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Middle Christianity

Middle Christianity (1054-1500)

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The middle period of the development of the Christian church including the Great Schism.
Introduction

Around two thousand years ago, it is believed by many, that Jesus the Nazarine was born.  This event was to be the foundation of a religion that has survived through this time and has created many different sects with a common belief in the word of the bible.

After the split into Roman and Orthodox churches there was the 'great schism' when as many as three popes exited at one time before the eventual convergence.

See also: 
Early Christianity (1-1054)

Late Christianity (1500-1998)
.

Timeline
    1054  CEThe Roman and Orthodox Churches split decisively. The Orthodox Church did not accept the papal authority from Rome. Christians in southern Albania were left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome.
    1055  CE(1055-1250) Expansion of Islam under the Seljuks and Christian responses.
    1059  CEThe reforming popes, following from the acts of Henry III, issue a decree on papal elections which gives the cardinals sole right of appointing new popes. This decree allows papal elections to escape the whims of political leaders. 
    1059  CERichard of Aversa and his brother-in-law, Robert Guiscard, met with Pope Nicholas II. The Norman chiefs swore allegiance to the Pope in return for papal recognition for their conquests, whereupon Richard was invested as prince of Capua.  
 28 Feb 1066  CEWestminster Abbey opened.
    1070  CEPossible founding date of the Hospital of St. John in Jerusalem by Amalfi merchants.
    1073  CEGregory VII initiates a new conception of Church and proposes that the Church is obligated to create "right order in the world," rather than withdraw from it and so seeks to create a papal monarchy with power over the secular state.
    1073  CEGregory VII (1073-1085), St. Hildebrand, served as Pope. He was driven from Rome and died in exile.
    1075  CEThe 3rd Cathedral at Santiago de Compostela in Spain was built on the site of the tomb of St. James. There had been a Cathedral on the site since the 9th century.
    1076  CEPope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV.
    1076  CESynod of Worms German King Henry IV fires Pope Gregory VII.
    1077  CEGerman King Heinrich (Henry) IV petitions Pope Gregory VII for forgiveness.
    1077  CEPope Gregory VII pardons German emperor Heinrich (Henry) IV.
    1079  CEScholasticism emerges as an attempt to reconcile classical philosophy (primarily Aristotelean) with Christianity. Peter Abelard (1079-1142) contributes to this movement with his great theological work, Sic et Non. 
    1079  CEPeter Abelard (1079-1142), was born in Brittany, and later became a great medieval scholar.
    1084  CEAnti-pope Clemens crowns German emperor Hendrik (Henry) IV.
    1086  CEAbbott Dauferio/Desiderius becomes Pope Victor III. 
 13 Nov 1093  CEBattle of Alnwick
   Nov 1093  CEDonald Bane becomes King of Scotland
    1095  CEPope Urban II preaches the first Crusade.
    1096  CECrusaders massacre Jews of Worm.
c.    1096  CEThe Church of the Holy Sepulcher was built in Jerusalem on the traditional site of the burial and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
    1096  CEIn France Saint-Eutrope's church was consecrated in the town of Saintes, the ancient capital of the Saintonge.
    1096  CE(1096-1291) European Christians fought Arab Muslims for control of Jerusalem and the Holy Land.
 30 Jun 1097  CEThe Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum.
  3 Jun 1098  CEChristian Crusaders of the First Crusade seized Antioch, Turkey.
    1098  CEThe crusaders of the First Crusade defeat Prince Redwan of Aleppo capturing Antioch and most of Syria, killing the Turkish inhabitants.
  5 Jun 1099  CEKnights and their families on the First Crusade witnessed an eclipse of the moon and interpreted it as a sign from God that they would recapture Jerusalem.
  8 Jul 1099  CEIn Jerusalem 15,000 starving Christian soldiers marched around barefoot while the Muslim defenders mocked them from the battlements.
 12 Jul 1099  CECrusade leaders visited the Mount of Olives where they met a hermit who urged them to assault Jerusalem.
 13 Jul 1099  CEThe Crusaders launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.
 15 Jul 1099  CEJerusalem fell to the crusaders of the First Crusade who slaughtered the Jewish and Muslim inhabitants.
 12 Aug 1099  CEAt the Battle of Ascalon 1,000 Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, routed an Egyptian relief column heading for Jerusalem, which had already fallen to the Crusaders.
    1099  CECrusaders beat Saracens in Battle of Ascalon
    1099  CECrusaders set fire to Mara Syria
    1099  CEThe first Crusaders begins siege of Hosn-el-Akrad Syria.
    1099  CEAfter the Crusaders take Jerusalem, they divide their new territories into four principalities.
c.    1100  CESt. Cono was born in Teggiano in southern Italy. He became a Benedictine monk and went on to perform numerous miracles. His remains were later embedded in a statue in the church of Santa Maria Maggiore.
c.    1100  CEIn Spain the town of Santo Domingo de la Calzada was founded by a man known as St. Dominic of the Walkway.
c.    1100  CE(Between 1100-1200) Shihab el-Din was an anti-Crusader cleric. He was believed to be buried in Nazareth next to the Basilica of the Annunciation.
c.    1100  CE(Between 1100-1200) In France the Abbot Suger was busy embellishing the abbey of St. Denis.
c.    1100  CE(Between 1100-1200) The German Stammheim Missal was made. It told stories from Creation to the crucifixion of Christ. In 1997 it was acquired by the J. Paul Getty Museum.
c.    1100  CE(Between 1100-1200) San Isidro, a Spanish farmer, later became the patron saint of Madrid.
    1104  CEThe carved wooden casket that was with the remains of St Cuthbert was opened and a manuscript copy of the Gospel of St. John written in uncial was found perfectly preserved.
    1107  CEEnrico Dandolo (1107-1205), ruler of Venice, was born. He was blind and spearheaded the 4th Crusade. He funded an army to capture Constantinople and after the 'rape of Constantinople' pocketed some of the city's riches.
    1110  CECrusaders march into Beirut causing a bloodbath.
    1113  CEHospital of St. John recognized by papal bull as separate order.
 18 Dec 1118  CEAfonso the Battler, the Christian King of Aragon captured Saragossa, Spain, a major blow to Muslim Spain.
    1118  CEHugh of Payens of Burgundy and Godfrey of Saint Adhemar, a Fleming, with seven other knights were credited with founding the Templars whose headquarters was on or near the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
    1118  CEGiovanni Caetani elected Pope Gelasius II.
    1119  CEGuido di Borgogna elected Pope Callistus II.
    1119  CEThe Knights Templar were founded to protect pilgrims in the Holy Land during the second Crusade.  
    1122  CEA compromise is drawn between Pope and the Emperor over the issue of investiture. Prelates accept the emperor as their temporal overlord and are invested with the symbol that recognizes their right to rule. 
    1123  CEThe first Latern Council (9th ecumenical council) opens in Rome.
    1128  CEThe Royal High School in Scotland was founded by a group of Edinburgh Friars.
   Jan 1129  CECouncil of Troyes recognized the Temple as an order.
    1130  CEGregorio de Papareschi elected as Pope Innocent II.
    1130  CEJewish Cardinal Pietro Pierleone elected as anti-pope Anacletus II
    1130  CEThe French church at the abbey at Cluny was completed and measured over 400 feet long.
    1138  CEAnti-Pope Victor IV (Gregorio) overthrows self for Innocentius II. 
 20 Apr 1139  CEThe Second Lateran Council (10th ecumenical council) opened in Rome.
    1139  CEPapal Bull by Pope Innocent II
    1140  CEGratian wrote the illuminated 'Decretum,' a standard treatise on canon law in Bologna about this time. He wrote three volumes on the subject which were lavishly illustrated. The three volumes were later published by the Vatican in 1975.  
    1142  CE(1142-1271) In Syria, the Crac des Chevaliers, a Crusader castle, was built by the Knights Hospitalers.
    1144  CEThe Romanesque abbey church of St. Denis, a burial shrine for French saints and kings, is torn down and replaced with Gothic architecture which is characterised by pointed arches, rather than Roman arches, ribbed vaulting and flying buttresses.
    1144  CEGherardo Caccianemici elected Pope Lucius II, succeeding Callistus II.
    1144  CEThe Saracens recaptured the crusader's castles along the Palestine coast.
    1145  CEBernardo elected Pope Eugene III.
    1147  CEThe beginning of the Second Crusade (1147-1149).
    1148  CEThe Second Crusade.
    1153  CETreaty of Konstanz between Frederik I of Germany and Pope Eugene III.
    1154  CESir Thomas Becket was given the high office of Chancellor to the King, Henry II.
    1155  CEA student of Peter Abelard, Peter Lombard, writes the Book of Sentences which answers fundamental questions of theology with passages from the Bible and various Christian thinkers. 
 29 Dec 1170  CEThomas Becket, St. Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral in England.
    1170  CEDomingo de Guzman (1170-1221), a Spanish monk, was born. He founded the Dominicans, also called mendicants, for they abjured great abbeys and cloisters in favor of a life of utmost simplicity and poverty.
    1172  CEGerman monk Theodorich wrote 'Guide to the Holy Land'.
    1173  CEPope Alexander III canonizes Thomas Becket Archbishop of Canterbury.
    1179  CE3rd Lateran Council (11th ecumenical council) opens in Rome.
    1182  CEIn Constantinople Western Christians were massacred by Muslims. A cardinal was beheaded and 4,000 Western Christians were sold into slavery.
 21 Jan 1189  CEPhilip Augustus of France, Henry II of England and Frederick I of Germany assembled the troops for the Third Crusade.
 
  1189  CEEmperor Frederik I Barbarossa and 100,000 crusaders depart Regensburg.
 
 
16 Mar 1190  CEThe Crusades began the massacre of Jews in York, England. The Jewish population of York fled to Clifford's Tower overlooking the rivers Ouse and Foss during an anti-Jewish riot. A crazed friar set fire to the tower and rather than be captured, the inhabitants committed mass suicide.
 
 
4 Jul 1190  CERichard I, King of England, starts his Crusade.
 
 
  1190  CEThe crusaders lay siege to Acre.
 
 
  1190  CECrusaders kill 57 Jews in Bury St Edmonds England.
 
 
6 Feb 1191  CEQuestionable bull of Pope Clement III approving the German hospitaller order at Acre.
 
 
12 Jul 1191  CESiege of Acre ended in crusader victory.
 
 
  1194  CEThe cathedral at Chartres was mostly destroyed by fire. The Sancta Camisia relic survived intact and the cathedral was rebuilt in 29 years.  
 
 
21 Dec 1196  CEPope Celestine III took the 'Hospital of St. Mary of the Germans in Jerusalem' under his protection.
 
 
  1198  CELotario di Segni elected Pope Innocent III, the founder of the Papal State and is thirty-seven when he is elected. His primary concern is the unification of all Christendom under the papal monarchy, including the right to interfere with the rule of kings.
 
 
  1198  CEThe Fourth Crusade was funded by Enrico Dandolo, doge of Venice.
 
 
19 Feb 1199  CEBull of Pope Innocent III confirmed the Teutonic Knights' wearing of the Templars' white mantle and following of the Hospitallers' rule.
 
 
  1200  CEAlbertus Magnus (1200-1280), the teacher of Thomas Aquinas, was born. He wrote extensively on the form and behavior of the earth. He and Aquinas created a synthesis of Aristotelian thought and Catholic theology. 
 
 
  1200  CE(Between 1200-1300) St. Gertrude, a German nun, was an important Catholic mystic.
 
 
  1202  CEThe Fourth Crusade began.
 
 
  1202  CEAssisi fought against Perugia in the Battle of Collestrada. St. Francis faced his first test in life as a soldier in this battle.  
 
 
  1203  CEThe Fourth Crusade murdered 100,000 Orthodox Christians.  
 
 
 Apr 1204  CEThe crusaders of the Fourth Crusade capture Constantinople. The sack of Constantinople causes a firm Byzantine hatred of the West.
 
 
  1206  CEFrancesco di Pietro di Bernardone (1181-1226), later Saint Francis of Assisi, at the age of 25, renounced his worldly possessions. He is the founder of the Franciscan order which seeks to imitate the life of Jesus by embracing poverty. 
 
 
24 Mar 1208  CEKing John of England opposed Innocent III on his nomination for archbishop of Canterbury.
 
 
  1208  CESt Francis of Assisi, at the age of 26, received his vocation in Portiuncula Italy.
 
 
  1209  CEPope Innocent III urged a crusade against the Albigensians. They were ascetic communitarians of southern France who viewed the clergy and secular rulers as corrupt. A war resulted that effectively destroyed the Provencal civilization of southern France.
 
 
  1209  CEThe Franciscan brotherhood received papal approval.  
 
 
  1210  CEFrancis founded the Franciscans, and demanded that his followers subsist entirely on what they can beg while preaching.  
 
 
  1211  CESt. Francis reportedly landed on the Isola Maggiore, an island on Lake Trasimeno.  
 
 
 Jul 1212  CESpain reconquers the Iberian peninsula from the Muslims in the name of Christianity.
 
 
 Nov 1212  CEJohn, King of England, accepts the Pope's demands.
 
 
  1212  CEStephen, a shepherd boy from Cloyes-sur-le-Loir, France, had a vision of Jesus and set out to deliver a letter to the King of France.
 
 
15 May 1213  CEKing John submitted to the Pope, offering to make England and Ireland papal fiefs. Pope Innocent III lifted the interdict of 1208.
 
 
  1213  CEEnglish King John names Stephen Langton Archbishop of Canterbury.
 
 
 Nov 1215  CEAt the Fourth Lateran Council in Rome the central dogmas of Christianity were discussed and defined. It recognizes the necessity of the Eucharist and penance as sacraments for salvation.
 
 
 Nov 1215  CEPope Innocent III called the fifth crusade (1215-1229) at the Fourth Lateran Council (12th ecumenical council) in Rome. Hermann von Salza was probably present representing the order of the Teutonic Knights.
 
 
  1216  CEThe Dominican order is founded by St. Dominic of Spain and was authorized by Innocent III. Its purpose is to convert Muslims and Jews and to put an end to heresy. The Dominicans eventually become the main administrators of inquisitorial trials.
 
 
  1219  CEWilliam Marshal dies
 
 
22 Nov 1220  CEAfter promising to go to the aid of the Fifth Crusade within nine months, Frederick II was crowned emperor by Pope Honorius III.
 
 
  1222  CEThe 'Golden Bull' of Hungary, first issue.
 
 
25 Dec 1223  CESt. Francis of Assisi assembled one of the first Nativity scenes, in Greccio, Italy.
 
 
  1223  CEIn France Chartres cathedral in its present form was completed.
 
 
  1224  CEAfter being a pupil of the Benedictines, after nine years, Thomas Aquinas (circa ?-1274) went to Naples to study and joined the Dominicans because Emperor Frederic II temporarily disbanded the monks at Cassino.
 
 
  1225  CEThomas Aquinas, the most influential Scholastic theologian, is teaching at the University of Paris. Aquinas believes in the contemplation of God through the natural order, though ultimate truths are revealed only by studying the revelations of the Bible.
 
 
8 Nov 1226  CELouis IX (St. Louis), succeeded Louis VIII as King of France and becomes one of the most loved monarchs of French history. He is canonized by the Church for his piety and reigns over a period of internal peace in France. [Until 1270]
 
 
  1227  CECount Ugolino of Segna elected Pope Gregory IX.
 
 
  1227  CEIn Spain construction of the Gothic Cathedral in Toledo was begun.
 
 
  1228  CEThe Basilica di San Francesco was constructed in Assisi, Italy.
 
 
  1228  CESt. Francis of Assisi, founder of the Franciscan order, was canonized.
 
 
  1230  CEKulm recognized by Pope Gregory IX as belonging to the Teutonic Knights.
 
 
  1233  CEThe Inquisition began and lasted into the 19th century.  
 
 
  1235  CERaimon Llull (1235-1316), a Mallorcan Catholic Franciscan poet, was born. He proposed an artificial language that used 4 figures and 9 letters called his Ars magna. It was proposed as the perfect tool for Christian missionaries.  
 
 
29 Jun 1236  CEFerdinand III of Castile and Leon took Cordoba in Spain. Cordoba, Spain, fell to Christian forces. The last Islamic kingdom left in Spain is that of the Berbers in Granada.
 
 
23 Dec 1236  CEPope Gregory IX taxed the Peloponnesus to support crusading ventures and the preceptor of the Teutonic Knights was identified as one of three collectors of this tithing effort.
 
 
  1237  CEThe Bishop of Riga sent a request to Rome that the Pope unite the German Knights of the Sword (the swordbrothers) and Knights of the Cross (the Tutonic Knights) into one order. The Pope agreed and the two orders agreed to fight under one magistrate.
 
 
  1237  CEThe Knights of the Sword ended their activities in Livonia.  
 
 
  1238  CEThe Knights of the Sword merged with the German Knights of the Cross.  
 
 
  1242  CESt. Bonaventura enters the Franciscan order. He becomes the seventh general of that order within fifteen years. He is a professor of theology at the University of Paris, Bishop of Albano, made cardinal by Gregory X and is canonized by Sixtus IV. 
 
 
  1243  CE(Spring ) Simon de Montfort gets custody of Kenilworth castle
 
 
  1243  CEA Charter granted permission for a fair at the monastery of St. Michael at Glastonbury Tor.
 
 
23 Aug 1244  CEMuslim Turkish forces expelled the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem and it not recaptured again until 1917.
 
 
17 Oct 1244  CEThe Sixth Crusade ended when an Egyptian-Khwarismian force almost annihilated the Frankish army at Gaza.
 
 
  1244  CEThe Cathars, a group of Catholic heretics, settled at Montsegur, France, in the Ariege region. They were besieged for more than a year and chose to burn at the stake rather than submit. Occitania was the ancient name for this region.
 
 
  1245  CEThe first Council of Lyons (13th ecumenical council) opens.
 
 
  1245  CEThomas Aquinas was sent to Paris where he enrolled as a student of Albertus Magnus to study theology, philosophy, and history.
 
 
  1245  CEJohn of Plano Carpini was a Franciscan monk who set out on the instructions of Pope Innocent IV to gather intelligence. 
 
 
31 Oct 1246  CEPope Innocent IV transferred the Hospital of St. James to the Templars.
 
 
  1248  CEArchbishop Konrad von Hochstaden lays cornerstone for Köln cathedral. 
 
 
  1248  CEConstruction of Cologne Cathedral begun. 
 
 
  1248  CEBath Lady Chapel
 
 
  1248  CESainte Chapelle in Paris was completed and commissioned by Louis IX to contain what was believed to be Christ's crown of thorns.
 
 
  1250  CEThe successors of Pope Innocent III are involved in a political struggle with Frederick II, who attempts to take control in central Italy. They order a crusade against him, which results in the death of Frederick. 
 
 
  1251  CEIn Lithuania Mindaugas accepted Christianity with his wife, 2 sons, about 600 of his nobility and many of his people. An envoy was then sent to Rome to request the Pope's formal approval for coronation which was granted.
 
 
  1252  CEThe papacy approves the use of torture for religious disobedience, following Innocent III's brutal 'inquisition' against heresy (namely the Waldensian and Albigensian heretics). 
 
 
  1255  CEAbundant Harvest
 
 
  1256  CEThomas Aquinas received his license to teach. 
 
 
3 Sep 1260  CEMamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeated Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
 
 
4 Sep 1260  CEAt the Battle of Montaperto in Italy, the Tuscan Ghibellines, who supported the emperor, defeated the Florentine Guelfs, who supported papal power.
 
 
  1260  CECarbon dating techniques in 1988 determined that the cloth of the Shroud of Turin dated between 1260-1390. The testing was later held in question.  
 
 
  1263  CEIn a Spanish court Rabbi Moses ben Nachman defended the legitimacy of Judaism against Pablo Christiani, a converted Jew, who argued for Christianity. The trial was set up by King James I of Aragon to please the pope.
 
 
  1264  CEComet said to predict the death of Pope Urban IV is last seen.
 
 
  1264  CEVincent of Beauvais and the Speculum Maius describing the compiling and adapting techniques of a thirteenth-century Dominican.  
 
 
  1265  CEDuns Scotus (1265-1308), the Franciscan 'subtle doctor', was born. He stated that God is absolutely free, and absolute freedom means being free of reason's necessity, as well as of all else. 
 
 
  1266  CESt. Thomas Aquinas penned his 'Summa Theologica,' in which he attempted to reconcile theology with economic conditions. He argued that reason could operate within faith.  
 
 
  1267  CEVienna's Synod of Breslau orders Jews of Silesia to wear special caps.
 
 
30 Oct 1270  CEThe seventh crusade was ended by the treaty of Barbary.
 
 
  1270  CEThe Eighth Crusade called by King Louis of France was soon decimated by the Plague.
 
 
  1271  CENicolo and Marco Polo obtained letters from the papal legate in Palestine, who was soon elected as Gregory X. The Khan's request for 100 intelligent men could not be filled and the Polos departed Acre with two friars who soon turned back. The Polos continued on their own.
 
 
  1271  CEThe Polos were called back to Acre where the new Pope assigned two friars, Fra Nicolo da Vicenza and Fra Guielmo da Tripoli, to accompany them to visit the grand khan. They reached Armenia and heard that the soldan of Babylonia, named Bundokdari, had invaded Armenian territory. The friars feared for their lives and returned home.
 
 
7 May 1274  CEThe Second Council of Lyons opened in France to regulate the election of the pope.
 
 
  1274  CE2nd Council of Lyons (14th ecumenical council) opens.
 
 
  1274  CEThomas Aquinas was summoned before a council at Lyons to answer for his opinions. He was publicly chastised but not condemned.
 
 
  1274  CEThe Knights of the Cross overcame the Prussian towns of Nadruva and Skalva between 1274-1277.
 
 
  1276  CEPierre de Tarantaise elected Pope Innocent V.
 
 
  1278  CENestorian Christians under the governor, Mar-sachis, appointed by the grand-khan for three years, built three Nestorian Churches in the city of Chan-ghian-fu, in the province of Manji.  
 
 
  1281  CESimon de Brion elected Pope Martinus IV.
 
 
  1288  CEGirolamo Masci is elected Pope Nicolas IV. 
 
 
  1290  CEThe Teutonic Knights complete a 30 year effort to control Prussians.
 
 
18 May 1291  CEThe Sultan of Egypt and his son take the last Christian stronghold of Acre. The Hospitaller and Templar headquarters are moved from Acre to Cyprus and the Teutonic Knights headquarters moved from Acre to Venice
 
 
  1291  CEThe Catholic Franciscan order arrived in Bosnia.
 
 
  1294  CEPope Boniface VIII is in dispute with the kings of England and France over the taxation of the clergy for support of war.
 
 
  1294  CEPope Celestine V resigned voluntarily.
 
 
  1296  CEPope Boniface VIII degree of Clericis Iaicos. 
 
 
  1297  CEThe people of Riga rose against the Teutonic Knights. The local Bishop asked Vytenis to help and the Knights were pushed back. This opened a northern trade route for Vytenis for weapons and supplies.
 
 
  1300  CEPope Boniface VIII delegates degree.
 
 
  1300  CE(1300-1307) The Gladzor Gospels, Armenian illuminated manuscripts whose images are the work of five artists, T'oros Taronets being the only one whose name is known. These gospels are a defining document of the medieval Armenian church's doctrinal independence.
 
 
  1300  CEWilliam of Ockham (1300-1349), a Franciscan, was born. He proclaimed that the only real things are singular entities like an apple or man, and that universals have no existence whatever; they are mere names. 
 
 
  1303  CEPope Boniface VIII is captured in Anagni by local citizens and is abused beyond his capabilities to sustain the mistreatment. He dies in his seventies a month after his release. After his death, the Church witnesses many institutional crises.
 
 
  1303  CEIn Italy the Padova Chapel was completed and Giotto painted a fresco cycle with scenes from the Old and New Testaments.
 
 
  1305  CEThe papacy is moved from Rome to Avignon, beginning the Church's 'Babylonian Captivity' (1305-1378). For most of the fourteenth century, the papacy is subordinate to French authority with the majority of cardinals and popes being French.
 
 
13 Oct 1307  CEMembers of the Knights of Templar were arrested throughout France, imprisoned and tortured by the order of the King Philip the Fair of France.
 
 
  1309  CEThe period of 'Babylonian Captivity' began (1309-1377) during which the popes left Rome and took up residence at Avignon under the wing of the king of France.
 
 
12 May 1310  CEFifty-four Knights Templar were burned at the stake as heretics in France. They had been established during the Crusades to protect pilgrims travelling to the Holy Land, but came into increasing conflict with Rome.
 
 
  1311  CECouncil of Vienne (15th ecumenical council) opens.
 
 
  1312  CEPope Clement V closes Council of Vienna.
 
 
  1312  CEThe Knights Templar were suppressed by Pope Clement at the Council of Vienna.
 
 
  1315  CEThe Church of the Holy Virgin was built in Musutiste, Kosovo. 
 
 
  1327  CEGerman Dominican Master Eckhart (1260-?) defines the individual soul as a 'spark' of the divine at its most basic element through which one may reach God. Most of his teachings are condemned by the papacy.
 
 
26 May 1328  CEWilliam of Ockham was forced to flee from Avignon by Pope John XXII.
 
 
  1328  CELouis IV de Beier selects P Rainalducci as anti-Pope Nicolaas V.
 
 
  1328  CEJohn Wycliffe (1328-1384), English theologian and biblical translator, was born. He was posthumously declared a heretic and his body was exhumed for burning in 1428.
 
 
  1330  CEOxford theologian John Wyclif is born. He later becomes the leader of a heretical movement. Finding the Church extravagant, he condemns most Church officials and begins a reform movement.
 
 
  1331  CENa Prous Boneta was burned at the stake as a female heretic one hundred years before Joan of Arc.  
 
 
  1342  CEThe reign of Avignonese Pope Clement VI exemplifies the French takeover of the Church. The French Church based in Avignon rises in power, centralizes the Church government and establishes a system of papal finance.
 
 
  1345  CEAttempted calendar reform of Pope Clement VI.
 
 
  1350  CEOrvieto city says it will behead & burn Jewish-Christian couples.
 
 
  1350  CESargis Pitsak, Armenian artist, produced illuminated manuscripts of the bible.
 
 
  1352  CEThe gothic Cathedral of Our Lady was begun in Antwerp, Belgium. It was completed in the 16th century.
 
 
  1367  CEUrban V is successful in returning the pope to Rome.
 
 
  1368  CEPope Gregory XI dies, but ecause the papacy is now in Rome, an Italian pope, Urban VI, is elected and begins quarreling with the French cardinals who then cancel the previous election and elect a French pope, Clement VII.
 
 
  1373  CEBoccaccio began a course of public readings of the divine Comedy in the church of Santo Stefano in Florence.
 
 
20 Sep 1378  CEThe election of Robert of Geneva as anti-pope by discontented cardinals created a great schism in the Catholic church.  
 
 
  1378  CEThe last bishop on Greenland died. No replacement was sent.
 
 
  1378  CEThe Great Western Schism began which split the Roman Catholic Church and involved 2 anti-popes at its height. It ended in 1417. 
 
 
14 Aug 1385  CEJogaila and his brothers signed a treaty with Poland at Krievos Castle. Here he agreed to convert to Christianity and to seek the conversion of all of Lithuania and that then Lithuania and Poland would unite.
 
 
  1386  CEThe Duomo Cathedral was begun in Milan. The Milanese boast that it took 500 years to build.
 
 
  1389  CECosimo de Medici (1389-1464), Florentine merchant banker, was born. The Medici family served as the world-wide tithe and tax collector for the Catholic Church.
 
 
  1389  CEA French bishop advised the Pope that the Shroud of Turin, that had materialized in the village of Lirey a generation earlier, was a fraud.
 
 
25 Sep 1396  CEThe last great Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajazet I's Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
 
 
  1399  CEIn England, the death penalty becomes the punishment for heresy, and many Lollards (Wyclif's lay followers) convert.
 
 
  1400  CECzech students of John Wyclif bring Wyclifism to the Bohemian capital of Prague.
 
 
  1400  CE(1400-1500) The 15th Century Urbino Bible was produced.  
 
 
  1409  CEThe Council of Pisa opens. A council of prelates from both sides of the Great Schism meet at Pisa and decide to rename a new pope in place of the two. However, both popes enjoy great political power and refuse the deposition, causing three rivals to the papacy instead of two.
 
 
  1414  CECouncil of Constance (16th ecumenical council) opens [untill 1418]. 
 
 
6 Jul 1415  CEJan Hus, Bohemian religious reformer, a Czech who spoke out against Church corruption, was burned at the stake as a heretic.
 
 
14 Jul 1415  CEAngelo Correr became Pope Gregory XII.
 
 
  1415  CEJohn Hus travels to the Council of Constance to propose his reforms for the Church. Upon his arrival at the Council, Hus is tried for heresy and burned. His death encourages futher revolt by his followers. 
 
 
30 May 1416  CEJerome of Prague was burned as a heretic by the Church.
 
 
  1416  CEMonk Nicolaas Serrurier arrested because of heresy at Tournay. 
 
 
  1417  CEThe Great Schism ends. The Council of Constance, the largest Church meeting in medieval history, ends the Great Schism by gaining secular support and electing Martin V as pope. It replaces papal monarchy which recognizes a council of prelates as the pope's authority. 
 
 
  1420  CEPope Martinus I calls for crusade against the Hussieten (Hussites). 
 
 
  1427  CEThomas a Kempis writes 'The Imitation of Christ', a manual directing the individual through Orthodox mysticism. Originally in Latin, it is translated into European languages for the lay audience. 
 
 
  1428  CEKing Alfonso V, orders Sicily's Jews to attend conversion sermons.
 
 
  1428  CEPope Martinus V declares Jacoba van Beierens marriage invalid.
 
 
 Jan 1431  CEJoan of Arc handed over to the Pierre Cauchon, the bishop of Beauvais and and Jean Lemaitre, vicar of the inquisitor of France. This began the first phase of her trial (an ecclesiastical investigation for heresy) which lasted until March.
 
 
 Apr 1431  CEBritain begins the second phase of her trial against Joan of Arc (for witchcraft and fraud) which lasts until May. She was finally condemned on a technicality, for persisting in wearing male clothing.
 
 
  1431  CEBishop Gabriele Condulmer elected as Pope Eugene IV.
 
 
  1431  CERodrigo Borgia Lanzol (1431-1503), member of the Borgia family, was born. He was elected Pope Alexander VI in 1492 and amassed a fortune by pocketing church funds. His reign helped inspire the Protestant reformation. He fathered numerous children including Lucrezia Borgia.
 
 
  1438  CEPope Eugenius IV deallocated council of Basel to Ferrara.
 
 
  1447  CETommaso Parentucelli succeeds Pope Eugene IV as Nicolas V.
 
 
  1450  CEFirst book printed with movable metal type. Johannes Gutenberg printed a 42-line bible with movable type in Mainz. He perfected interchangeable type that could be cast in large quantities and invented a new type of press.
 
 
  1452  CEPope Nicolaas I crowns Frederik III of Hapsburg Roman Catholic-German emperor.
 
 
  1456  CEPope Calixtus III appointed his nephew Rodrigo Borgia Lanzol, later Pope Alexander VI, a cardinal.
 
 
  1456  CEA comet in the sky caused the Pope to issue a catchall edict to his followers to pray for deliverance from 'The Devil, the Turk, and the Comet'.
 
 
  1461  CEThe Pope's godson discovered a source of alum, used in dyes. This led to a booming business for the Catholic Church.
 
 
  1471  CEPontificate of Sixtus IV [until 1484].
 
 
  1473  CEThomas a Kempis wrote his popular 'Imitation of Christ'. It went through 99 editions by the end of the century.  
 
 
  1478  CEThe Spanish Inquisition persecutes Jews, Muslims and heretics.
 
 
  1482  CEFirst great Renaissance villa is built for Pope Leo X.
 
 
9 Aug 1483  CEPope Sixtus IV celebrated the first mass in the Sistine Chapel, which was named in his honor.
 
 
10 Nov 1483  CEMartin Luther (1483-1546), leader of the Protestant Reformation, was born in Eisleben, Germany. He was a monk in the Catholic Church until 1517, when he founded the Lutheran Church.
 
 
  1483  CERabbi Issac Abarbanel starts his exegesis on the Bible.
 
 
5 Dec 1484  CEPope Innocent VIII issued a bull deploring the spread of witchcraft and heresy in Germany. He ordered that all cats belonging to witches scheduled to be burned, be also burned. Kraemer and Sprenger, two Dominican friars, had induced Pope Innocent VIII to issue a bull authorizing them to extirpate witchcraft in Germany.
 
 
  1486  CEPico Mirandola challenged the scholars of all of Europe that he would defend a list of nine hundred thesis drawn from various Greek, Latin, Hebrew, and Arabic authors. His list came to the attention of the Vatican, which found thirteen of the theses heretical. Pico was stunned and issued an immediate recantation but was imprisoned for a short time anyway. 
 
 
4 May 1493  CEPope Alexander VI divided the non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal.
 
 
  1493  CESpanish Pope Alexander VI divides non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal.
 
 
6 Jan 1494  CEThe first Roman Catholic Mass in the New World marked the official establishment of La Isabela.
 
 
  1495  CEPope gives his son Cesare Borgia as a hostage to Charles VIII of France.
 
 
  1496  CEMoorish fortress Alhambra, near Grenada, surrenders to the Christians. 
 
 
  1497  CEPope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola.
 
 
  1497  CEPortuguese Jews were forced to convert to Christianity and were known as 'New Christians', though many continued to practice their original faith in secret.
 
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
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