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Early Christianity

Early Christianity (0001-1054)

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The founding of the Christian church from the birth of Jesus the Nazarine to the split into Roman and Orthodox churches.

Around two thousand years ago, it is believed by many, that Jesus the Nazarine was born.  This event was to be the foundation of a religion that has survived through this time and has created many different sects with a common belief in the word of the bible.

No documents written during the time of Jesus's life exist today - other than the contentious dead sea scrolls discovered at Qumran.  The Bible itself was constructed at various times, beginning from approximately the year 80 CE onwards.

See also:
Middle Christianity (1054-1500)
Late Christianity (1500-1998)

c.    0001  CEOrigin of Christian Era - Jesus the Nazarene was born (12-4 bce?, died 26-36?).
    0001  CEThe first Christmas, according to calendar-maker Dionysus Exiguus
    0001  CEBeginning of Christian calendar year, 1 A.D. (anno Domini).
    0019  CETiberius (42bce-?), Roman Emperor, expelled Septuagint (Greek Bible, 282bce) missionaries from Rome but they soon returned
c.    0025  CEAssumption (Testament) of Moses, original Hebrew extant Latin (Apocrypha)
    0026  CEPontius Pilate became Roman Prefect of Iudaea (Samaria, Judea, Idumea), until 36.
c.    0027  CE(Between 27-34) John the Baptist, a Nazirite, arrested & killed by Herod Antipas.
c.    0030  CEJesus the Nazarene (born 12-4 bce, died 26-36?), crucified by Roman troops in Jerusalem on Friday 14 Nisan? or Friday 15 Nisan?. Possible Friday 14 Nisan crucifixion dates are 7 Apr 30, 3 Apr 33 or 30 Mar 36.
    0030  CEDismas was the repentant thief crucified with Christ.
c.    0030  CESt. John wrote the 'Book of Revelations' and the 'Apocalypse' on the Greek island of Patmos.
c.    0030  CEIn the midst of political persecution the early Christians sold their possessions and began taking their meals together, but they kept their houses.
    0031  CEThe first Easter, according to calendar-maker Dionysius Exiguus
c.    0033  CEHaving antagonized many Jews with his teachings, Jesus of Nazareth is seized by Roman soldiers and handed over to the Sanhedrin, who condemn him for blasphemy. (The exact year of the crucifixion is disputed.)
c.    0033  CERoman procurator Pontius Pilate lets the mob decide Jesus' fate. He is crucified, but his disciples maintain that he has been resurrected from the dead on what Christians consider to be the first Easter Sunday.
    0036  CEBeginning of the oral period in Christianity between Jesus & Gospel of Mark, recorded in Acts, until Cira 65.
    0037  CEConversion of Paul of Tarsus (?-62?) to Christianity , possibly a Roman citizen, possibly a tentmaker.
c.    0040  CEPaul of Tarsus went to Jerusalem to meet Peter & James.
c.    0040  CESaul of Tarsus, while on the road to Damascus, experienced a profound conversion to Christianity. He became known as St. Paul. In 1997 A.N. Wilson wrote 'Paul: The Mind of the Apostle.' Wilson argued that Paul was the real founder of the Church of Jesus.
c.    0040  CE(Between 40-107) St. Ignatius Theorphorus, Apostolic Father. He served as the bishop of Antioch.
    0044  CEC. Cuspius Fadus beheaded Theudas for parting Jordan (like Exodus).
    0044  CEJames brother of John executed by sword by Agrippa I.
c.    0045  CEC. Cuspius Fadus crucified Jacob and Simon sons of Judah of Gamala.
c.    0047  CE(Between 47-48) Paul of Tarsus visted Cyprus with Barnabas.
c.    0048  CE(Between 48-49) Council of Apostles & Elders possibly the first Christian Council.
c.    0048  CE(Between 48-49) Incident at Antioch where Paul publicly condemned Peter.
c.    0049  CE(Between 49-50) Paul of Tarsus was in Corinth (center of his mission to the Gentiles).
c.    0049  CEThe Church convened a council in Jerusalem about this time. The participants adopted the missionary principle of St. Paul, which stressed the universal scope of salvation.
c.    0050  CEPeshitta, translation begun, Hebrew Old Testament to Syriac Aramaic, (and then to Greek New Testament in 400).
c.    0050  CEThe early Gnostics, Simon Magus of Samaria, Simonianism; Nicolaus of Antioch, Nicolaitans; Menander disciple of Simon Magus, Basilides of Alexandria, Satorninus of Antioch and disciples of Menander.
c.    0050  CEAscension of Isaiah, the original was written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible).
    0052  CETradition in the State in the state of Kerala, India, has it that the Apostle Thomas converted Hindus to Christianity in this year.
    0055  CERoman Procurator M. Antonius Felix massacred 'Egyptian Prophet' and 30,000 unarmed Jews doing Exodus reenactment.
c.    0057  CEPaul of Tarsus's last visit to Jerusalem.
c.    0058  CEPaul of Tarsus was imprisoned in Caesarea.
    0060  CESt Paul thought to have been shipwrecked at Malta.
c.    0060  CEPaul of Tarsus was imprisoned in Rome.
c.    0062  CEPaul of Tarsus was martyred for treason in Rome.
    0062  CEAnanus called a meeting [literally, 'sanhedrin'] of judges and brought into it the brother of Jesus-who-is-called-Messiah, James by name, and some others. He made the accusation that they had transgressed the law, and he handed them over to be stoned.
    0062  CEJesus son of Ananias proclaimed '...a voice against Jerusalem...'.
    0064  CEIn Rome, persecution of early Christians begins under Emperor Nero
    0064  CENero initiated the first persecution against the Christians. According to Seneca Nero sentenced hundreds of Christians to die by 'tunica molesta,' a naptha impregnated 'shirt of torture.'
    0065  CEThe Gospel according to St. Mark, the earliest of the four Gospels, is written around this time.
c.    0065  CE(Between 65-150) Didache, Instructions of the Apostles, published in 1883 (Apostolic Fathers)
c.    0065  CE(Between 65-150) Gospel of Peter, Dialogue of the Savior (the Complete Gospels).
c.    0065  CE(Between 65-150) Gospel of Thomas was written in Greek.
c.    0065  CE(Between 65-150) Gospel redaction and compilation stage of Christianity, post-Paul, center of Christianity shifted to Antioch & Rome.
c.    0065  CE(Between 65-175) Papyrus Egerton 2 (Unknown Gospel) fragments published 1935/87, in Greek from Palestine, one of the oldest extant Christian texts.
    0066  CE(66-73) Roman general Vespasian's army assaulted the forces of Jewish rebel Joseph ben Matthias at Jotapata in Galilee.
c.    0067  CEPaul of Tarsus, the apostle who never knew Jesus and the first great Christian missionary who opens Christianity to people of all walks of life, is executed in Rome
    0067  CESimon-Peter possibly the first Pope, possibly the first Bishop of Antioch, possibly martyred in Rome.
    0067  CEPope Linus became Pope, until 78.
c.    0067  CESt. Paul, Catholic apostle to the Gentiles and writer of many epistles, died. He founded one of the first Christian churches in Europe at Philippi in Macedonia. He was martyred by Nero and according to tradition invoked his right as a Roman citizen to be beheaded.
    0068  CEQumran (Essenes?) community destroyed by Rome ('Dead Sea Scrolls', 1949)
    0069  CETraditional date of the destruction of Jerusalem.
c.    0070  CEGospel of Mark, possibly Peter's interpreter, possibly written in Rome, ends unexpectedly at Mk16:8, original ending apparently lost, endings added circa 400.
    0079  CEPliny the Elder, Roman scholar, victim of Mount Vesuvius eruption that destroyed Pompeii & Herculaneum, wrote of Essenes.
    0079  CEPope Anacletus became Pope, until 91.
c.    0080  CEGospel of Matthew was most popular in early church.
c.    0090  CEGospel of Luke.
    0091  CEPope Clement I became Pope, until 101.
    0095  CESt. John the Divine established a Christian colony on the island of Patmos after being exiled from Ephesus.
c.    0100  CE(Between 100-150) Secret Book (Apocryphon) of James, Gospel of Mary Magdalene, Infancy Gospels of Thomas and James, Secret Gospel (of Mark) (Complete Gospels).
c.    0100  CEGospel of John, possibly the only eyewitness, possibly the disciple Jesus loved, possibly Gnostic.
c.    0100  CEParalipomena of Jeremiah, (4 Baruch), written in Hebrew (Ethiopic Bible).
c.    0100  CETestaments 12 Patriarchs, Hebrew-Aramaic fragments at Qumran (Armenian Bible).
    0100  CE(100-200) Celsus, a second century scholar, thought that Christianity was a threat to the social order. He made some attempt to strip away its mythology and identify the historical Jesus.
    0101  CEEvaristus became Pope, until 109.
    0109  CEAlexander became Pope, until 116.
c.    0110  CEIgnatius 3rd Bishop of Antioch was martyred in Rome.
c.    0114  CEPliny the Younger, Roman consul, recorded Christians as 'singing hymns to Christ as to a god'.
    0115  CELucian, Gk satirist, Passing of Peregrinus (satire of Christians).
    0116  CESixtus I became Pope, until 125.
c.    0125  CEPapyrus 52, oldest extant New Testament fragment.
c.    0125  CEQuadratus was bishop of Athens.
    0125  CE'Christian Apologists' writings against Roman Paganism by Quadratus, in Apostolic Fathers collection.
    0125  CETelesphorus became Pope, until 136.
c.    0130  CE'Gospel of Basilides' possibly a 24 book commentary, possibly Gnostic, lost.
c.    0130  CEPapias, bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor, wrote 'Expositions of the Sayings of the Lord', lost but widely quoted.
c.    0130  CEAquila of Pontus was a Roman convert to Christianity then to Judaism, student of Rabban Gamaliel, compiled literal Greek Old Testament translation in Jabneh (Jamnia).
    0138  CEHyginus became Pope, until 142.
  0140  CEApocalypse of Peter was written in Greek.
  0140  CEMarcion of Pontus, possibly the first Radical Paulinist, inspired by Luke 5:36, claimed Jesus rejected 'Law & Prophets' from the Old Testament, claimed to have recovered lost original Gospel from Luke.
  0140  CEMarcion of Pontus, promoted Canon of heavily edited Gospel of Luke and 10 Pauline Letters and his own 'Antitheses'.
  0142  CEPius I became Pope, until 155.
  0145  CE'Christian Apologists' writings against Roman Paganism by Aristides of Athens, in Apostolic Fathers collection.
  0150  CEGospel of the Egyptians, a Coptic translation of the original Greek (Nag Hammadi).
  0150  CE(Between 150-225?) 'Christian Apologists' writings against Roman Paganism by Epistle to Diognetus, in Apostolic Fathers collection.
  0150  CE'Teachings of Silvanus', a Gnostic, claimed that Christ has a single hypostasis (hidden spiritual reality) and that Christ is incomprehensible with respect to his hypostasis.
  0150  CE'Western Reviser' adds/subtracts from original New Teatament Acts to produce 'Western' version which is 10% larger and found in Papyrus P29,38,48 & Codex Bezae.
  0150  CEThe subterranean graveyard beneath the Appian Way had existed from about this time and probably originated as the private open-air burial ground of the noble Cecili family of Rome. About 200 it became the first official Christian cemetery.
  0155  CEAnicetus became Pope, until 166.
  0155  CESt. Pius I, pope, was martyred.
  0160  CEPolycarp, the bishop of Smyrna, was martyred, wrote 'Letter of Polycarp to the Philippians' circa 110 and 'Martyrdom of Polycarp'; both in Greek.
  0165  CE'Christian Apologists' writings against Roman Paganism by Justin Martyr, in Apostolic Fathers collection.
  0165  CEJustin Martyr (114?-165), Roman Platonist convert to Christianity, was martyred.
  0166  CE(Between 166-174) Pope Soter, moved 'Easter' from Biblical Nisan 14 to following Sunday.
13 Feb 0167  CEPolycarp, a disciple of St. John and bishop of Smyrna, was martyred on the west coast of Asia Minor.
  0170  CEDionysius, bishop of Corinth, complained Christians were changing & faking his own letters just as they had changed the Gospels.
  0170  CESymmachus, an Ebionite, wrote an entirely new Greek Old Testament translation.
  0170  CEChristian Council of Asia Minor were against Montanus & his Montanist sect.
  0172  CE'Christian Apologists' writings against Roman Paganism by Tatian, in Apostolic Fathers collection.
  0172  CETatian the Assyrian (110-?), possibly a Gnostic, disciple of Justin Martyr, founded Encratite sect of Antioch.
  0174  CEPope Eleutherius became Pope, until 189.
  0175  CEActs of Paul, in Greek.
  0175  CEValentinus (100?-?), founded Gnostic Valentinian School of Rome, taught secret wisdom from Paul.
  0177  CEA systematic persecution of Christians begins in Rome under Emperor Marcus Aurelius when many Christians decide to worship secretly in underground catacombs.
  0177  CE'Christian Apologists' writings against Roman Paganism by Melito, in Apostolic Fathers collection.
  0177  CEMelito was bishop of Sardis.
  0178  CETrue Discourse', by Celsus, an anti-Christian polemic, original lost but fragments recorded by Origen in 253 in 'Contra Celsum',
  0180  CEAthenagoras, an Athenian philosopher, became a convert to Christianity.
  0180  CEApollinaris was bishop of Hierapolis.
  0180  CE'Christian Apologists' writings against Roman Paganism by Apollinaris, in Apostolic Fathers collection.
  0180  CE'Christian Apologists' writings against Roman Paganism by Athenagoras, in Apostolic Fathers collection.
  0180  CE'Christian Apologists' writings against Roman Paganism by Theophilus, in Apostolic Fathers collection.
  0180  CETheophilus became bishop of Caesarea.
  0182  CEOrigen of Caesarea (182-251?), a church father, was born. He urged Christians not to celebrate birthdays because they were a pagan custom.
  0185  CETheophilus became 7th Bishop of Antioch, a pagan convert.
  0189  CEPope Victor I became the first Latin Pope, until 198.
  0190  CEHeracleon, a disciple of Gnostic Valentinus, first commentary on Gospel of John (cited by Origen & Clement), wrote, 'Tripartite Tractate'.
  0190  CESerapion, 9th Bishop of Antioch, disputed Gospel of Peter.
  0190  CEPope Victor I called Council to determine 'official' new date of 'Easter' but failed, excommunicated Eastern churches that continued to observe 'Easter' on Biblical Nisan 14 'Quartodeciman'.
  0196  CEPolycrates (125?-?), bishop of Ephesus, supported Quartodecimans in 'Easter' controversy versus Pope Victor in 190.
  0198  CEPope Zephyrinus became Pope, until 217.
  0199  CE(199-217) Pope Zephyrinus led the Church.
  0200  CESahidic Coptic Bible translations written in Alexandria.
  0200  CEHypostasis (hidden spiritual reality) of the Archons.
  0200  CEValentinian Exposition that 'Son is hypostasis of Father'.
  0200  CEChristianity spread rapidly in Numidia and the diocese of Lamiggiga was established. It was later abandoned and just the name was used as an honorary jurisdiction for Catholic auxiliary bishops.
  0202  CEIrenaeus, 2nd bishop of Lyons, supported Quartodecimans in Easter controversy versus Pope Victor in 190, wrote 'Against Heresies'.
  0213  CE(155BCE-213) Some evidence has it that the Ark of the Covenant was brought to Ethiopia about this time.
  0217  CEGaius (Caius), presbyter of Rome, anti-Montanist, wrote 'Dialogue against Proclus', rejected Gospel of John, Hebrews, Rev.
  0217  CEAntipope Saint Hippolytus became Bishop of Rome, 'Logos' sect, until 235.
  0217  CECallistus I became Pope, until 222.
  0217  CEClement (153-?), bishop of Alexandria, pagan philosopher convert, cited Alexandrian New Testament text-type & Secret Gospel of Mark & Gospel of the Egyptians, wrote 'Exhortations', 'Paedagogus', 'Stromata'.
  0220  CEMinucius Felix, Roman Christian lawyer, wrote in Latin
  0220  CETertullian (160?-?), a Carthaginian lawyer, became a Christian convert in circa 193 then to Montanism in circa 207, 'Father of Latin Church', coined 'Trinity', 'New Testament', two-natures doctrine (Jesus fully human & divine).
  0220  CETertullian (160?-?), a Carthaginian lawyer, advocated exclusion of women from priesthood.
  0222  CEUrban I became Pope, until 230.
  0230  CECouncil of Rome, Bishop Demetrius of Alexandria condemns Origen.
  0230  CESt. Pontian became Pope, until 236.
  0230  CESt. Cecilia of the patrician Cecili family was martyred (possibly during the persecutions of Diocletian). She lived in Trastevere where she reportedly sang hymns all day and so became the patroness of music. She was decapitated by Roman soldiers after 3 abortive attempts.
  0235  CEAn inscription in Greek in the Calixtian Complex of Rome was dedicated to the pope St. Pontian, who died in the Sardinian mines.
  0235  CEAn inscription in Greek in the Calixtian Complex of Rome was dedicated to pope St. Anterus, who reigned for only 43 days and died in prison.
  0236  CESt. Anterus became Pope, until 237.
  0237  CESt. Fabian became Pope, until 250.
  0240  CE(Between 240-258) Council of Carthage the early Christian council.
  0240  CECommodianus was the Early Christian Church Father.
  0243  CEThe text 'De Pascha Computus' calculated the spring equinox, March 25, under the Julian calendar from the first day of creation. The author used this to derive March 28 as the birthday of Jesus.
  0250  CE(Between 250-350) Apostolic Constitutions of Orthodox Christianity.
  0250  CEThe Mandeans, followers of John the Baptist, began compilation of 'Ginza'.
  0251  CEAntipope Novatian, until 258, no forgiveness for sins after baptism [ANF,v.5]
  0251  CESt. Lucius I became Pope, until 253
  0253  CEValerianusbecame Roman Emperor, until 260, notorious persecutor of Christians, in 258 'Valerian's Massacre' executed Pope Sixtus II, Antipope Novatian, Bishop Cyprian of Carthage, & all other Christian Bishops, Priests & Deacons
  0253  CEOrigen (185?-?), used Greek Gnostic term 'homoousios' (Jesus & God of 'same substance').
  0253  CESt. Stephen I became Pope, until 254
12 May 0254  CESt. Stephen I began his reign as the 23rd Catholic Pope. According to the 'Liber Pontificalis' he instituted the rule that clerics should wear special clothes at their ministrations.
  0254  CESt. Sixtus II became Pope, until 257
  0254  CEPope St. Lucius I, who spent part of his pontificate in exile, was buried in the Calixtian Complex of Rome and has an inscription in Greek.
  0257  CECornelius became Pope, until 258
  0258  CECyprian, bishop of Carthage, pagan convert, claimed Christians freely forged his letters to discredit him.
  0258  CEPope St. Sixtus II was beheaded upon orders of Emperor Valerian.
  0260  CEGallienus became Roman Emperor, uhtil 268, reversed Valerian, restored Church.
  0260  CEDionysius became Pope, until 268.
  0264  CE(Between 264-268) Council of Antioch, condemned Paul of Samosata, Bishop of Antioch & founder of Adoptionism (Jesus was human until Holy Spirit descended at his baptism); also condemned use of Gnostic term 'homoousios'.
  0265  CEDionysius the Great (200?-?), became bishop of Alexandria.
14 Feb 0269  CEThe early Christian Roman martyr, St. Valentine, was beheaded by Emperor Claudius II for refusing to give up Christianity. Legend also says that St. Valentine left a farewell note for the jailer's daughter, who had become his friend, and signed it 'From Your Valentine'. Claudius executed another St. Valentine (Bishop Valentine) around the same time. The two Valentines merged into a single legendary patron of young lovers.
  0269  CEFelix I became Pope, until 274.
24 Feb 0270  CEThe Catholic Bishop Valentine was clubbed, stoned and beheaded by Emperor Claudius for refusing to acknowledge Claudius' outlawing of marriage. Claudius thought that single men made better soldiers, and so had banned marriage amongst young men.
  0274  CESt Eutychian begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 283.
  0277  CEMani (216-?) founded the Manichaean Christian sect in Persia.
  0280  CEAnatolius of Alexandria (230-?), became bishop of Laodicea.
  0283  CESt Gaius begins his reign as Catholic Pope [until 296].
  0283  CEPope St. Eutychian escaped persecution but struggled with early heresies. He was buried in the Calixtian Complex of Rome and has an inscription in Greek.
22 Apr 0296  CESt. Gaius ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0296  CE(Between 296-304) Pope Marcellinus, apostate, offered pagan sacrifice for Diocletianus.
  0299  CEThe period of Christian persecutions begun by Diocletian, until 311.
  0300  CEBohairic Coptic cop(bo) Bible translations written in Alexandria
  0300  CEPapyrus Berlin Codex of Greek Genesis; Papyrus Bodmer 24 of Greek Psalms; Codex Freer of Greek Minor Prophets; all published in 1927
  0300  CETiridates III, king of Armenia, adopts Christianity as the religion of his kingdom, making Armenia the first Christian state.
  0300  CE(Between 300-400) The 1st French church dedicated to the Virgin Mary was built in the 4th century on the hill site of the later Chartres cathedral.
  0301  CEThe Kingdom of Armenia is the first nation to make Christianity its official religion
  0301  CEChristianity state religion of Armenia by Saint Gregory the Illuminator.
  0301  CEKing Trdat III declared Christianity to be the state religion. Armenia became the first country to adopt Christianity.
23 Feb 0303  CEEmperor Diocletian orders the first Roman persecution of Christians while trying to strengthen paganism, hoping that it will act as a unifying force in the empire.
23 Apr 0303  CESt. George died. He was a Christian martyr and in the 14th century declared the patron saint of England.
  0303  CE(Between 303-312) Diocletianus gave 'Diocletian's Massacre' edict against Christians.
  0303  CELactantius, an early Christian writer, said that Romula, mother of Roman emperor Galerius, encouraged her son to persecute Christians in this year.
  0304  CE(304-305) Massive persecution of the Christians under Diocletian.
  0306  CESt Marcellus I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 308.
  0306  CE(Between 306-308) Pope Marcellus I tried removing prior Pope Marcellinus from official records for apostasy, exiled from Rome by Maxentius for disturbing the peace.
  0306  CECouncil of Elvira, prohibited eating, marriage and sex between Christians & Jews.
18 Apr 0310  CESt. Eusebius began his reign as Catholic Pope [until 310].
  0310  CESt Eusebius ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0310  CEPope Eusebius was deported to Sicily with Antipope Heraclius by Maxentius
  0311  CE(Between 311-314) Pope Miltiades, given Fausta's palace as papal residence by Constantinus.
  0311  CEThe Donatists were a Christian sect that developed in northern Africa (Numidia) and maintained that it alone constituted the whole and only true church and that baptisms and ordinations of the orthodox clergy were invalid.
 Oct 0312  CEPrior to a battle between Constantine and Maxentius, Constantine experienced a vision of Christ that ordered him to ornament the shields of his soldiers with the Greek letters chi and rho, the monogram for Christ. Constantine won the battle and attributed his success to Christ.
  0312  CEAt the Battle of Milvian Bridge, Constantine defeats Maxentius and becomes the ruler of the western Roman Empire. Constantine believes the Christian God has guided him to victory
  0312  CEMethodius, Early Church Father, was martyred.
1 Jan 0313  CEA 15 year cycle used in reckoning ecclesiastical calendars was established as a fiscal term to regulate taxes. It is called the Roman Indiction.
  0313  CEWith the Edict of Milan, Roman Emperor Constantine legalizes Christianity
  0313  CEPope Miltiades excommunicated Donatus for requiring rebaptism of apostates.
  0313  CEConstantine met with the eastern emperor at Milan, capital of the late Roman Empire. They agreed on a policy of religious tolerance. The Edict of Milan legalized Christianity.
  0313  CEConstantine wrote a letter to the proconsul of Africa in which he explained why the Christian clergy should not be distracted by secular offices or financial obligations. 'When they are free to render supreme service to the Divinity, it is evident that they confer great benefits upon the affairs of the state.'
  0314  CESt Militiades ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0314  CESt Silvester I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 335.
  0316  CEDiocletian, former emperor of Rome, died. By this time there were about 30,000 converts to Christianity and some 33 popes had followed in the footsteps of St. Peter.
  0325  CEEmperor Constantine summons the Council of Nicaea, the first Christian ecumenical council, which establishes that God the Father and God the Son (Jesus Christ) are of the same essence. About 300 bishops decreed 20 canons, near the end of the council, 18 bishops still refused to sign, but under Constantine's threats only Arius, Secundus & Theonas held out & were exiled.
  0325  CEFayyumic Coptic translation fragment of John 6:11-15:11.
  0326  CEThe Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem was begun by the Roman emperor Constantine.
  0335  CEThe Church of the Holy Sepulchre is consecrated on the site of what is traditionally believed to be Christ's tomb
  0335  CECouncil of Jerusalem was held, which reversed Council of Nicaea's condemnation of Arius, consecrated Jerusalem Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
25 Dec 0336  CEThe first recorded celebration of Christmas on this day took place in Rome. By this year Dec 25 was established in the Liturgy of the Roman Church as the birthday of Jesus.
  0336  CESt Mark begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 336.
  0336  CEArius, Christian priest from Alexandria and teacher of the doctrine of Arianism, died.
  0337  CESt Julius I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 352.
  0337  CEEmperor Constantine dies and his three sons by his second wife, Fausta, succeed him
  0337  CEConstantine died after having made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire. He had the Chapel of the Burning Bush built in the Sinai Desert at the site where Moses was believed to have witnessed the Miracle of the Burning Bush.
  0339  CEEusebius (260?-?) became bishop of Caesarea, cited 'Caesarean' New Teatament text-type, wrote 'Ecclesiastical History', quoting Papias bishop of Hierapolis (c130).
  0341  CEEthiopians are introduced to Coptic Christianity in 341. A variant of it will become Ethiopia's state religion.
  0343  CECouncil of Sardica, decreed 20 canons (laws).
  0347  CESt. John Chrysostom (circa 347-407), was born. He was the ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople.
  0350  CEUlfilas, apostle to the Goths (Germans), translated Greek New Trestament to Gothic.
  0350  CEAkhmimic cop(ac) & Sub-Akhmimic cop(ac2) Coptic translations of John.
  0350  CECanon Muratorian, 4 Gospels, Acts, 10 Pauline Letters, 1-2Tim, Titus, 1-2Jn, Jude, Wisdom; disputes 3Jn, Rev, Apoc. of Peter, Hermas.
  0350  CECodex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus, the earliest Christian Bibles.
  0350  CENag Hammadi Codices, Coptic Gnostic Library, 12 papyrus codices, discovered 1945.
  0350  CEOld Syriac (Aramaic) Gospels, Syr(s) & Syr(c), of 'Western' text-type
  0350  CEPapyrus Antinoopolis, of Book of Proverbs in Greek, published in 1950
  0350  CEPapyrus Bodmer 45-46, Greek Susanna, Daniel 1,1-20.
  0350  CEDoctrine of Addai, the Syriac account of founding of Christianity in Edessa by Addai (Thaddeus).
  0352  CELiberius begins his reign as Catholic Pope replacing Julius I, until 366.
  0353  CEConstantius II defeated Magnentius and supported Antipope Felix II.
  0353  CESt. Paulinus (353-431), poet and Bishop of Mola, was born.
  0357  CE2nd Council 'Blasphemy' of Sirmium, condemned Council of Nicaea (Anomean).
  0359  CEDouble Council of Rimini-Seleucia produced the Dated Creed (Homoean).
  0365  CECouncil of Laodicea in Phrygia decreed 59 canons.
  0365  CEAcacius became bishop of Caesarea, promoted Homoeans, 'Son is homoios (like) Father'.
  0366  CESt Damasus I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 384.
  0366  CEAntipope Ursinus became Antipope, until 367, leader of supporters of former Pope Liberius.
  0366  CEDamasus I became Pope, until 384, hired thugs to massacre rival Ursinians (Liberians) and had Jerome begin Latin Bible revision.
  0370  CEAetius became Christian bishop, promoted Syntagmation, 'God is agennetos (unbegotten)'.
  0373  CEAthanasius (295-?) became bishop of Alexandria, condemned at 335 Council of Tyre, called 362 Council of Alexandria, decreed God is 3 hypostases.
  0374  CE(374-397) Ambrose served as the Bishop of Milan. Later proclaimed St. Ambrose.
25 Dec 0376  CEIn Milan, Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, forced the emperor Theodosius to perform public penance for his massacre.
  0376  CEPhotinus, bishop of Sirmium, Jesus was a man adopted by the Father as Son
  0379  CEBasil the Great, became bishop of Caesarea.
  0379  CEIn Milan the brick Basilica of St. Ambrose was begun.
  0380  CECanon 85 of Apostolic Constitutions.
  0381  CERoman Emperor Theodosius the Great called Council at Constantinople, 2nd Ecumenical, against Bishop Macedonius.
  0382  CEPope Damasus I called Council of Rome which rejected 381 Council of Theodosius (not accepted till Lyons II in 1274).
  0384  CEJerome presented new Latin Gospels, originals lost.
  0384  CESiricius, bishop of Tarragona, the Oldest Pope, became Pope, until 399.
  0385  CEThe Roman Empire is split into east and west with the death of Emperor Theodosius, the man who made Christianity the empire's official religion
  0386  CECyril, archbishop of Jerusalem, cited 'Caesarean' text-type.
  0386  CEAugustine became a priest and soon after bishop of Hippo, a Roman city in what is now Algeria.
17 Mar 0389  CESt. Patrick (circa 389-461), an English missionary and bishop of Ireland, was born. March 17 is celebrated in his honor. He was a Celt born in Romanized Britain. Calpurnius, his father, was a deacon and local official who lost his son to Irish raiders when Patrick was 16. Patrick allegedly drove all the snakes out of Ireland.
27 Feb 0390  CERoman Emperor Theodosius the Great declared Nicene Christianity official state religion on February 27, Riot & Massacre at Thessalonica, performed public penance for on December 25.
  0390  CEApollinaris of Laodicea (310-390), died, 'Jesus is human body & divine spirit'.
  0391  CERoman Emperor Theodosius the Great made anti-Pagan Edicts such as purges of non-Christian works at Library of Alexandria.
  0393  CESt. Augustine of Hippo called Council of Hippo, decreed Pope Damasus' Canon.
  0394  CEThe Council of Constantinople was called by Bishop Nectarius.
  0394  CESt. Augustine of Hippo called Council of Carthage, decreed 138 canons (laws)
  0395  CEAusonius (310?-395), Christian governor of Gaul, died.
  0395  CEAmmianus Marcellinus (330?-?), Christian historian, wrote, 'Res gestae'.
  0399  CESt. Augustine of Hippo writes his Confessions
  0399  CEAnastasius I became Pope, until 401.
  0400  CEEthiopic Bible, in Ge'ez, 81 books, standard Ethiopian Orthodox Bible
  0400  CEVulgate Bible, originals lost, Vulgate Latin Text becomes standard Roman Catholic Bible.
  0400  CEPeshitta Bible, Syriac (Aramaic) Vulgate, Peshitta becomes standard Syrian Orthodox Bible
  0400  CECodex Bobiensis, in Latin, 'African' (Carthage) text-type, has 'shorter' ending of 'Mark'.
  0400  CECodex Vercellensis it(a), Latin Gospels, of 'European' text-type
  0400  CEEarly Christian Canon Law, in Greek.
  0400  CEJerome cited 'expanded' ending of 'Mark'.
  0400  CEPericope of the Adulteress (John 7:53-8:11) was added to the Bible.
  0400  CEBetween 400 and 600, era of 'aggressive forgeries' in Christian texts.
  0401  CEPope Innocent I became Pope, until 417, decreed Roman Custom the norm for Roman Catholicism, in Letter #6 (to Exuperius) listed Canon of Old Testament.
  0405  CEPrudentius (348-405), Christian Latin poet, dies.
  0406  CEArmenian Bible translated by St. Mesrop [Life of Mesrop]
8 Feb 0412  CESt. Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople was born.
 Mar 0415  CESaint Cyril Archbishop of Alexandria (?-444), had monks murder woman philosopher & mathematician Hypatia by scraping off skin with oyster shells, expelled Jews, persecuted Novatianists.
  0417  CEZosimus became Pope, until 418.
  0418  CEEtalius begins his reign as Catholic Antipope [until 419].
  0418  CEBoniface I became Pope, until 422.
  0419  CEEtalius ends his reign as Catholic Antiope.
  0419  CESaint Jerome, S.E. Hieronymus, (347?-419), Christian Latin Scholar, died.
  0422  CECelestine I became Pope, until 432.
  0422  CEBetween 422 and 432 the Bible and the works of the church fathers were translated into Armenian.
  0430  CESt. Augustine of Hippo, who was an extraordinarily prolific writer and had an influence on Christianity unlike no other, with the exception of the apostle Paul, dies as the Vandals besiege his city
  0430  CESt. Augustine of Hippo (354-?), Gnostic (Manichaean) converted to Christianity, origin of the phrase 'Original Sin'.
  0431  CESyrian Christianity split into East (Nestorians) & West (Jacobites).
  0431  CEEastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II called Council of Ephesus, 3rd Ecumenical, against Patriarch Nestorius, possibly decreed 6-8 canons, Mary is 'Mother of God'.
  0431  CEThe Council of Ephesus was held to deal with the heretics and heresies of the day such as Arianism and Apollinarianism.
  0431  CEThe Assyrians and Chaldeans broke from what was to become the Roman Catholic Church over a theological dispute.
  0432  CESaint Patrick (385-461), 'Apostle of Ireland', began mission to Ireland.
  0432  CESixtus III became Pope, until 440.
  0432  CEAbout this time St. Patrick was consecrated a bishop and returned to Ireland as missionary. He established Ireland's first monasteries and Irish monks made it their mission to copy all literature, sacred and secular, while barbarism swept the continent.
  0435  CEJohn Nestorius was banished from his monastery in Antioch by Emperor Theodosius II.
  0438  CEIn Ireland St. Patrick used the 3-leaf clover to illustrate the Trinity.
  0440  CELeo I the Great became Pope, until 461.
  0444  CEIn Ireland, St. Patrick selected the site for the Cathedral of Armagh. It later became Ireland's ecclesiastical center and preceded the 360 churches that he established.
 Aug 0449  CEEastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II called 'Robber' Council of Ephesus (Monophysite).
  0450  CEMark's Resurrection of Jesus, Mark 16,9-20, added to Bible.
  0450  CESocrates, Greek Church Historian, wrote 'Ecclesiastical History 305-439'.
  0450  CESozomen, Greek Church Historian, wrote 'Ecclesiastical History 324-439'.
  0450  CESt. Benedict (circa 450-547) was born in Norcia, central Italy. He lived for years as a hermit near the ruins of Nero's palace above Subiaco and established the monastery of Monte Cassino, the founding house of the Benedictine order. His rules and standards of communal life are known as the rules of St. Benedict.
 Oct 0451  CEEastern Roman Emperor Marcian called Council of Chalcedon, 4th Ecumenical, condemned Council of Ephesus of 449, decreed 8-30 canons.
  0451  CEPatriarch Nestorius of Constantinople wrote that Mary was not the 'Mother of God'.
  0451  CEThe Church Council of Chalcedon declared that the two natures of Christ, divine and human, were united without change, division or confusion in Christ.
  0451  CEThe Armenians were the first Christians to take up arms in defending their right to worship.
  0453  CEPope Leo I rejected canons of Chalcedon, they were not accepted till Lyons II in 1274.
  0461  CESt. Hilarus became Pope, until 468.
  0468  CESt. Simplicius became Pope, until 483.
  0481  CEClovis I became King of the Franks, until 511, capital Paris, became a Roman Catholic in 496
  0482  CEByzantine Emperor Zeno decreed Patriarch Acacius' 'Henotikon' against Pope Leo's '2-natures' causing Acacian Schism until 519.
  0483  CEChristian Council of Persia adopted Nestorian doctrine.
  0483  CEFelix III became Pope, until 492.
  0484  CEThe Church of Mary Theotokos was built over the presumed site of a Samaritan Temple that is believed to be a copy of the Second Temple of Jerusalem at Mount Gerizim in the Israeli occupied West Bank.
  0489  CEByzantine Emperor Zeno destroyed Nestorian school at Edessa.
  0492  CESt Gelasius I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 496.
  0495  CEPope Gelasius I became the first 'Vicar of Christ'.
 Feb 0496  CEPope Gelasius, changed the Roman Lupercalia pagan rite and festival of fertility, which was held on 15 February to St. Valentine's Day, held on 14 February. This was to pre-empt the pagan festival and divert attention away from its non-Christian activities.
21 Oct 0496  CEPope Gelasius, an African by birth or descent, died.
  0496  CEAnastasius II became Pope, until 498.
  0498  CELawrence begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0498  CENestorians settled in Nisibis, Persia.
  0498  CESymmachus became Pope, until 514.
  0500  CEClovis, founder of the Frankish state, conquers most of France and Belgium, converting his territories to Western Catholic Christianity. He founds the Merovingian dynasty.
  0500  CECodex Argenteus, the earliest nearly complete Gothic (German), Gospels.
  0500  CECodex Cottonianus, Greek Genesis
  0500  CECodex Sangallensis, earliest extant Latin Vulgate, Gospels.
  0500  CENubians turn from their Egyptian-influenced religion to Christianity. A thousand years later the people of their region will convert heavily to Islam.
  0500  CE(500-600) In Egypt St. Catherine's Monastery was built by Emperor Justinian at Mt. Sinai at the reputed site where Moses encountered the burning bush.
  0502  CENarsai of Mealletha, a Syrian poet, headed Nestorian school at Nisibis.
  0514  CEHormisdas became Pope, until 523.
  0516  CE(Between 516-524) Sigismund, the Burgundian King, left Arianism for Roman Catholicism.
  0520  CESt. Benedict founded the Benedictine Order at Monte Cassino and from there monks went forth and created a network of monasteries all over Europe.
  0521  CE(521-597) St. Columba, Irish missionary in Scotland, was born. The Irish monks of Columba preceded the Benedictines in Northern Europe, but their ascetic otherworldliness did not meet the needs of the practical barbarian people.
  0523  CEJohn I became Pope, until 526.
  0525  CEDionysius Exiguus set Christian calendar, Jesus' birth December 23 in 1ce.
  0525  CEBoethius (475?-?), Roman Catholic philosopher, wrote, 'Theological Tractates', 'Consolation of Philosophy'.
  0526  CEFelixIV became Pope, until 530.
  0530  CEAntipope Dioscorus was elected but Pope Felix IV designated Pope Boniface II.
  0530  CEBoniface II became Pope, until 532.
  0532  CEJohn II became Pope, until 535.
  0535  CESt. Agapitus I became Pope, until 536.
  0535  CEByzantine Emperor Justinianus' Council of Clermont excluded Jews from public office.
  0536  CESt. Silverius became Pope, until 537.
  0537  CEThe finest church in the Christian world, Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) in Constantinople, is dedicated
  0537  CEPope Vigilius became Pope, until 555, was involved in death of Pope Silverius, conspiring with Justinianus & Theodora.
  0538  CECouncil of Orleans required Jews to remain indoors during 'Passion Week'.
  0544  CEByzantine Emperor Justinianus condemned '3 Chapters' of Theodore of Mopsuestia (d.428) & other '2-natures' Christology of Pope Leo's 449 Tome.
  0546  CEColmcille, an Irish saint, founded a monastery at Derry.
 Jun 0547  CEPope Vigilius issued 'Iudicatum' supporting Justinianus' anti- '2-natures'.
  0547  CESt. Benedict died.
  0548  CEIn Ireland St. Kieran founded a monastery at Clonmacnoise, an Irish phrase meaning 'the meadow of the sons of Nos.'
  0549  CEJerusalem held to a Jan 6 date for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus until this year. In the end the West added the Epiphany and the East added the Dec 25 nativity to their liturgical calendars.
  0550  CESt. David converted Wales to Christianity, crucifix became Christian icon
  0550  CECodex Claromontanus, a set of Greek/Latin Pauline Letters, includes Canon of circa 350.
  0550  CECodex Mediolanensis, Latin Vulgate Gospels
  0550  CECodex Veronensis, Greek & Old Latin Psalms.
  0550  CEByzantine Greek Orthodox Bible, much smoothing & conflation
  0550  CEPope Vigilius excommunicated at Council of Carthage.
  0550  CE(550-1200) The period of Irish Monasticism.
5 Aug 0552  CEIn Italy snow fell in the town of Panicale in Umbria. The Church of the Virgin of Snows commemorated the rare event.
  0553  CEByzantine Emperor Justinianus decreed 'Theopaschite Formula'.
  0553  CEMay-Jul, Byzantine Emperor Justinianus called 2nd Council of Constantinople, 5th Ecumenical.
16 Apr 0556  CEPelagius I began his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0556  CEPope Pelagius I was selected by Justianianus, until 561, endorsed 'Iudicatum'
  0556  CEDionysius Exiguus, Scythian monk, died. He devised the current system of reckoning the Christian era.
7 May 0558  CEThe dome of the church of St. Sophia in Constantinople collapsed. Its immediate rebuilding was ordered by Justinian.
  0561  CEPope John III was authorized by Justianianus, until 574.
  0563  CEThe Catholic monk St. Columba arrived on the Scottish island of Iona.
  0575  CEPope Benedict I was authorized by Justin II, until 579.
  0579  CEPope Pelagius II became Pope, until 590, when he died from the plague.
  0580  CECassiodorus, Roman Senator, founded Monasteries that completed many translation from Greek to Latin.
  0589  CEThe Visigoths are converted from paganism to Christianity.
  0589  CERecared Visigoth King of Spain called 3rd Council of Toledo, left Arianism for Roman Catholicism.
  0590  CEPope Gregory, originally a Benedictine, creates a religious policy for western Europe by fusing the Roman papacy with Benedictine monasticism creating the Latin church, counteractng the subordination of the Roman popes to Eastern emperors.
  0590  CEPope Gregory I the Great became Pope [until 604].
  0596  CESt. Augustine of Canterbury sent to Englnd by Pope Gregory the Great to begin the conversion of England to Roman Catholicism.
  0600  CEPope Gregory the Great decrees saying "God bless You" is the correct response to a sneeze.
  0600  CESt. Augustine founds a monastery in Kent town (later known as Canterbury).
  0600  CE'The Navigatio Sancti Brendani Abbatis' (Voyage of St. Brendan the Abbott) recounts a 7-year trip to a land across the sea by the Irish saint and a band of acolytes about this time.
  0600  CESt. Willibrord, an Irish missionary, spread Christianity in the region of Luxembourg.
  0600  CECodex Harleianus, Latin Vulgate Gospels.
  0600  CE(600-700) In the seventh century the Frisians clashed with the Franks and resisted Christianity, but succumbed to Frankish rule and accepted Christianity a century later.
  0600  CE(Between 600-700) St. Willibrord, an Irish missionary, spread Christianity in the region of Luxembourg.
  0602  CEAugustine establishes the archiepiscopal city of Kent Town (Canterbury) in Kent and he is made its first Archbishop.
  0604  CESabinian begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 606.
  0607  CEBoniface III begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 607.
  0608  CESt Boniface IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 615.
  0609  CESt Boniface IV has Rome's pantheon consecrated the Church of Santa Maria Rotunda.
  0614  CEThe 5th century monastery of St. Theodosius east of Beit Sahour near Bethlehem was destroyed by the Persians.
  0615  CESt Deusdedit I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 618.
  0619  CEBoniface V begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 625.
  0625  CEPaulinus of Rome began conversion of Northumbria to Roman Catholicism.
  0625  CEPope Honorius I was made Pope, until 638, he was condemned at 6th Ecumenical in 680.
  0626  CE(Between 626-633) Edwin, King of Northumbria, founder of Edinburgh, converted to Roman Catholicism.
  0627  CEThe Jerusalem cross is retrieved from the Persians, who stole the relic in 614.
  0628  CEHeraclius, Byzantine Emperor, recovered 'Holy Cross of Christ'.
21 Mar 0630  CEHeraclius restored the True Cross, which he had recaptured from the Persians.
  0640  CEJohn IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 642.
  0640  CESeverinus begins his reign as Catholic Pope (elected in 638), until 640.
  0641  CEEligius (Saint Eloy) becomes bishop of Doornik-Noyon.
  0642  CETheodore I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 649.
  0653  CESt Martin I ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0654  CESt Eugene I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 657.
  0654  CEA Saxon monk founded St. Botolph's Town in England. The name gradually changed to Boston.
  0664  CEThe Synod of Whitby brings the English church into alignment with Rome rather than having it resemble the Celtic Christianity rooted in Ireland. The synod was convened by Hild (Hilda), head of the double monastery of Streaneschalch, at Whitby.
  0672  CEDeusdedit III begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 676.
  0672  CESt Vitalian ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0673  CEThe Synod of Hertford opens when the canons were made for the English Church.
  0676  CEDonus begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 678.
  0678  CESt Agatho begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 681.
  0680  CEThe 3rd Council of Constantinople (6th ecumenical council) opens.
  0682  CESt Leo II begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0684  CESt Benedict II begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 685.
  0686  CEConon begins his reign as Catholic Pope [until 687].
  0686  CEJohn V ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0687  CESt Sergius I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 701.
  0700  CEBenedictine missionaries complete the conversion of England begun by St. Gregory the Great.
  0700  CELindisfarne Gospels were written on 258 leaves.
  0700  CE(Between 700-800) The Catholic Church changed its rules on fasting and allowed fish to be eaten on Fridays and during Lent.
  0700  CE(Between 700-800) Dionysus Exiguus (Dennis the Short), a Catholic monk, created a chronology for Pope St. John I with a calendar that began in the year 1.
  0700  CE(Between 700-800) The Catholic Church changed its rules on fasting and allowed fish to be eaten on Fridays and during Lent.
  0705  CEJohn VI ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0705  CEJohn VII begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 707.
25 Mar 0708  CEConstantine began his reign as Catholic Pope [until 9 April 715].
  0708  CESisinnius begins his reign as Catholic Pope (he dies 20 days later).
9 Apr 0715  CEConstantine ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
19 May 0715  CESt. Gregory II began his reign as Catholic Pope [until 731].
  0715  CECodex Amitinus, manuscript of the Vulgate, was written in Northumbrian uncial.
  0716  CEThe Codex Amiatinus was made at the scriptorium of the twin monasteries Wearmouth and Jarrow near Newcastle in Northumbria and brings together the entire old and new testament in 1,030 folios in a single binding.
  0722  CEHofmeier Charles Martel flees from bishop Willibrord.
  0726  CEByzantine Emperor Leo III forbids the worship of icons, hoping that the prohibition will limit superstition and check the power of monasteries, as a result, some Greeks revolt and attempt an unsuccessful overthrow of the monarchy
  0730  CEPope Gregory II excommunicates Leo III for his iconoclasm
  0731  CEIn his monastery at Jarrow, the Anglo-Saxon scholar and Benedictine monk, Bede (The Venerable Bede), writes his 'Ecclesiastical History of the English People' in Latin, perhaps the best historical writing of medieval history.
  0731  CEGregory III became Pope and served until 741.
10 Oct 0732  CEAt Tours, France, Charles Martel killed Abd el-Rahman and halted the Muslim invasion of Europe. Islam's westward spread was stopped by the Franks at Poitiers.
  0732  CEPope Gregory II commands the missionary Wynfrith Boniface (later St. Boniface) to forbid those he converts to Christianity the eating of horseflesh, in an attempt to distinguish them from pagans
  0732  CEPope Gregory II banned horseflesh from Christian tables after he learned that pagans of northern Europe ate it in their religious rites.
  0735  CEEngland's second archbishopric, located in York in the kingdom of Northumbria, is established, and Egbert serves as its first archbishop.
  0741  CESt Zachary begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 752.
  0743  CESlave export by Christians to heathen areas was prohibited.
  0745  CESome 200,000 Slovenians, settled in a pocket of the eastern slopes of the Alps, were threatened by the Avars and the Bavarians. For safety they adopted Christianity and accepted the protection of the Frankish emperor
  0750  CEThe first great English epic poem, Beowulf, is written in Old English. The work is anonymous and untitled until 1805. It is a Christian poem that exemplifies early medieval society in England and shows roots in Old Testament Law.
  0751  CESt. Boniface anoints Pepin a divinely sanctioned king, and the Frankish monarchy is fused into the papal order forming the western European empire.
23 Mar 0752  CEPope Stephen II was elected to succeed Pope Zacharias; however, Stephen died only two days later.
  0754  CEPope Stefanus II arrives in Ponthion.
  0754  CEThe Donation of Pepin establishes the papal states and recognizes the right of the papacy to control lands in Italy
  0754  CEThe Iconoclasts (image smashers) prevailed and religious art was banned in churches by an edict that remained in effect for a century.
26 Apr 0757  CEStephen II ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0757  CESt Paul I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 767.
  0768  CEStephen III begins his reign as Catholic Pope [until 772].
  0772  CEAdrian I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 795.
  0787  CE2nd Council of Nicaea (7th ecumenical council) opens in Asia Minor.
  0787  CEThe Second Council of Nicaea condemns iconoclasm and supports the use of icons in religious worship
  0793  CEThe first recorded appearance of the Vikings comes from the island of Lindisfarne, Scotland, when it is recorded that the monastery is sacked, and many of the monks killed
  0795  CESt Leo III begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 816.
  0797  CEThe 1,200 year-old Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript of the Gospels, was made by Irish Christian monks and is a richly decorated copy of the four gospels Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. It is now kept in the library of Dublin's Trinity College.
25 Dec 0800  CEPope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor at the basilica of St. Peter's at Rome.
  0804  CELiudger becomes the first bishop of Münster.
  0816  CEStephen IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope [until 817].
  0817  CESt Paschal I begins his reign as Catholic Pope, succeeding Stephen IV [until 824].
  0835  CEAfter the spread of Christianity through the west, the Roman Catholic Church in 835 A.D. made November 1 a church holiday to honor all the saints. This celebration was called All Saint's Day or All Hallows and the day before it, October 31, was called All Hallow's Eve (later Halloween).
  0835  CEAfter the spread of Christianity through the west, the Roman Catholic Church in 835 A.D. made November 1 a church holiday to honor all the saints.
  0842  CEMedieval Iconoclastic Controversy ends as a council in Constantinople formally reinstated the veneration of icons in the churches.
  0844  CEGregory IV begins & ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0847  CESergius II ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0847  CESt Leo IV begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0855  CEBenedict III begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 858.
17 Apr 0858  CEBenedict III ended his reign as Catholic Pope.
24 Apr 0858  CESt. Nicholas I began his reign as Catholic Pope, until 867.
24 Apr 0858  CESt. Nicholas I began his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0869  CE4th Council of Constantinople (8th ecumenical council) opens
  0870  CE8th Ecumenical council ends in Constantinople
  0872  CEJohn VIII begins his reign as Catholic Pope, until 882.
  0872  CEA novel by Donna Cross in 1996 is based on historical documents that indicate that Pope John VIII was actually female.
  0882  CEMarinus I begins his reign as Catholic Pope [until 884].
  0884  CESt Adrian III begins his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0891  CEFormosus begins his reign as Catholic Pope [until 869].
  0891  CEStephen V ends his reign as Catholic Pope.
  0896  CEPope Formosa crowned King Arnulf of Karinthie/French emperor.
  0910  CEThe French abbey of Cluny, which will soon become one of the wealthiest and most powerful monasteries in Europe, is founded in Francein. The two major innovations here are the direct subjection of monasteries to the pope, and the building of 'daughter monasteries' subordinate to the Cluniac 'family'.
  0918  CEBalderik becomes bishop of Utrecht.
  0936  CEDuke Alberik II of Spoleto appoints his son Pope Leo VII.
  0936  CEOtto the Great became King of Germany, [until 973] and later became the first Holy Roman Emperor. He is responsible for Germany's strength through the latter part of the eleventh century. Otto establishes a pattern of resistance to political fragmentation and a close alliance with the Church.
  0945  CEIn England monks settled along the Thames riverbank at Bablock Hythe.
  0956  CEVladimir I (956-1015), Prince of Kiev and the first Christian grand prince of Russia (980-1015), was born. He married the sister of the Byzantine emperor and thus brought in Orthodox Christianity to Russia.
  0973  CEPope Benedictus VI elected.
  0994  CE(Winter) Olaf Trygvasson converted to Christianity.
  0996  CEPope Gregory V crowns his cousin Otto III German emperor.
  0997  CESt. Adalbert was martyred. He brought Christianity to Bohemia.
  1000  CEOdo of Lagery elected as Pope Urban II, replacing Victor III.
  1014  CEPope Benedict VIII crowns Henry II, Roman German emperor.
  1027  CEJohn XIX crowns Conrad II the Salier Roman German emperor.
  1045  CEGiovanni di Sabina elected Pope Sylvester III.
  1048  CEBishop Bernold flees St Pieterskerk for Utrecht Netherlands.
  1049  CEThe Cluniac monastic reform sparks interest in the reform of the clerical hierarchy.
  1049  CEBruno count of Egesheim & Dagsburg crowned Pope Leo IX.
  1054  CEPope Leo IX escapes captivity & returns to Rome.
  1054  CEThe Roman and Orthodox Churches split decisively. The Orthodox Church did not accept the papal authority from Rome. Christians in southern Albania were left under the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople and those in the north under the pope in Rome.
 Jul 1212  CESpain reconquers the Iberian peninsula from the Muslims in the name of Christianity.
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