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Cosmology (1632-)

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The science of the very small to the very large from quarks to quasars.
Timeline
    1632  CEItalian astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) develops Galilean relativity.
    1632  CEGalileo Galilei develops support for Copernicus' heliocentric theory.
    1673  CEIgnace Pardies develops a wave explanation for refraction of light.
    1675  CEOle Romer uses the orbital mechanics of Jupiter's moons to estimate that the speed of light is about 227,000 km/s.
    1678  CETycho Brahe first sketches 'Tychonic system' of solar system.
    1680  CEIsaac Newton demonstrates that inverse square law implies eliptical orbits.
    1684  CEIsaac Newton proves that planets moving under an inverse-square force law will obey Kepler's laws.
    1687  CEIsaac Newton publishes his laws of motion and gravitation.
    1721  CEGeorge Berkeley postulates that space exists because of matter in it.
    1733  CECharles Du Fay recognises the distinction between positive and negative electric charge.
    1733  CEGeralamo Saccheri studies what geometry would be like if Euclid's fifth postulate were false.
    1756  CEMikhail Lomonosov completes work that supports wave theory of light.
    1766  CEJohann and Titius find the Titius-Bode rule for planetary distances.
    1766  CEJoseph Priestley proposes an inverse square law for electric charge.
    1772  CEJohann Bode publicizes the Titius-Bode rule for planetary distances.
    1784  CEJohn Michell discusses classical bodies which have escape velocities greater than the speed of light.
    1794  CEPierre Laplace produces an analysis of Newtonian black holes.
    1795  CEPierre Laplace discusses classical bodies which have escape velocities greater than the speed of light.
    1797  CEHenry Cavendish measured the gravitational constant with a torsion balance.
    1801  CEJohann von Soldner predicted Newtonian bending of light by the sun.
    1816  CEJoseph von Fraunhofer first observes absorption lines in sun's spectrum.
    1817  CEYoung and Fresnel explain the transverse nature of light.
    1819  CEHand Oersted discovered electromagnetism.
    1834  CECarl Jacobi discovers 'uniformly rotating self-gravitating ellipsoids'.
    1834  CEHermann Helmholtz proposes gravitational contraction as the energy source for the Sun.
    1838  CEThomas Henderson, Friedrich Struve and Friedrich Bessel make the first measurements of the distance to stars using the parallax method.
    1839  CEThomas Henderson measures first stellar parallax (Alpha Centauri).
    1840  CEAuguste Comte suggests that the nature and composition of stars will never be known.
    1850  CEAlexandre Puiseux distinguishes between poles and branch points and introduces the concept of essential singular points.
    1851  CEFrench physicist Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau (1819-1896) develops an experimental method of measuring velocity of light in moving medium. Rtaher than by looking at stars his method enabled measument on Earth.
    1851  CEJean-Bernard Foucault shows the Earth's rotation with a huge pendulum.
    1852  CEIn Ireland, Edward Sabine showed a link between sunspot activity and chnages in the earth's magnetic field.
    1854  CEArthur Cayley shows that quaternions can be used to represent rotations in four-dimensional space.
    1854  CEBernhard Riemann introoduces the possibility of space curvature on small or large scales using Riemannian geometry.
    1854  CEHermann von Helmholtz predicts the 'heat death' of the universe.
    1861  CEJohann Madler sated that Olbers's paradox would be resolved if the universe had a finite age.
    1862  CELord Kelvin attempts to find the age of the Earth by examining its cooling time and estimates that the Earth is between 20 to 400 million years old.
    1863  CERichard Carrington discovers the differential nature of solar rotation.
    1863  CEWilliam Huggins observes that stellar spectra indicate that stars are made of same elements as found on Earth.
    1865  CERudolf Clausius introduces the term entropy.
    1866  CEWilliam Huggins studies the spectrum of a nova and discovers that it is surrounded by a cloud of hydrogen.
    1867  CEJames Clerk Maxwell develops statistical physics and thermal equilibrium.
    1868  CEPierre-Jules-César Janssen and Norman Lockyer discover an unidentified yellow line in solar prominence spectra during an eclipse and suggest it comes from a new element which they name 'Helium'.
    1868  CEWilliam Huggins observes doppler shifts of stellar spectra.
    1871  CEJules Janssen discovers dark lines in solar corona spectrum.
    1872  CELudwig Boltzmann develops the H-theorem.
    1872  CELudwig Boltzmann states the Boltzmann equation for the temporal development of distribution functions in phase space.
    1874  CEGeorge Stoney estimates the unit of charge and named it the 'Electron'.
    1874  CELord Kelvin formally states the second law of thermodynamics.
    1875  CEJames Clerk Maxwell states that atoms must have a structure.
    1876  CEWilliam Clifford suggests that the motion of matter may be due to changes in the geometry of space.
    1877  CEJohann Loschmidt questions validity of second law for time symmetric dynamics.
    1877  CELudwig Boltzmann develops Boltzmann's probability equation for entropy.
    1879  CEAlbert Michelson improved the measurement of the speed of light.
    1879  CEJosef Stefan makes the empirical discovery of total radiation law (Stefan's law). This stetes that the total radiant flux from a black body is proportional to the fourth power of its temperature.
    1884  CELudwig Boltzmann derives the Stefan-Boltzmann black body radiant flux law of thermodynamics.
    1887  CEMichelson and Morley observe the absence of ether drift.
    1887  CEMichelson and Morley observe the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum.
    1887  CEWoldemar Voigt anticipated the Lorentz transform to derive Doppler shift.
    1889  CEGeorge Fitzgerald develops the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction theory. This effect increses at near-light speeds.
    1889  CERolond von Eotvos uses a torsion balance to test the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass.
    1890  CEJohannes Rydberg develops the empirical formulae for spectral lines and formulates the Rydberg constant.
    1892  CEHendrick Lorentz devleops the theory that electricity is due to charged particles.
    1893  CEEdward Maunder discovers the 1645--1715 Maunder sunspot minimum.
    1893  CEErnst Mach states that the influence of all the mass in the universe determines what is natural motion.
    1893  CEOliver Lodge state that ether could not be carried along by matter.
    1893  CEWilhelm Wien derives the black body displacement law for a blackbody's maximum specific intensity.
    1894  CEPierre Curie poses the question 'why are there no magnetic monopoles?'.
    1896  CEFrench physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel discovers the natural radioactivity in uranium ore when invisible rays darken a photographic plate.
    1896  CECharles Wilson discovers that energetic particles produce droplet tracks in supersaturated gases. This led to detection of sub-atomic particles.
    1896  CEWilhelm Wien postulated the exponential black body law.
    1897  CEEnglish physicist Joseph J Thomson discovers the electron.
    1897  CEKaufmann and J.J. Thomson measured the electron charge to mass ratio by deflection of cathode rays.
    1898  CEErnest Rutherford observes alpha and beta radiation.
    1898  CEHenri Poincare raised questions about absolute time and simultaniety.
    1900  CELord Rayleigh develops the statistical derivation of short wavelength black body law.
    1900  CEPyotr Lebedev measures radiation pressure.
    1901  CEMax Planck calculates the charge on the electron.
    1901  CEMax Planck determins Avogadro's number.
    1901  CEMax Planck determins Boltzmann's constant.
 
  1901  CEMax Planck determins Planck's constant.
 
 
  1902  CEJames Jeans finds the length scale required for gravitational pertrubatations to grow in a static nearly homogeneous medium.
 
 
  1902  CEKelvin and Thomson propose the 'plum pudding' model of the atom.
 
 
  1903  CEErnest Rutherford proposes that alpha particles have a positive charge.
 
 
  1903  CEJohannes Stark proses that the power of the sun may be due to genesis of chemical elements.
 
 
  1903  CEPhilipp Lenard develops a model of the atom as two separated opposite charges.
 
 
  1904  CEHantaro Nagaoka develops the planetary model of the atom.
 
 
  1904  CEHendrik Lorentz documents the completed Lorentz transformations.
 
 
  1904  CEHenri Poincare first conjectured light speed as physical limit.
 
 
  1905  CEAlbert Einstein (1879-1955) completes and publishes his theory of special relativity.
 
 
  1905  CEAlbert Einstein (1879-1955) postulated the equivalence of mass and energy in his law of mass-energy conservation (E=mc2).
 
 
  1905  CEBragg and Kleeman propose that alpha-particles have discrete energies.
 
 
  1905  CEHermann Nernst develops the third law of thermodynamics.
 
 
  1906  CEWalther Nernst presents a formulation of the third law of thermodynamics.
 
 
  1907  CEAlbert Einstein introduces the principle of equivalence of gravitation and inertia and uses it to predict the gravitational redshift of light.
 
 
  1908  CEGeorge Hale discovers the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines from sunspots.
 
 
  1908  CEHenrietta Leavitt discovers the Cepheid period-luminosity relation.
 
 
  1908  CEHermann Minkowski postulates geometric unification of space and time.
 
 
  1908  CERutherford, Royds and Geiger identify alpha particles as helium nuclei.
 
 
  1909  CEAlbert Einstein postulates particle-wave duality of photons.
 
 
  1909  CEErnest Rutherford and Thomas Royds demonstrate that alpha particles are doubly ionized helium atoms.
 
 
  1909  CEJohannes Stark calculates the momentum of photons.
 
 
  1909  CERobert Millikan first measured the charge on the electron.
 
 
  1910  CEAlbert Einstein and Marian Smoluchowski find the Einstein-Smoluchowski formula for the attenuation coefficient due to density fluctuations in a gas.
 
 
  1910  CEEjnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell study the relation between magnitudes and spectral types of stars.
 
 
  1911  CECharles Wilson develops a sophisticated cloud chamber.
 
 
  1912  CEAlbert Einstein postulates curvature of space-time.
 
 
  1912  CEMax Von Laue suggested that X-rays are explained as electromagnetic radiation by diffraction.
 
 
  1912  CEPeter Debye derives specific heat laws as applied to low temperatures.
 
 
  1912  CERobert Millikan measures Planck's constant.
 
 
  1912  CEVictor Hess discovers that the ionization of air increases with altitude indicating the existence of cosmic radiation.
 
 
  1913  CEJohannes Stark discovers the splitting of hydrogen spectral lines in an electric field.
 
 
  1913  CEJohannes Stark demonstrates that strong electric fields will split the Balmer spectral line series of Hydrogen.
 
 
  1913  CENiels Bohr (1885-?) develops quantum theory of atomic orbits and the atom combining nuclear theory with quantum theory.
 
 
  1913  CENiels Bohr describes radioactivity as a nuclear property.
 
 
  1914  CEErnest Rutherford suggests that the positively charged atomic nucleus contains protons.
 
 
  1914  CEHarry Moseley used X-rays to confirm the correspondence between electric charge of the nucleus and the atomic number.
 
 
  1914  CEJames Franck and Gustav Hertz observe atomic excitation.
 
 
  1914  CERutherford and da Costa Andrade identify gamma rays as 'hard' photons.
 
 
  1914  CEWalter Adams determines an incredibly high density for the star Sirius B.
 
 
  1915  CEAlbert Einstein (1879-1955) completes and publishes his theory of general relativity.
 
 
  1916  CEAlbert Einstein predicts gravitational waves.
 
 
  1916  CEAlbert Einstein shows conservation of energy-momentum in general relativity.
 
 
  1916  CEAlbert Einstein shows that the field equations of general relativity admit wavelike solutions.
 
 
  1916  CEArnold Sommerfeld describes further atomic quantum numbers and fine structure of spectra and the fine structure constant.
 
 
  1916  CEGilbert Lewis and Irving Langmuir formulate an electron shell model of chemical bonding.
 
 
  1916  CEKarl Schwarzschild develps a singular static solution of gravitational field equations which describes a minimal black hole.
 
 
  1916  CEKarl Schwarzschild solves the Einstein vacuum field equations for uncharged spherically symmetric systems.
 
 
  1916  CESydney Chapman and David Enskog systematically develop a kinetic theory of gases.
 
 
  1919  CEArthur Eddington predicts the size of red gaints using stellar models.
 
 
  1919  CEArthur Eddington leads a solar eclipse expedition which claims to detect gravitational deflection of light by the Sun.
 
 
  1919  CECrommelin and Eddington verify Einstein's prediction of starlight deflection during an eclipse.
 
 
  1919  CEFrancis Aston proposes that hydrogen fusion to helium will release a lot of energy.
 
 
  1919  CEJames Jeans discovers that the dynamical constants of motion determine the distribution function for a system of particles.
 
 
  1919  CEOliver Lodge predicts gravitational lensing.
 
 
  1919  CEEinstein's light-bending prediction confirmed by Arthur Eddington.
 
 
  1920  CEHarkins and Eddington claim that fusion of hydrogen could be the energy source of stars.
 
 
  1921  CEAlfred Lande introduces the Lande g-factor.
 
 
  1921  CEBieler and Chadwick find evidence for a strong nuclear interaction.
 
 
  1921  CECharles Bury deduces the electronic structure of elements from their chemistry.
 
 
  1921  CEStern and Gerlach measure atomic magnetic moments.
 
 
  1921  CET. Kaluza demonstrates that a five-dimensional version of Einstein's equations unifies gravitation and electromagnetism.
 
 
  1921  CETheodor Kaluza unifies electromagnetics and gravity by introducing an extra dimension.
 
 
  1921  CEAlbert Einstein lectures in New York on his new theory of relativity.
 
 
  1922  CEArthur Compton studies X-ray photon scattering by electrons.
 
 
  1922  CECornelius Lanczos shows the transformation of De Sitter universe to an expanding form.
 
 
  1922  CEOtto Stern and Walter Gerlach show 'space quantization'.
 
 
  1922  CEVesto Slipher summarizes his findings on the spiral nebulae's systematic redshifts.
 
 
  1923  CEArthur Compton and Debye verify the Compton effect which confirms the photon as particle.
 
 
  1923  CEEdwin Hubble resolves the Shapely-Curtis debate by finding Cepheids in Andromeda.
 
 
  1923  CEGeorge Birkhoff proves that the Schwarzschild spacetime geometry is the unique spherically symmetric solution of the Einstein vacuum field equations.
 
 
  1923  CEHerman Weyl hows that the De Sitter universe would predict a linear relation between distance and red-shift.
 
 
  1923  CELouis de Broglie suggests that electrons may have wavelike properties as well as those of particles, supporting Einstein's theories.
 
 
  1924  CEArthur Eddington develops the main-sequence mass-luminosity relationship.
 
 
  1924  CEBose and Einstein develop the statistics of photons and Bose-Einstein condensate.
 
 
  1924  CEEdwin Hubble measured the distance to other galaxies using Cepheid variables proving that they lie outside our own.
 
 
  1924  CEJohn Lennard-Jones proposes a semiempirical interatomic force law.
 
 
  1924  CELudwik Siberstein claimed a redshift law for nebulae.
 
 
  1924  CESatyendra Bose derives Planck's law.
 
 
  1924  CEWolfgang Pauli gives an explanation of the Zeeman effect and the two-valuedness of the electron state.
 
 
  1924  CEWolfgang Pauli states the quantum exclusion principle.
 
 
  1924  CEEdwin Hubble announces existence of other galactic systems.
 
 
  1929  CEBothe and Kolhorster show that cosmic rays are charged particles.
 
 
  1929  CEEdwin Hubble makes the first measurement of Hubble's constant leading to the conclusion that the Universe is expanding.
 
 
  1929  CEEdwin Hubble demonstrates the linear redshift-distance relation and thus shows the expansion of the universe.
 
 
  1929  CEErnest Lawrence builds the first cyclotron.
 
 
  1929  CEGeorge Gamow proposes hydrogen fusion as the energy source for stars.
 
 
  1929  CEHeisenberg and Pauli develop interacting quantum field theory and divergences.
 
 
  1929  CEJ. Robert Oppenheimer explains divergence of electron self-energy.
 
 
  1929  CEN.F. Mott derives the Mott cross section for the Coulomb scattering of relativistic electrons.
 
 
  1929  CEOskar Klein and Y. Nishina derive the Klein-Nishina cross section for high energy photon scattering by electrons.
 
 
  1929  CEOskar Klein discovers the Klein paradox.
 
 
  1929  CEPaul Dirac develops electron sea and hole theory.
 
 
  1931  CEAlbert Einstein discards the cosmological constant and postulates oscillating cosmology.
 
 
  1931  CEPaul Dirac shows that charge conservation can be explained if magnetic monopoles exist.
 
 
  1932  CEAlbert Einstein and De Sitter postulate a Flat expanding cosmology.
 
 
  1950  CEPaul Dirac first suggests string theory
 
 
  1951  CEMartin Deutsch discovers positronium
 
 
  1951  CEWilliam McCrea shows that the steady state C-field can be accommodated within general relativity by interpreting it as a contribution to the energy-momentum tensor with an unusual equation of state
 
 
  1952  CEAlvarez and Glaser build the first bubble chamber
 
 
  1952  CECourant - Livingston and Snyder develop the strong focusing principle for particle accelerators
 
 
  1952  CEJoseph Weber described the principle of the maser
 
 
  1952  CERosalind Franklin uses X-ray diffraction to study the structure of DNA and suggests that its sugar-phosphate backbone is on its outside.
 
 
  1952  CEBig Bang theory proposed in Physical Review by Alpher, Bethe & Gamow
 
 
  1953  CEAlpher - Herman and Follin first recognised the horizon problem in cosmology
 
 
  1953  CECharles Townes makes the first maser
 
 
  1953  CEFred Hoyle predicts a carbon-12 resonance to allow stellar triple alpha reactions at reasonable stellar interior temperatures
 
 
  1953  CEGell-Mann and Nishijima propose 'strangeness'
 
 
  1953  CER. Wilson observes Delbrück scattering of 1.33 MeV gamma-rays by the electric fields of lead nuclei
 
 
  1953  CEEinstein announces revised unified field theory.
 
 
  1954  CEChen Yang and Robert Mills investigate a theory of hadronic isospin by demanding local gauge invariance under isotopic spin space rotations---first non-Abelian gauge theory
 
 
  1954  CEYang and Mills develop non-abelian gauge theory
 
 
  1954  CEThe first bevatron in operation-Berkeley CA
 
 
  1955  CECarl von Weizsacker - Multiple Quantisation and ur-theory
 
 
  1955  CEChamberlain - Segre and Wiegand anti-proton
 
 
  1955  CEEnrico Fermi - John Pasta and Stanislaw Ulam numerically study a nonlinear spring model of heat conduction and discover solitary wave type behavior
 
 
  1955  CEJohn Wheeler describes the space-time foam at the Planck scale
 
 
  1955  CEOwen Chamberlain - Emilio Segre - Clyde Wiegand and Thomas Ypsilantis discover the antiproton
 
 
  1955  CETigran Shmaonov finds excess microwave emission with a temperature of roughly 3 K
 
 
  1955  CEThe first microgravity research begins
 
 
  1956  CEBlock - Chen Yang and Tsung Lee propose parity violation by the weak force
 
 
  1956  CEChien Shiung Wu discovers parity violation by the weak force in decaying cobalt
 
 
  1956  CECork - Lambertson - Piccioni and Wenzel find evidence for anti-neutron
 
 
  1956  CEErwin Muller builds the field ion microscope which shows the first images of individual atoms
 
 
  1956  CEFrederick Reines and Clyde Cowan detect antineutrinos
 
 
  1956  CER. Hanbury-Brown and R.Q. Twiss complete the correlation interferometer
 
 
  1956  CEFrederick Reines and Clyde Cowan develop anti-neutrino detection
 
 
  1956  CEFrederick Reines and Clyde Cowan develop neutrino detection
 
 
  1957  CEA.S. Kompaneets derives his Compton scattering Fokker-Planck equation
 
 
  1957  CEBurbidge - Burbidge - Hoyle - Fowler Formation of light elements in stars
 
 
  1957  CEFeynman - Gell-Mann - Marshak and Sudarshan dvellop V-A theory of weak interactions
 
 
  1957  CEFriedman - Lederman - Telegdi and Wu develop parity violation in weak decays
 
 
  1957  CEGerhart Luders proves the CPT theorem
 
 
  1957  CEHugh Everett postulates the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics
 
 
  1957  CEJohn Bardeen - Leon Cooper and Robert Schrieffer develop the BCS theory of superconductivity
 
 
  1957  CEJohn Wheeler postulates the pregeometry and space-time foam
 
 
  1957  CEJohn Wheeler discusses the breakdown of classical general relativity near singularities and the need for quantum gravity
 
 
  1957  CEPeter Scheuer publishes his P(D) method for obtaining source counts of spatially unresolved sources
 
 
  1957  CERichard Feynman - Murray Gell-Mann - Robert Marshak and Ennackel Sudarshan propose a V-A Lagrangian for weak interactions
 
 
  1958  CEDavid Finkelstein resolves the nature of the black hole event horizon
 
 
  1958  CEEvry Schatzman - Kent Harrison - Masami Wakano and John Wheeler show that white dwarfs are unstable to inverse beta decay
 
 
  1958  CEGary Feinberg - predicts that muon neutrino is distinct from electron neutrino
 
 
  1958  CEMarcus Sparnaay experimentally confirms the Casimir effect
 
 
  1958  CEMartin Ryle finds evidence for evolution of distant cosmological radio sources
 
 
  1958  CETownes and Schawlow develop the theory of the laser
 
 
  1959  CETulio Regge develops the theory of Regge poles
 
 
  1959  CEYakir Aharonov and David Bohm predict the Aharonov-Bohm effect
 
 
  1960  CEMartin Kruskal develops new coordinates to study Schwarzschild black hole
 
 
  1960  CEMartin Ryle tests Earth rotation aperature synthesis
 
 
  1960  CEPound and Rebka measure the gravitational red-shift
 
 
  1960  CER.G. Chambers experimentally confirms the Aharonov-Bohm effect
 
 
  1960  CERobert Leighton - Robert Noyes and George Simon discover solar five-minute oscillations by observing the Doppler shifts of solar dark lines
 
 
  1960  CERobert Pound and Glen Rebka test the gravitational redshift predicted by the equivalence principle to approximately 1%
 
 
  1960  CETheodore Maiman makes the first laser from a ruby.
 
 
  1960  CEJohn Reynolds sets age of solar system at 4,950,000,000 years
 
 
  1961  CEGell-Mann and Ne'eman, develop the eightfold way explaining the SU(3) octet symmetry of hadrons.
 
 
  1961  CEGeoffrey Chew develops nuclear democracy and the bootstrap model.
 
 
  1961  CEJeoffrey Goldstone develops the theory of massless particles in spontaneous symmetry breaking (Goldstone boson).
 
 
  1961  CEMurray Gell-Mann and Yuval Ne'eman discover the Eightfold Way patterns in the SU(3) group.
 
 
  1961  CERobert Dicke postulates the weak anthropic principle.
 
 
  1961  CERobert Dicke argues that carbon-based life can only arise when the Dirac large numbers hypothesis is true because this is when burning stars exist which is the first use of the weak anthropic principle.
 
 
  1961  CERobert Hofstadter prposes that necleons have an internal structure.
 
 
  1961  CESheldon Glashow introduces neutral intermediate boson of electro-weak interactions.
 
 
  1961  CETulio Regge develops simplicial lattice general relativity.
 
 
  1962  CEBrian Josephson develops the theory of the Jesephson effect.
 
 
  1962  CEGell-Mann and Ne'eman predict the Omega minus particle.
 
 
  1962  CEHogarth proposes a relation between cosmological and thermodynamic arrows of time.
 
 
  1962  CELederman, Steinberger and Schwartz discover evidence for more than one type of neutrino.
 
 
  1962  CELeon Lederman shows that the electron neutrino is distinct from the muon neutrino.
 
 
  1962  CERobert Dicke, Peter Roll and R. Krotkov use a torsion fiber balance to test the weak equivalence principle to 2 parts in 100 billion.
 
 
  1962  CEThomas Gold suggests a time-symmetric universe.
 
 
  1962  CE5 research groups announce simultaneously discovery of anti-matter.
 
 
  1963  CEFred Hoyle and Jayant Narlikar show that the steady state theory can explain the isotropy of the universe because deviations from isotropy and homogeneity exponentially decay in time
 
 
  1963  CEFred Hoyle and William Fowler conceive the idea of supermassive stars
 
 
  1963  CEMaarten Schmidt identifies the redshifted Balmer lines from the quasar 3C273
 
 
  1963  CEMartin Kruskal and Norman Zabusky analytically study the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam heat conduction problem in the continuum limit and find that the KdV equation governs this system
 
 
  1963  CEMurray Gell-Mann and George Zweig propose the quark/aces model
 
 
  1963  CEPhilip Anderson shows that Gauge theories can evade Goldstone theorem
 
 
  1963  CERoy Kerr develops a solution for a rotating black hole
 
 
  1963  CERoy Kerr solves the Einstein vacuum field equations for uncharged rotating systems
 
 
  1963  CESamios et al mind ths Baryon Omega minus particle
 
 
  1964  CEA.G. Doroshkevich and Igor Novikov write an unnoticed paper suggesting microwave searches for the blackbody radiation predicted by Gamow - Alpher and Herman
 
 
  1964  CEBjorken and Glashow predict SU(4) flavour symmetry and charm
 
 
  1964  CEBrout - Englert - Higgs and Higgs postulate a mechanism for symmetry breaking
 
 
  1964  CEChristenson - Cronin - Fitch and Turlay postulate CP violation in weak interactions
 
 
  1964  CEFred Hoyle and Roger Tayler point out that the primordial helium abundance depends on the number of neutrinos
 
 
  1964  CEGell-Mann and Zweig develop the quark theory of hadrons
 
 
  1964  CEGinzburg - Doroshkevich - Novikov and Zel'dovich make the famous quote 'black holes have no hair'
 
 
  1964  CEHoyle - Taylor and Zeldovich postulate big bang nucleosynthesis of helium
 
 
  1964  CEIrwin Shapiro predicts a gravitational time delay of radiation travel as a test of general relativity
 
 
  1964  CEJ.S. Bell shows that all local hidden variable theories must satisfy Bell's inequality
 
 
  1964  CEJohn Bell postulates a quantum inequality which limits the possibilities for local hidden variable theories
 
 
  1964  CEJohn Wheeler - foundations of canonical formulism for gravity
 
 
  1964  CEMurray Gell-Mann develops current algebra
 
 
  1964  CEPeter Higgs considers the breaking of local phase symmetry
 
 
  1964  CERoger Penrose postulates that black holes must contain singularities once it hs formed an event horizon
 
 
  1964  CESalpeter and Zel'dovich suggest that black holes power quasars and radio galaxies
 
 
  1964  CESteven Weinberg staes that the baryon number is probably not conserved
 
 
  1964  CESubrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Richard Feynman develop a general relativistic theory of stellar pulsations and show that supermassive stars are subject to a general relativistic instability
 
 
  1964  CEVal Fitch and James Cronin observe CP violation by the weak force in the decay of K mesons
 
 
  1965  CEArno Penzias, Robert Wilson, Bernie Burke, Robert Dicke and James Peebles discover the cosmic microwave background radiation.
 
 
  1965  CEA Penzias & R Wilson detect 3ø K primordial background radiation
 
 
  1968  CEAbdus Salam postulates the 2-component neutrino
 
 
  1968  CEBrandon Carter speculates that perhaps the fundamental constants of nature must lie within a restricted range to allow the emergence of life which is the first use of the strong anthropic principle
 
 
  1968  CEBrandon Carter uses Hamilton-Jacobi theory to derive first-order equations of motion for a charged particle moving in the external fields of a Kerr-Newman black hole
 
 
  1968  CEGabriele Veneziano develops the dual resonance model for strong interaction which is the beginning of string theory
 
 
  1968  CEGeorges Charpak and Roger Bouclier build the first multiwire proportional mode particle detection chamber
 
 
  1968  CEIrwin Shapiro presents the first detection of the Shapiro delay
 
 
  1968  CEJames Bjorken develops the theory of scaling behavior in deep inelastic scattering
 
 
  1968  CEJoseph Weber makes the first attempt to buil a gravitational wave detector
 
 
  1968  CEKenneth Nordtvedt studies a possible violation of the weak equivalence principle for self-gravitating bodies and proposes a new test of the weak equivalence principle based on observing the relative motion of the Earth and Moon in the Sun's gravitational field
 
 
  1968  CEMartin Rees and Dennis Sciama theoretically predict microwave background fluctuation amplitudes created by photons traversing time-dependent potential wells
 
 
  1968  CERichard Feynman develops the scaling and parton model of nucleons
 
 
  1968  CEThomas Gold proposes that pulsars are rotating neutron stars
 
 
  1969  CECharles Misner formally presents the Big Bang horizon problem
 
 
  1969  CEDavid Finkelstein proposes space-time code
 
 
  1969  CEDonald Lynden-Bell proposes that there is a black hole at the centre of galactic nuclei
 
 
  1969  CEEllis - Hawking and Penrose develop singularity theorems for the big bang
 
 
  1969  CEThe first attempts to verify solar deflection of radio waves from quasars
 
 
  1969  CEJ.C. Clauser - M. Horne - A. Shimony and R. Holt propose a polarization correlation test of Bell's inequality
 
 
  1969  CEKendall - Friedman - Taylor Deep inelastic scattering experiments find structure inside protons.
 
 
  1969  CER.A. Sunyaev and Yakov Zel'dovich study the inverse Compton scattering of microwave background photons by hot electrons
 
 
  1969  CERaymond Davis builds the first solar neutrino detector
 
 
  1969  CERobert Dicke formally presents the Big Bang flatness problem
 
 
  1969  CERoger Penrose postulates that singularities are hidden by cosmic censorship
 
 
  1969  CERoger Penrose discusses the Penrose process for the extraction of the spin energy from a Kerr black hole
 
 
  1970  CEClaude Lovelace shws that Veneziano amplitude has special properties in 26 dimensions
 
 
  1970  CENambu - Nielsen and Susskind realise that the dual resonance model is string theory
 
 
  1970  CERoger Ulrich - John Leibacher and Robert Stein deduce from theoretical solar models that the interior of the Sun could act as a resonant acoustic cavity
 
 
  1970  CESheldon Glashow - John Iliopoulos and Luciano Maiani predict the charm quark
 
 
  1970  CEStephen Hawking suggests that the surface area of a black holes event horizon always increases
 
 
  1971  CEGerard 't Hooft shows that the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg electroweak model can be renormalized
 
 
  1971  CEKenneth Wilson - the operator product expansion and the renormalisation group for the strong force
 
 
  1971  CERamond - Neveu and Schwarz develop string theory of bosons and fermions with critical dimension 10
 
 
  1971  CE't Hooft - Veltman - Lee - renormalisation of elctro-weak model
 
 
  1972  CEDouglas Osheroff - Robert Richardson and David Lee discover that helium-3 can become a superfluid
 
 
  1972  CEFritsch - Gell-Mann and Bardeen develop Quantum Chromodynamics
 
 
  1972  CEJacob Bekenstein suggests that black holes have an entropy proportional to their surface area due to information loss effects
 
 
  1972  CEJames Bardeen - Brandon Carter and Stephen Hawking propose four laws of black hole mechanics in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics
 
 
  1972  CES. Freedman and J.C. Clauser perform the first polarization correlation test of Bell's inequality
 
 
  1972  CESalam and Pati postulate SU(4)xSU(4) unification and proton decay
 
 
  1972  CEStephen Hawking proves that the area of a classical black hole's event horizon cannot decrease
 
 
  1972  CEStephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge propose punctuated equilibrium effects in evolution
 
 
  1973  CECERN finds evidence of weak neutral currents
 
 
  1973  CEDavid Politzer proposes the asymptotic freedom of quarks
 
 
  1973  CEEdward Tryon proposes that the universe may be a large scale quantum mechanical vacuum fluctuation where positive mass-energy is balanced by negative gravitational potential energy
 
 
  1973  CEJeremiah Ostriker and James Peebles discover that the amount of visible matter in the disks of typical spiral galaxies is not enough for Newtonian gravitation to keep the disks from flying apart or drastically changing shape
 
 
  1973  CEKlebesadel - Strong and Olson suggest that gamma ray bursts are cosmic
 
 
  1973  CE't Hooft - Gross - Politzer - Wilczek - Coleman - theory of asymptotic freedom in non-abelian gauge theories
 
 
  1973  CEWess and Zumino postulate space-time supersymmetry
 
 
  1974  CEBurton Richter and Samuel Ting discover the psi meson implying the existence of the charm quark
 
 
  1974  CEGeorgi - Weinberg - Quinn - Convergence of coupling constants at GUT scale
 
 
  1974  CEGeorgi and Glashow propose SU(5) as the Grand Unified Theory and predict proton decay
 
 
  1974  CEKenneth Wilson develops lattice gauge theory
 
 
  1974  CEKenneth Wilson develops the renormalization group technique for treating phase transitions
 
 
  1974  CEKobayashi and Maskawa - CKM mixing matrix - CP violation in weak interaction requires three generations
 
 
  1974  CERobert Wagoner - William Fowler and Fred Hoyle show that the hot Big Bang predicts the correct deuterium and lithium abundances
 
 
  1974  CEStephen Hawking applies quantum field theory to black hole spacetimes and shows that black holes will radiate particles with a blackbody spectrum which can cause black hole evaporation
 
 
  1974  CET Hooft, Okun and Polyakov show that heavy magnetic monopoles exist in GUTs.
 
 
  1974  CETing and Richter found the J/psi charmed quark
 
 
  1974  CEYoneya - Scherk and Schwarz develop an interpretation of string theory as a theory of gravity
 
 
  1975  CEBelavin - Polyakov - Schwartz and Tyupkin describe instantons in Yang-Mills theory
 
 
  1975  CEChincarini and Rood lumpiness in galaxy distributions
 
 
  1975  CEGail Hanson quark jets
 
 
  1975  CEMartin Perl discovers the tauon
 
 
  1975  CEMartin Perl discovers the Tau lepton
 
 
  1975  CEMitchell Feigenbaum propses that there is universality in chaotic non-linear systems
 
 
  1975  CEUnruh and Davies describe the acceleration radiation effect
 
 
  1976  CEA.I. Shlyakhter uses samarium ratios from the prehistoric natural fission reactor in Gabon to show that some laws of physics have remained unchanged for over two billion years
 
 
  1976  CEDeser - Freedman - Van Nieuwenhuizen - Ferrara and Zumino describe supergravity
 
 
  1976  CEGerard 't Hooft the instantons solution of the U(1) anomaly
 
 
  1976  CEKenneth Appel and Wolfgang Haken use a computer to solve the four-color problem
 
 
  1976  CELevine and Vessot precision test of gravitational time dilation on rocket
 
 
  1976  CERobert Vessot and Martin Levine use a hydrogen maser clock on a Scout D rocket to test the gravitational redshift predicted by the equivalence principle to approximately 0.007%
 
 
  1976  CESandra Faber and Robert Jackson discover the Faber-Jackson relation between the luminosity of an elliptical galaxy and the velocity dispersion in its center
 
 
  1976  CEScherk - Gliozzi and Olive propose supersymmetric string theory
 
 
  1977  CEBerkley discovers dipole anisotropy on cosmic background radiation
 
 
  1977  CEBrent Tully and Richard Fisher discover the Tully-Fisher relation between the luminosity of an isolated spiral galaxy and the velocity of the flat part of its rotation curve
 
 
  1977  CEChristopher McKee and Jeremiah Ostriker propose a three component theory of the interstellar medium
 
 
  1977  CEFermilab discovers the bottom quark
 
 
  1977  CEGary Steigman - David Schramm and James Gunn examine the relation between the primordial helium abundance and number of neutrinos and claim that at most five lepton families can exist
 
 
  1977  CEGunn - Schramm and Steigman develop cosmological constraints imply that there are only three light neutrinos
 
 
  1977  CEKip Thorne and Anna Zytkow present a detailed analysis of Thorne-Zytkow objects
 
 
  1977  CEKlaus von Klitzing develops the quantum Hall effect
 
 
  1977  CELeon Lederman discovers the upsilon bottom quark
 
 
  1977  CEOlive and Montenen postulate elecro-magnetic duality
 
 
  1977  CES.W. Herb finds the upsilon resonance implying the existence of the beauty quark
 
 
  1978  CECremmer - Julia - Nahm and Scherk develop 11-dimensional supergravity
 
 
  1978  CEPeter Goldreich and Scott Tremaine present a Boltzmann equation model of planetary-ring dynamics for indestructible spherical ring particles that do not self-gravitate
 
 
  1978  CEPrescott and Taylor describe the elctro-weak effect on electron polarisation
 
 
  1979  CEAlexei Starobinsky proposes an inflationary universe
 
 
  1979  CEDennis Walsh - Robert Carswell and Ray Weymann discover the gravitationally lensed quasar Q0957+561
 
 
  1979  CEDESY discovers evidence for gluons in hadron Jets
 
 
  1979  CEWalsh - Carswell and Weymann propose that a quasar is doubled by gravitational lensing
 
 
  1989  CELaunch of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite.
 
 
  1990  CEJohn Mather measures the black body spectrum of cosmic background radiation from COBE
 
 
  1990  CEThe COBE satellite shows that the microwave background has a nearly perfect blackbody spectrum and thereby strongly constrains the density of the intergalactic medium
 
 
  1990  CEWolfgang Krätschmer and Lowell Lamb and Konstantinos Fostiropoulos and Donald Huffman discover that Buckminsterfullerine can be separated from soot because it is soluble in benzene
 
 
  1991  CEBATSE discovers that Gamma Ray Burst distribution is isotropic
 
 
  1991  CECERN confirms that number of light neutrinos is three
 
 
  1991  CEConnes and Lott develop particle models from non-commutative geometry
 
 
  1992  CEThe COBE satellite discovers anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background. This are 'ripples' from the big bang attributed to the first structures to form in the Universe.
 
 
  1993  CEAspinwall - Morrison and Greene propose the topology change in string theory
 
 
  1994  CEFermilab identifies the Top Quark
 
 
  1994  CEHull and Townsend propose the Unity of String Dualities
 
 
  1994  CESeiberg and Witten propose electro-magnetic duality in supersymmetric gauge theory
 
 
  1994  CE't Hooft - Susskind Holographic principle
 
 
  1995  CECERN creates of Anti-hydrogen atoms
 
 
  1995  CEJoseph Polchinski proposes D-Branes in string theory
 
 
  1995  CEWitten and Townsend develop M-Theory which is a possible sucessor to string theory
 
 
  1996  CEBanks - Fischler - Shenker and Susskind explain M-theory as a matrix model
 
 
  1996  CECumrun Vafa develops F-theory
 
 
  1996  CESteven Lamoreaux made the first measurement of the Casimir force
 
 
  1997  CEBepoSAX - location of Gamma Ray Bursts demonstrates that they are extragalactic
 
 
  1997  CEPhoton-photon scattering produces electron-positron pairs
 
 
  1998  CEPerlmutter and Garnavich supernovae observations suggest that the expansion of the universe is accelerating.
 
 
  1998  CEThe Super-Kamiokande neutrino oscillation was demonstrated.
 
 
  1998  CETime reversal assymetry observed for K meson decay at Fermilab.
 
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
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