Timeline |

c. 0190 CE | Hsu Yo, Chinese mathematician, wrote, Shu Shu Chi I | |

c. 0200 CE | (Between 200-300) Diophantus, a 3rd century Greek mathematician, wrote the first text on Algebra. | |

c. 0250 CE | Liu Hui, Chinese mathematician, wrote 'Hai Tao Suan Ching'. | |

c. 0250 CE | Diophantus of Alexandria wrote the first book on algebra, 'Arithmetica'. | |

0370 CE | Hypatia (370-415), female mathematician born in Alexandria, Egypt. She was a professor of mathematics and philosophy at the University of Alexandria. | |

0520 CE | Guptas invent the decimal system in India. | |

0595 CE | First authenticated record of decimal number system (0-9) appears in India | |

0625 CE | Brahmagupta, the Indian mathematician, taught at Ujjain. | |

c. 0800 CE | (Between 800-900) Muhammed ibn-Musa al-Khwarizmi, Arab mathematician and astronomer, wrote his 'ab al-jabr w' al muqabalah' (the science of reduction and comparison). The work dealt with solving equations. It was the first time that algebra was discussed as a separate branch of mathematics. In the 12th century it was translated into Latin as 'Ludus algebrae et almucgrabalaeque.' | |

1091 CE | The Norman conquest of Saracen-held Sicily provided access to Arabic manuscripts that showed a place-notated decimal system that forms the basis of modern mathematics. | |

1123 CE | Omar Khayyam, Persian poet and mathematician, died. | |

c. 1170 CE | Leonardo Fibonacci, Italian mathematician, was born. It is believed Fibonacci discovered the relationship of what are now referred to as Fibonacci numbers while studying the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt and by investigating how fast rabbits could breed in ideal circumstances. | |

1340 CE | Double-entry bookkeeping was invented in Italy about this time. | |

1458 CE | Benedetto Cotrugli published the first known work on double-entry bookkeeping. It was invented in Italy around 1340. | |

1494 CE | Luca Pacioli, considered the father of accounting, published a book on bookkeeping. | |

1500 CE | Arithmetic add and subtract symbols are used in Europe | |

1512 CE | Gerard Mercator was born (1512-1592) (Gerhard Kremer) who becme a cartographer and mathematician | |

1520 CE | Scipione Ferro develops a method for solving cubic equations. | |

1520 CE | Scipione del Ferro, Italian mathematician, solved cubic equations for the first time. | |

1524 CE | Peter Bennewitz, German professor of mathematics, produced the first textbook on theoretical geography, 'Cosmographia'. | |

1525 CE | Albrecht Durer, German engraver, compiled the first German manual on geometry. | |

1535 CE | Niccolo Tartaglia develops a method for solving cubic equations. | |

1540 CE | Lodovico Ferrari solves the quartic equation | |

1550 CE | Rhaticus, German mathematician, published a set of trigonometric tables. | |

1556 CE | Robert Recorde, English mathematician, wrote a navigational guide to China, 'The Castle of Knowledge'. He was the first person to use the '=' sign. | |

1557 CE | Robert Recorde published the first English treatise on algebra, 'Whetstone of Witte'. | |

1558 CE | John Dee, English mathematician, invented two compasses for master pilots. | |

5 Mar 1574 CE | William Oughtred, mathematician and inventor of the slide rule, was born. | |

1576 CE | Francois Viete, French mathematician, introduced the use of letters for quantities in algebra. | |

1576 CE | The basilica of San Petronio was erected by Egnatio Danti, a mathematician and Dominican friar who worked for Cosimo I dei Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany. The structure included a solar observatory. Danti also advised Pope Gregory on calendar reform. | |

1580 CE | John Dee, mathematician and warden of Manchester College in England, invented the crystal ball. | |

1583 CE | Galileo discovered the parabolic nature of trajectories. | |

1585 CE | Simon Stevin, Dutch mathematician and military and civil engineer, introduces decimals into the mathematical calculations of his physics in Die Thiende. | |

1588 CE | Marin Mersenne (1588-1648), French monk and mathematician, was born. Mersenne numbers, which come from multiplying 2 over and over and subtracting one, are named after him. A small percentage of mersenne numbers are also prime numbers. | |

1596 CE | Ludolf van Ceulen computes Pi to twenty decimal places using inscribed and cirumscribed polygons. | |

1601 CE | Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665), French mathematician, was born. His equation xn + yn = zn is called Fermat's Last Theorem and remained unproven for many years. | |

1614 CE | John Napier invents Napierian logarithms in 'Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio' | |

1617 CE | Henry Briggs discusses decimal logarithms in 'Logarithmorum Chilias Prima' | |

1617 CE | John Napier discusses the Napier's bones calculating method in 'Rabdologia' | |

1619 CE | Reneactue Descartes discovers analytical geometry. | |

24 Apr 1620 CE | John Graunt, statistician, founder of science of demography, was born. | |

1622 CE | English mathematician William Oughtred invents the slide rule. | |

1629 CE | Pierre de Fermat develops a rudimentary differential calculus | |

1634 CE | G. Pers de Roberval shows that the area under a cycloid is three times the area of its generating circle | |

1637 CE | Pierre de Fermat claims to have proven Fermat's Last Theorem in his copy of 'Diophantus Arithmetica'. | |

1637 CE | French mathematician and philosopher Rene Descartes introduced co-ordinate geometry. | |

1637 CE | Rene Descartes, French mathematician, began using the final letters of the alphabet to represent unknowns. He published his 6 tome 'Discours de la Methode' in Leyden. | |

1642 CE | French mathamatician Blaise Pascal develops a mechanical calculator at the age of 21. He did so to ease the drudgery of his tax-collector father, but it was considered too complicated. | |

1645 CE | French mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) completes his 5-digit 'Pascaline' that can add, after three years work. | |

1654 CE | Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat create the theory of probability | |

1655 CE | John Wallis writes 'Arithmetica Infinitorum'. | |

8 Nov 1656 CE | Edmond Halley, mathematician and astronomer who predicted the return of the comet which is named for him, was born. | |

1657 CE | Pierre de Fermat introduces Fermat's principle of least time into optics. | |

1658 CE | Christian Huygens experimentally discovers that balls placed anywhere inside an inverted cycloid reach the lowest point of the cycloid in the same time and hence shows that the cycloid is the isochrone. | |

1658 CE | Christopher Wren shows that the length of a cycloid is four times the diameter of its generating circle | |

1665 CE | Isaac Newton invents his calculus. | |

26 May 1667 CE | Abraham De Moivre, mathematician, was born. | |

1667 CE | Johan Bernouilli (1667-1748), Swiss mathematician and brother of Jacob, was born. | |

1668 CE | Nicholas Mercator and William Brouncker discover an infinite series for the logarithm while attempting to calculate the area under a hyperbolic segment | |

1671 CE | James Gregory discovers the series expansion for the inverse-tangent function | |

1673 CE | Gottfried Leibniz invents his calculus | |

1675 CE | Isaac Newton invents an algorithm for the computation of functional roots | |

16 Apr 1682 CE | John Hadley (1682-1744), was born, in in Enfield Chase (near East Barnet, now in London), Hertfordshire, in England. | |

1684 CE | Gottfreid Leibniz creates differential calculus | |

6 Jul 1687 CE | English mathematician and physicist Isaac Newton (1642-1727) publishes his 'Principia Mathematica' proving the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Solar System | |

1690 CE | Johann Bernoulli (1667-1748) shows that the cycloid is the solution to the isochrone problem | |

1691 CE | Gottfried Leibniz discovers the technique of separation of variables for ordinary differential equations. | |

1691 CE | Johann (James) Bernoulli shows that a chain freely suspended from two points will form a catenary curve which has the lowest possible center of gravity. | |

1696 CE | Johann Bernoulli shows that the cycloid is the solution to the brachistochrone problem. | |

1706 CE | John Machin develops a quickly converging inverse-tangent series for Pi and computes Pi to 100 decimal places. | |

1710 CE | Irish philosopher, George Berkeley (1685-1753) describes an idealist philosophy against materialism. | |

1712 CE | Brook Taylor develops Taylor series' | |

1714 CE | Brook Taylor derives the fundamental frequency of a stretched vibrating string in terms of its tension and mass per unit length by solving an ordinary differential equation. | |

1716 CE | John Hadley (1682-1744), became a Fellow of the Royal Society. | |

1721 CE | John Hadley (1682-1744), built the first Newtonian reflecting telescope. | |

1730 CE | John Hadley (1682-1744), invents a quadrant which measured the altitude of the Sun or of a star. This design later became the sextant. | |

1733 CE | Geralamo Saccheri studies what geometry would be like if Euclid's fifth postulate were false. | |

1734 CE | Daniel Bernoulli solves the ordinary differental equation for the vibrations of an elastic bar clamped at one end. | |

1734 CE | Leonhard Euler introduces the integrating factor technique for solving first order ordinary differential equations. | |

1736 CE | Leonhard Euler solves the Koenigsberg bridge problem. | |