada and twice brought tons of gold back to England that was found to be iron pyrite.
 13 Dec 1577  CESir Francis Drake of England set out with five ships on a nearly three-year journey that would take him around the world. His mission was to find Terra Australis and raid their Spanish colonies on the west coast of South America. He returned with a 4,500% profit on his investment.
   Sep 1578  CEFrancis Drake passes through the Straights of Megellan only to find himself blown significantly southward due to a tremendous storm in the Pacific. This event proved that Tierra del Fuego was separated from any southern continent and the passageway came to be known as the "Drake Passage".
    1578  CESir Francis Drake renamed his flagship, the Pelican, to the Golden Hind. He ravaged the coasts of Chile and Peru on his way around the world.
    1579  CEBritish explorer Sir Francis Drake lands on the coast of California.
 26 Sep 1580  CEFrancis Drake returned to Plymouth, England, at the end of his voyage to circumvent the globe.
  4 Apr 1581  CEFrances Drake completed the circumnavigation of the world.
    1582  CERichard Hakluyt, English clergyman and geographer, wrote 'Divers Voyages Touching the Discovery of America'.
  5 Aug 1583  CEHumphrey Gilbert, English explorer, annexed Newfoundland in the name of Queen Elizabeth and founded the first English settlement in the New World. His colony disappeared. He drowned this same year at sea in a storm off the Azores.
    1584  CESir Walter Raleigh founds first English colony in Virginia.
    1584  CEBritish explorer Sir Walter Raleigh renews Humphrey Gilbert's patent to explore North America.
    1584  CEWalter Raleigh, English explorer, courtier, and writer, sent settlers to the Virginia colony on Roanoke Island, naming it after the virgin queen.
 13 Jul 1585  CEA group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reached Roanoke Island, North Carolina. Roanoke Island near North Carolina became England's first foothold in the New World.
    1585  CEJohn Davis, English explorer, discovered the strait named after him between Greenland and Canada.
 19 Jun 1586  CEEnglish colonists sailed from Roanoke Island, after failing to establish England's first permanent settlement in America.
    1587  CEThe first English child born in the New World. She was named Virginia Dare.
 10 Sep 1588  CEThomas Cavendish returned to England, becoming the third man to circumnavigate the globe.
    1588  CEAn eye-witness account of the New World was provided by 'A Briefe and True Account of the New Found Land of Virginia', written by Thomas Harriot. It encouraged further settlement and investment.
    1589  CERichard Hakluyt wrote the 'Principle Navigations, Voyages and Discoveries of the English Nation'.
   Aug 1592  CEThe Englishman John Davis, in the 'Desire', discovered the Falkland Islands. This was a tragic expedition as the crew were forced to eat some 14,000 penguins which they were forced to kill for food. Once they reached the tropics, the penguin meat spoiled, and subsequently only 16 members of the original crew of 76 ever reached home shores.
    1595  CEJohn Smith on a whaling expedition mapped the eastern seaboard and named the area new England. The area had earlier been called Norumbega.
 28 Jan 1596  CEEnglish navigator Sir Francis Drake died off the coast of Panama of a fever; he was buried at sea.
    1600  CEBritain's East India Company was founded.
    1601  CEJohn Lancaster leads the first East India Company voyage from London.
 15 May 1602  CECape Cod discovered by English navigator Captain Bartholomew Gosnold.
 21 May 1602  CEMartha's Vineyard first sighted by English navigator Captain Bartholomew Gosnold.
    1605  CEThe American Indian Tisquantum, aka Squanto, was picked up by seafarer George Weymouth and taken to England. He spent 9 years there and returned to the New World as the interpreter for John Smith.
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