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Computers (1623-)

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The history of computers from the first mechanical machines through to modern microprocessor systems.
    1623  CEGerman mathamatician Wilhelm Schickard (1592-1635) invented the first mechanical calculating machine, a 6-digit 'calculating clock' that could add and subtract
    1623  CEWilhelm Schickard invented a mechanical calculator.
    1642  CEFrench mathamatician Blaise Pascal develops a mechanical calculator at the age of 21. He did so to ease the drudgery of his tax-collector father, but it was considered too complicated.
    1645  CEFrench mathematician Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) completes his 5-digit 'Pascaline' that can add, after three years work.
    1671  CEIn Germany Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz devised a mechanical calculator to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
    1820  CEThe first mechnaical calculating machine which was produced in large numbers was invented by the Frenchman Thomas de Colmar and was called the Arithmometer
    1822  CECharles Babbage began construction of the difference engine which was the first mechnaical computer
    1833  CEAda Lovelace (future first computer programmer) meets Charles Babbage.
    1834  CEBabbage conceives the analytical engine which was the forerunner of the computer.
    1843  CEHoward Aiken constructs first mechanical programable calculator.
    1843  CEAda Lovelace (Lady Lovelace) publishes her 'Notes' explaining a computer.
    1847  CEGeorge Boole formalizes symbolic logic in 'The Mathematical Analysis of Logic'.
    1850  CEAdding machine employing depressible keys patented, New Paltz New York.
    1854  CEIn the UK George Boole published his systesm of symbolic logic now called boolean algebra.
    1873  CELord Kelvin calculates the tides with a machine.
    1884  CEElectric tabulator is introduced.
    1887  CEComptometer multi-function adding machine is manufactured.
    1889  CEDr Herman Hollerith receives first US patent for a tabulating machine.
    1905  CESwedish inventor Willgodt T. Odhner invents the next 'generation' of mechanical calculating machine using a 'pin wheel' mechanism.
    1911  CEThe merger of three companies forms Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (C-T-R). This company will later become IBM.
    1914  CEThomas Watson becomes the head of the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (C-T-R), the company that will later become IBM.
    1917  CEThe Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company enters the Canadian market under name of International Business Machines Co Limited or IBM.
    1919  CEFlip-flop circuit invented which helps compuers to remember binary numbers, and hence enables them to count.
    1921  CEThe word 'robot' enters the language.
 14 Feb 1924  CEThe Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (C-T-R) is renamed International Business Machines or IBM.
    1928  CEIBM adopts the 80-column punched card.
    1930  CEBush's differential analyzer introduces the computer.
    1936  CEAlan Turing discusses computability.
    1936  CEAlan Turing's 'On Computable Numbers' describes a general purpose computer.
    1937  CEStibitz of Bell Labs invents the electrical digital calculator.
    1941  CEZuse's Z3 is the first computer controlled by software.
    1942  CEAtanasoff - Berry build the first electronic digital computer
    1944  CEHarvard's Mark I - first digital computer - put in service
    1944  CEIBM offers a typewriter with proportional spacing.
    1946  CEENIAC the first US computer is finished by John Mauchly and Presper Eckert in Pennsylvania.
    1947  CEThe transistor is invented and evetually replaces most vacuum tubes.
    1948  CEThe first stored computer program run, on Manchester Mark I.
    1949  CEJohn von Neumann computes Pi to 2037 decimal places using ENIAC.
    1949  CEWhirlwind at MIT is the first real time computer.
    1949  CEMagnetic core computer memory is invented.
    1950  CEAlan Turing proposes the 'Turing test' criterion for an intelligent machine.
    1950  CEChangeable typewriter typefaces are in use.
    1950  CEPhototransistor invention announced, Murray Hill NJ
    1951  CEPresper Eckert and John Mauchly finish UNIVAC I - the first mass-produced electronic computer.
    1951  CEThe first mass-produced electronic computer, UNIVAC 1, enters service at Census Bureau.
    1952  CEIBM announces its 'electronic' brain based on the vacuum tube, the IBM 701, that could perform 17,000 per second (or 1 million operations an hour).
    1954  CEThe first FORTRAN computer program run
    1956  CEJay Forrester issued a patent for computer core memory
    1957  CEIBM makes FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslation) a scientific programming language available to its customers.
    1959  CEBell Labs experiments with artificial intelligence.
    1959  CETexas Instruments requests patent of IC (Integrated Circuit).
    1959  CEBob Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor, U.S., prints an entire electronic circuit on a single crystal or microchip of silicon using a photographic process. This breakthrough enables the computer revolution to begin.
    1959  CEThe IBM 7090 computer was introduced. It was one of the first fully transistorized mainframes and could perform 229,000 calculations per second.
    1960  CEC.A.R. Hoare invents the quicksort algorithm.
    1960  CEIrving Reed and Gustave Solomon develop the Reed-Solomon error-correcting code.
    1961  CEDaniel Shanks and John Wrench compute pi to 100000 decimal places using an inverse-tangent identity and an IBM-7090 computer.
    1961  CEIBM introduces the 'golf ball' typewriter.
    1961  CEThe time-sharing computer is developed.
    1961  CERobert Noyce patents the integrated circuit.
    1963  CEPDP-8 becomes the first popular minicomputer.
    1964  CEThe first BASIC program runs on a computer.
    1965  CEARPA sponsors study on 'cooperative network of time-sharing computers'
    1965  CEComputer time-sharing becomes popular.
   Oct 1966  CELawrence G Roberts publishes the first ARPANET plan 'Towards a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers'
   Apr 1967  CEARPANET design discussions held by Larry Roberts at ARPA IPTO PI meeting in Ann Arbor Michigan
    1967  CEThe computer light pen is dveloped.
   Aug 1968  CERequest for proposals for ARPANET sent out responses received in September
    1968  CEThe RAM (Randon Access Memory) microchip reaches the market.
    1968  CEDouglas C. Engelbart, of the Stanford Research Institute, demonstrates his system of keyboard, keypad, mouse, and windows at the Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco's Civic Center.
 30 Aug 1969  CEARPANET commissioned by DoD for research into networking, the beginning of the Internet.
   Nov 1969  CEIntel announces a 1 kilobit RAM chip, which has a significantly larger capacity than any previously produced memory chip
    1969  CEIntel's Marcian (Ted) Hoff and Stan Mazor design a 4-bit CPU chip set architecture that could receive instructions and perform simple functions on data and this CPU becomes the 4004 microprocessor
    1970  CEThe computer floppy disc is developed.
    1970  CEThe beginning of 'The Epoch', which is Time 0 for UNIX systems.
    1970  CEDigital Equipment Corp introduces PDP-11 minicomputer.
    1970  CEIBM introduces its System/370 computer. It is one of the first computers to include 'virtual memory' technology, a technique developed in England in 1962 to expand the main memory available to the computer by using space on the hard drive.
    1970  CEThe first computer chess tournament is held.
   Sep 1971  CEIn major trade publications, Intel officially introduces the MCS-4 microcomputer system comprised of the 4001 ROM chip, 4002 RAM chip, 4003 shift register chip, and the 4004 microprocessor and the clock speed of the CPU is 108 kHz.
    1971  CETexas Instruments releases the first easily portable electronic calculator.
    1971  CEWang 1200 is the first word processor.
 Apr 1972  CEIntel introduces its 200-KHz 8008 chip, the first commercial 8-bit microprocessor, part of the MCS-8 product family of chips
  1973  CEFairchild Semiconductor releases the first large image forming CCD chip with 100 rows and 100 columns.
  1973  CEThe microcomputer is born in France.
  1974  CEYourdon Inc forms.
  1974  CEGary Kildall, of Microcomputer Applications Associates, develops the CP/M operating system for Intel 8080-based systems.
  1974  CEMotorola introduces its 6800 chip, an early 8-bit microprocessor used in microcomputers and industrial and automotive control devices and was designed by Chuck Peddle and Charlie Melear.
  1974  CEIntel introduces the 8080, an 8-bit microprocessor.
 Apr 1975  CEThe microcomputer, in kit form, reaches the US home market in the form of the the Altair 8800
  1976  CEApple releases the Apple I computer.
  1976  CEStill cameras are developed that are controlled by microprocessors.
  1977  CEApple Computers release the Apple II personal computer.
  1977  CERadio Shack issues a press release introducing the TRS-80 computer 25 existed, within weeks thousands were ordered.
  1977  CEThe first CRAY 1 supercomputer shipped, to Los Alamos Laboratories, New Mexico.
  1978  CEThe first 'micro on a chip' patented by Texas Instruments.
  1978  CEThe first Computer Bulletin Board System (Ward & Randy's CBBS, Chicago).
  1978  CEIntel introduces the 8086 and 8088 16-bit microprocessors.
  1979  CESpeech recognition machine has a vocabulary of 1000 words.
  1979  CEApparat releases Newdos+ 2.1 for Radio Shack's TRS-80.
  1979  CEPercom Data Company Inc release Microdos for Radio Shack's TRS-80.
  1979  CERadio Shack releases TRSDOS 2.3.
  1979  CEThe first computer public information service, 'The Source', goes online.
  1980  CEThe first consumer use of home banking by computer in Knoxville, Tennasee.
  1980  CEUS copyright law amended to include computer programs.
  1981  CE450 thousand transistors fit on a silicon chip 1/4-inch square.
  1981  CEThe laptop computer is introduced.
  1981  CEThe first mouse pointing device.
  1981  CEIBM introduces PC-DOS version 1.0.
  1981  CERadio Shack releases Model III TRSDOS 1.3.
  1981  CERadio Shack re-releases Model III TRSDOS 1.3 with 2 fixes
  1981  CEIBM announces the IBM Personal Computer, or PC, the smallest and lowest-priced IBM computer to date.
  1982  CEIBM releases PC-DOS version 1.1.
  1982  CEIBM ROM is capable of EGA graphics.
  1982  CEJustice Department withdraws antitrust suit against IBM, pending since 1969.
  1982  CEIntel introduces the 80286 16-bit microprocessors.
  1983  CEComputer chip holds 288 thousand bits of memory.
  1983  CE'Time' magazine names the computer as 'Man of the Year'.
  1983  CEIBM releases PC DOS version 2.0.
  1983  CEIBM-PC DOS Version 2.1 released.
  1983  CERadio Shack announces the Tandy Model 2000 computer (80186 chip).
  1983  CERadio Shack announces their color computer 2 (the Coco2).
  1983  CEIBM announces the IBM Personal Computer XT, with more memory, dual-sided diskette drive and high-performance fixed-disk drive.
  1983  CEIBM announces the IBM System/36 which becomes the industry's most widely accepted mid-range computer.
  1984  CEThe IBM PC AT was introduced.
  1984  CEThe 32-bit microprocessor was created.
  1984  CEThe one megabyte memory chip was created.
  1984  CEApple Computer Inc unveils its Macintosh personal computer.
  1984  CEIBM releases MS-DOS version 3.0.
  1985  CEDavid Deutsch develops the theory of quantum computing.
  1985  CECD-ROM can put 270 thousand papers of text on a CD record.
  1985  CESynthetic text-to-speech computer pronounces 20 thousand words.
  1985  CEIBM-PC DOS Version 3.1 (update) released.
  1985  CEIBM-PC DOS Version 3.2 released.
  1985  CEIntel introduces the 80386 32-bit microprocessor with built-in support for muntitasking.
  1987  CEIBM releases PC-DOS version 3.3.
  1988  CECornell confirms graduate student source of worst computer sabotage to date.
  1988  CEHewlett-Packard introduces the HP-28S Advanced Scientific Calculator
  1988  CEIBM announces shipment of 3 millionth PS/2 personal computer.
  1988  CEIBM introduces software for artificial intelligence.
  1988  CEMicrosoft releases MS DOS 4.0.
  1988  CESystem Enhancement Assoc settles case with PKware (ARC vs PKARC).
  1988  CEPhotoMac is the first image manipulation program available for the Macintosh computer.
  1989  CEBennett and Brassard outline first quantum computer.
  1989  CEThe 'Friday the 13th' virus strikes hundreds of IBM computers in Britain.
  1989  CEWord Perfect 5.1 is shipped.
  1989  CEFollowing the dismantling of the Soviet bloc, film companies are privatised and western films are welcomed in eastern Europe.
  1989  CELetraset releases Color Studio 1.0 (TM), the first professional image manipulation program for Macintosh computers.
  1989  CEIntel introduces the 80486 microprocessor with built-in maths coprocessor.
  1990  CEMicrosoft releases Windows 3.0.
  1991  CETim Berners-Lee - working at CERN in Switzerland - posts the first computer code of the World Wide Web in a relatively innocuous newsgroup 'alt.hypertext'
  1991  CEApple releases Macintosh System 7.0.
  1991  CEDate of Microsoft MS DOS 5.0.
  1991  CEIntel releases the 486SX chip.
  1991  CEMicrosoft releases MS DOS 5.0.
  1992  CEIBM announces a nearly $5B loss for 1992.
  1993  CEIntel introduces the 64-bit Pentium-processor (80586). It runs at 60 MHz and delivers 100+ MIPS.
  1993  CEAdobe Photoshop is available for MS-DOS/Windows platforms.
  1993  CELivePicture image manipulation software is announced by HSC, Inc.
  1994  CEPeter Shor develops a factorisation algorithm for a quantum computer.
  1994  CEMicrosoft CEO Bill Gates (38) marries Melinda French (29).
  1994  CEApple Computer introduces RISC technology to the desktop computer market with the new PowerPC line.
  1994  CEApple Computer, Sony, and Kodak announce new digital cameras.
23 May 1995  CESun launches the Java programming language
  1995  CEThe first full-length feature composed completely of computer animation, 'Toy Story', is released.
  1995  CEIBM acquires all of the outstanding shares of the Lotus Development Corporation.
  1996  CEIBM's Deep Blue defeats chess champion Gary Kasparov.
  1996  CEBill Gates's Microsoft releases Windows 95.
  1997  CEIntel introduces the Pentium II microprocessor.
26 Jan 1998  CEIntel launches 333 MHz Pentium II chip.
  1998  CEEmerging Technologies - E-Trade - XML - Intrusion Detection
  1998  CEOpen source software comes of age
  1998  CEApple discontinues developing Newton computer.
  1998  CEBill Gates gets a pie thrown in his face in Brussels Belgium
  1998  CEIntel unveils its 1st graphics chip i740.
  1998  CEIntel introduces the Pentium II Xeon microprocessor.
  1999  CEIBM becomes the first Corporate partner to be approved for Internet2 access.
  1999  CEIntel introduces the Celleron microprocessor designed for the value PC market.
  1999  CEIntel introduces the Pentium III microprocessor.
  1999  CEIntel introduces the Pentium III Xeon microprocessor.
  2000  CEIntel introduces the Pentium 4 Xeon microprocessor.
  2001  CEIntel introduces the Itanium microprocessor, Intel's first 64-bit unit.
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