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Zoology (0500-)

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    0552  CEAgents from Byzantium impersonating monks smuggled silkworms and mulberry leaves out of China.
    1235  CEHenry III received 3 leopards from Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor. They became part of the Royal Menagerie housed in the Tower of London.
    1540  CEFrancisco Vazquez de Coronado, Spanish explorer, introduced horses, mules, pigs, cattle, and sheep into the American southwest.
    1544  CERats first showed up in North America.
    1551  CEKonrad von Gesner wrote the first modern book on Zoology called 'Historia Animalium'.
    1555  CEPierre Belon, French naturalist, published the first comprehensive study of birds in 'L'Histoire de la nature des oyseaux'.
    1555  CEGuillaume Rondelet wrote a classic taxonomy of fishes. His categories, based on general shape and habitation, precluded any deep insight into a genealogical basis of historical order.
    1566  CEG. Blundeville published his 'Foure Chiefest Offices Belonging to Horsemanship'. It was a pioneering manual of veterinary science.
    1568  CEThe Spanish Riding School in Vienna began operating and became world famous for their Lipizzaners, white horses.
    1572  CEThe Dutch used carrier pigeons during the Spanish siege of Haarlem.
    1580  CEThe Azores were occupied by Spain [until 1640] when bullfighting was introduced.
    1589  CEBernard Palissey, a Huguenot, expressed the opinion that fossils were the remains of living creatures. He was locked up in the dungeons of the Bastille for his opinions and died there.
    1599  CEJacob Cornelius Van Neck returned to Holland from the Mascarene Islands. A narrative of the Dutch voyage first mentioned the dodo bird.
    1605  CEThe first scientific description of the dodo bird was made by the Dutch botanist Carolus Clusius from an observation of a dodo at the home of the anatomist Peter Paauw.
    1627  CEThe last wild cow in Poland died.
    1638  CENils Steenson (1638-1686), Danish doctor, was born. He was better known as Nicolaus Steno and explained stratigraphy. He was convinced that fossils are the remains of ancient organic forms.
    1668  CEFrancesco Redi disproves theories of the spontaneous generation of maggots in putrefying matter.
    1676  CEAnton van Leeuwenhoek observes protozoa and calls them 'animalcules'.
    1681  CENehemiah Grew, the first scientist to call sloths by their common English name, described the animal in his catalog of specimens owned by the Royal Society of London.
    1681  CEThe dodo bird was last seen on Mauritius. The dodo bird became extinct on Mauritius.
    1693  CEThe French explorer Francois Leguat spent several months on Mauritius and looked hard for a dodo bird, but found none.
    1693  CEEnglish naturalist John Ray noted that whales had more in common with 4-legged mammals than with fish.
    1733  CEThe first polar bear exhibited in America, in Boston.
    1765  CELazzaro Spallanzani disproves many theories of the spontaneous generation of cellular life.
    1768  CEThe first modern Circus is formed in England by Philip Astley.
    1771  CELuigi Galvani measures electricity in animals.
    1786  CELuigi Galvani discovers 'animal electricity' and postulates that animal bodies are storehouses of electricity.
    1796  CEThe first elephant brought to America from Bengal in India.
    1801  CEJean Lamarck begins the detailed study of invertebrate taxonomy.
    1803  CEThe first horses arrive in Hawaii.
    1810  CEGoats were introduced to St. Helena Island and began the devastation that eventually caused extinction of 22 of the 33 endemic plants.
    1814  CECharles Waterton experimented with a donkey using a mixture of Amazonian plant mixture called 'curare'. This later led to the observation that curare immobilizes voluntary muscle tissue through blocking transmission of nerve impulses to muscles.
    1822  CEThe first dinosaur fossil was discovered by Mary Ann Mantell and Gideon Mantel on the English coast. It was a skeleton of an iguanodon dinosaur.
    1828  CEKarl von Baer discovers the eggs of mammals.
    1836  CEDanish archaeologist Christian Thomsen devised the Stone Bronze and Iron Age classification.
    1840  CEThe US palaeontologist Louis Agassiz established that there had been ice ages in the past.
    1842  CEEnglish palaeontologist Richard Owen coined the phrase 'dinosaur' for the reptiles that lived between about 200 and 65 million years ago.
    1845  CEA homing pigeon completes a record 11,000 km trip (Namibia-London) in 55 days.
    1855  CEBoston Veterinary Institute, the first US veterinary college, is founded.
    1859  CECharles Darwin published 'On the origin of species by means of natural selection' explaining that evolution is a simple change in the overall character of a population of either plants or animals.
    1859  CEThe first dog show is held in Newcastle-on-Tyne in England.
    1861  CEThe process of osmosis was discovered.
    1866  CEAmerican Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) forms.
    1868  CEBenevolent and Protective Order of the Elks founded in New York.
    1869  CEA biologist imported European gypsy moth to the US for study. A few escaped and established populations that have caused great devastation to eastern forests.
    1871  CEWorld's first cat show took place at Crystal Palace in London.
    1877  CEThe first Westminster Dog Show is held.
    1878  CEThe Sabi Game Reserve, world's first officially designated game reserve, opens.
    1882  CECircus owner P. T. Barnum buys his world famous elephant 'Jumbo'.
    1883  CEAmerican Anti-Vivisection Society organized in Philadelphia.
    1884  CEIn Ontario, there was the last sighting of an eastern cougar.
    1890  CERecord 19 foot 2 inch alligator is shot in Louisiana by E A McIlhenny.
    1892  CEBritain and the US sign a treaty on seal hunting in Bering Sea.
    1907  CEIvan Pavlov demonstrates conditioned responses with salivating dogs.
    1909  CEDiscovery of the Burgess Shale Cambrian fossil site.
    1913  CEA South Atlantic, 6.8 metre, 4,000 kg elephant seal is killed in South Georgia.
    1913  CEThe first US law regulating the shooting of migratory birds passed.
    1923  CEThe first successful chinchilla farm in the US in Los Angeles.
    1936  CEThe first giant panda imported into US.
  3 Nov 1957  CEUSSR launches Sputnik 2, the second artificial Earth satellite with the first animal in space, the dog Laika.
    1960  CEKey Largo Coral Reef Preserve established (1st underwater park)
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