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Medicine (0001-2001)

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The struggle for mankind to understand the functioning and repair of the human body.

The study of medicine is core to mankind's urge to extend and preserve life.  Over the centuries, this has involved study of diseases, natural herbs, surgery, manufactured drugs and more recently, genetic engineering.

This timeline traces the development of our understanding of the human body and its mechanisms, from the earliest surgery to modern genetic techniques.

c.    0050  CEThe first century Greek physician, Dioscorides, recommended the use of orchid tubers as an aphrodisiac.
    0180  CEIn his Methodus Medendo, Greek physician Galen devises a system of medicine that will influence medical thinking for over a thousand years
c.    0201  CEClaudius Galen (130?-?), a Greek Anatomist, wrote 'On the Natural Faculties'.
c.    0500  CESusrata, an Indian medical book, was compiled.
c.    0600  CEVaghbata, Indian medical book compiled.
    0765  CEA school of medicine is established in Baghdad.
    1070  CEPossible founding date of the Hospital of St. John in Jerusalem by Amalfi merchants.
c.    1100  CE(Between 1100-1200) The 12th century book 'Gyuschi' was a compilation of Tibetan medicine that described the making and applications of medications extracted from herbs, roots and minerals often served as hot teas.
    1180  CEIn Montpellier, France, a medical school was founded.
    1280  CEEyeglasses are invented and later improved in the late medieval period.
    1322  CEArabian writers recorded ideas about artificial insemination.
    1333  CEThe Black Death erupted in China.
    1478  CEGirolamo (Gerolamo) Fracastoro (Latin: Hieronymus Fracastorius) (1478-1553), Italian physician, scholar and poet was born in Verona. He was later educated at Padua University and lived and practised in his hometown. He was a friend and colleague of Copernicus.
    1485  CEThe medical encyclopedia 'Gart der Gesundheit' described the female mandrake, thought to stop bleeding, and to scream when pulled by its roots.
    1491  CEPietro Roccabonella, doctor of medicine and lecturer at the University of Padua, died.
  1 May 1493  CEPhillippus Paracelsus, physician and alchemist, was born.
c.    1500  CE(Between 1500s) Europe began to restrict the practice of medicine to qualified doctors.
c.    1500  CE(Between 1500-1600) Giulio Cesare Aranzi, Italian anatomist, name the hippocampus formation of the brain because of its resemblance to Hippocampus, the seahorse.
    1518  CEHenry VIII authorized a college of physicians and it was founded by Oxford physician Thomas Linacre.
    1518  CERaphael painted a portrait of Leo X which showed spectacles with concave lenses for short-sightedness.
    1520  CESpectacles were in use amongst Europe's educated.
    1520  CEA smallpox epidemic raged in Vera Cruz, Mexico. The 16th century smallpox epidemic in Mexico and Central America killed about half of the Aztecs.
    1527  CETheophrastus von Hohenheim established chemotherapy and the modern school of medical thinking at the University of Basel in Switzerland.
    1528  CETyphus swept through Italy and killed tens of thousands.
    1530  CEOpium known as laudanum was used as a pain reliever.
    1530  CEGirolamo Fracastoro wrote a long poem on syphilis 'Gaulish Syphilis sive de morbo' (Syphilis, or the French Disease), from the title of which the disease takes its name. Fracastoro took the name 'syphilis' from the legend of Syphylus, a young shepherd boy who, having neglected his flocks, was punished by Apollo with a terrible disease that covered his entire body with ulcers.
    1533  CEA professorship in botany created at the university in Padua established plant study as a discipline separate from medicine.
    1537  CEAndreas Vesalius, the Belgian 'father of anatomy', accepted the chair of anatomy at Padua.
    1540  CEThe united companies of barbers and surgeons were incorporated in London.
    1540  CEThe pulmonary circulation of the blood was discovered by Michael Servetus, a Spanish theologian and physician, who was later burned at the stake for heresy.
    1540  CEEther was produced from alcohol and sulfuric acid.
    1543  CEAnatomist Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), publishes 'De Humani Corporis Fabrica' which corrects Greek medical errors and revolutionizes medicine.
    1544  CEThe first herbarium was published by Italian botanist Luca Ghini.
    1545  CEA typhus epidemic killed hundreds of thousands of natives and colonists in Cuba and New Spain.
    1546  CEGerolamo Fracastoro (1478-1553) writes 'De contagione ET contagiosis morbis' (On Contagion and Contagious Diseases). In which he proposes the earliest germ theory of disease that epidemic diseases are caused by transferable seedlike entities that could transmit infection by direct or indirect contact or even without contact over long distances.
    1551  CESpanish sailors in the Caribbean became ill after eating a fish stew. Most likely caused by ciguatera, a disease caused by toxins of microorganisms eaten by reef fish.
    1552  CEBartolommeo Eustachio, Italian anatomist, described the Eustachian tube of the ear and the Eustachian valve in the heart.
 27 Oct 1553  CEMichael Servetus, who discovered the pulmonary circulation of the blood, was burnt for heresy in Switzerland.
    1553  CEMichael Servetus (Miguel Serveto) (1511-1553), describes the circulation of blood into the heart after being mixed with air in the lungs. He was burnt alive for heresy in Geneva in the same year at the instigation of Calvin.
    1554  CEFernelius, French physician, codified the medicine of the Renaissance.
    1559  CERealdo Colombo (1516-1559), Italian anatomist, advanced the understanding of human blood circulation by describing the lesser circulation of blood through the lungs in detail.
    1561  CEGabriel Fallopius, wrote one of the first studies in anatomy in 'Observationes anatomicae'.
    1564  CEAndreas Vesalius, the father of modern anatomy, was forced by the Inquisition to make a pilgrimage to the Holy Land. He disappeared during the voyage.
    1565  CEThe Royal College of Physicians in London was officially permitted to carry out human dissections.
  2 Jul 1566  CEFrench astrologer, physician and prophet, Nostradamus, died in Salon.
    1567  CETyphoid fever swept through parts of South America and killed more than two million Indians.
    1568  CEConstanzo Varoli, Italian anatomist, studied the anatomy of the human brain.
    1570  CESpanish viceroy Alva banishes Zutphen City's only physician, Joost Sweiter, 'because he is a Jew'.
    1572  CEAmbroise Pare, French surgeon, introduced more humane treatment for battlefield wounds. He substituted egg yolk and turpentine for boiling oil, and introduced arterial ligature instead of cauterization.
    1575  CEPlague swept through Italy and Sicily.
    1578  CEWilliam Harvey (1578-1657), English physician, was born. He discovered the way the heart pumps blood through the arteries and veins of the body.
    1578  CELi Shih-Chen summed up Chinese pharmacology in his 'Great Pharmacopoeia'.
c.    1597  CEThe 'Materia Medica Pharmacopeia' was written and detailed some 1,900 herbs, minerals and animals used by the Chinese to treat ailments through the ages.
    1601  CEJean Robin published a catalog for his medicinal herb garden.
    1603  CEGirolamo Fabrici studies leg veins and notices that they have valves which only allow blood to flow toward the heart.
    1603  CESpigelius published instructions on making dried herbarium specimens which was a technique that had only come into practice during the previous 50 years.
    1604  CEThe first official condemnation of tobacco was made by King James I, who cited the health hazards of smoking in his Counterblaste to Tobacco.
    1618  CEPietro da Cortona, artist, made an atlas of human anatomy: 'Tabulae Anatomicae'.
    1628  CEBritish physician William Harvey explains circulation of blood, the vein-artery system and structure of the heart in 'De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis'.
    1639  CEFrancois Citois, the physician of Cardinal Richeliue, published a book that described the disease colica Pictonum, and noted the prevalence of the disease to the wine region of Poitou, where tart wines needed sweetening.
    1645  CEThe San Marcoul Hospital was established in Rheims, France, by a devout woman for the care of scrofulous (tubercular) patients.
    1649  CEIn Seville, Spain, one in three died of the Black Plague.
c.    1654  CESamuel Stockhausen, a physician in Goslar in the Harz Mountains of Germany, identified the ailment of Huttenkatze as stemming from lead poisoning in the local mining towns. This find later made possible Gockel's discovery of the cause of colica Pictonum.
c.    1656  CERobben Island in Cape Town's Table Bay, South Africa, from this time on was variously used by European settlers as a mental institution, leper colony and prison.
    1658  CEJan Swammerdam observes red blood cells under a microscope.
    1663  CERobert Hooke sees cells in cork using a microscope.
    1664  CEThere was no litigation in London, England due to the Black plague.
 15 Aug 1665  CEBetween 15 August abd 22 August, The London weekly 'Bill of Mortality' recorded 5,568 fatalities. 4,237 were killed by the plaque.
    1665  CEThe Great Plague of London killed a quarter of the population, an estimated 68,000 people.
    1665  CEThe villagers of Eyam in Derbyshire, England, voluntarily isolated themselves so as not to spread the plague. 250 of 350 people died and the town became known as the Plague Village.
 14 Nov 1666  CEThe first blood transfusion was performed.
    1666  CESamuel Pepys reports on the first blood transfusion which was between dogs.
    1666  CEThomas Sydenham (1624-1689), writes on treating fevers.
    1672  CERegnier de Graaf discovers structures in the ovary (Graafian follicles).
    1676  CEAnton van Leeuwenhoek observes protozoa and calls them 'animalcules'.
    1677  CEAnton van Leeuwenhoek observes spermatazoa.
    1677  CEThe first medical publication in America, a pamphlet on smallpox, was produced in Boston.
    1677  CECinchona bark included in the London Pharmacopoeia as a fever treatment.
    1678  CEFirst known American medical publication appears, from clergyman-physician Thomas Thacher, 'A Brief Rule to Guide the Common-people of New England How to Order Themselves and Theirs in the Small Pocks, or Measels'.
    1683  CEAnton van Leeuwenhoek observes bacteria
  1692  CERoyal Hospital Founders Day first celebrated.
  1693  CEEdmund Halley prepares the first mortality tables statistically relating death rate to age.
  1694  CE(1694-1696) An outbreak of colic struck the region around Ulm, Germany. Eberhard Gockel, the city physician, was able to trace the cause to a wine sweetener that used a white oxide of lead.
  1699  CEThe Republic of Lucca promulgated the first regulations designed to prevent the spread of tuberculosis.
  1701  CEIn Constantinople, Giacomo Pylarini gives the first smallpox inoculations
  1705  CERaymond Vieussens describes the left ventricle of the heart and the course of coronary blood vessels.
  1714  CEGabriel Fahrenheit constructs the mercury thermometer.
  1717  CEGiovanni Lancisi suggests that malaria can be transmitted by mosquitoes.
  1724  CEAbraham De Moivre studies mortality statistics and the foundation of the theory of annuities in Annuities on Lives.
  1726  CEStephen Hales measures blood pressure of the horse.
  1726  CEEdinburgh University Medical School founded.
  1728  CEPierre Fauchard describes how to fill a tooth.
  1730  CEFirst tracheotomy for treatment of diphtheria performed by George Martine.
  1736  CEFirst successful appendectomy performed by Claudius Amyand, in France.
  1736  CEAmerican physician William Douglass describes scarlet fever.
  1745  CEThe Company of Surgeons splits from the Barbers in London.
  1747  CEDoctor James Lind experimented with 12 sailors who had scurvy and discovered that consuming lemons and oranges for 6 days produced a great improvement by ensuring an adequate intake of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
  1747  CEFirst textbook on physiology appears - Albrecht von Haller's 'Primae Lineae Physiologiae'.
  1748  CEJ. Daviel performs the first cataract operation.
17 May 1749  CEEdward Jenner was born in the small village of Berkeley in Gloucestershire.
  1751  CEPeter Kalm a Linnean student and botanical explorer noted that Native Americans treated eye diseaes with a concoction of water in which witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) had been boiled.
  1751  CEPennsylvania Hospital, the first American hospital, was founded.
  1752  CEThe first scientific approach to obstetrics appears, 'Theory and Practice or Treatise on Midwifery', by William Smellie.
  1752  CEReaumur discovers that digestion is a chemical process.
  1756  CEThe oldest US hospital was founded, Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia. A principal founder was Benjamin Franklin.
  1759  CECaspar Wolff shows that specialized organs develop out of unspecialized tissue.
  1760  CEFirst physician licensing statute enacted in New York City.
  1761  CEJohn Hill established an association between tobacco snuff and malignant (and fatal) nose polyps.
  1761  CELeopold Auenbrugger develops percussion technique for diagnosing chest disorders.
  1763  CEClaudius Aymand performs the first successful appendectomy.
  1765  CEThe first American medical college opens in Philadelphia, based largely on the model of the University of Edinburgh.
  1765  CEJohn Morgan delivers 'A discourse upon the institution of medical schools in America', a proposal for the first American medical school, outlining the course of medical education and guidelines for the development of medicine as a university discipline.
  1766  CEFirst medical society in the American colonies founded in New Jersey.
  1766  CEFirst American medical periodical appears: 'Transactions of the New Jersey Medical Society'.
  1767  CEMedical instruction begins at King's College, New York City.
  1768  CEThe first American bachelor of medicine degree was awarded to Dr John Archer.
  1769  CESamuel Bard outlines the conduct and 'duties of a physician' in his commencement address to medical graduates at King's College, New York City.
  1771  CELuigi Galvani measures electricity in animals.
  1771  CEJohn Hunter's 'The Natural History of the Human Teeth' appears.
  1772  CEColonial New Jersey regulates medical practice creating a board of medical examiners.
  1773  CELazzaro Spallanzani discovers digestive action of saliva.
  1774  CEFranz Mesmer uses hypnosis as a medical treatment.
  1775  CEPercivall Pott suggests that environmental factors can cause cancer.
  1775  CEEdward Jenner began to study the relationship between cowpox (a comparatively harmless disease) and the more dangerous and disfiguring smallpox.
  1776  CEBenjamin Rush, professor of chemistry at Philadelphia and a member of Congress, signs the Declaration of Independence. Rush and his 'heroic' system of medicine dominated the profession well into the nineteenth century.
  1780  CELuigi Galvani experiments with muscles and electricity.
  1783  CEMedical education begins at Harvard.
  1784  CEThe German poet Goethe discovers the human intermaxillary bone.
  1785  CEWilliam Withering, an English country doctor, published a study about a home remedy for dropsy which was based on foxglove. It both slowed heart rate and increased the strength of each heart beat which improves circulation and therefore alleviates edema.
  1785  CEWilliam Withering uses digitalis, from the foxglove plant, to cure dropsy.
  1789  CELavoisier's theories completely revise the language of chemistry.
  1790  CEArchibald Menzies journeyed as surgeon-naturalist on Captain George Vancouver's expedition to the Pacific Northwest and collected some dried herbarium material.
  1790  CEBaltimore, Boston, Philadelphia, and New York City establish local boards of health during the 1790's.
  1791  CEGeorge Hayward, a US surgeon, is the first to use ether.
  1793  CEBenjamin Rush successfully treats epidemic of yellow fever.
  1794  CEDr Jessee Bennet of Edom VA, performs first successful Cesarean section operation on his wife.
  1794  CELavoisier is guillotined in France.
14 May 1796  CEEdward Jenner conducted an experiment by scraping pus from a cowpox sore on the arm of a milkmaid and inserting it into two cuts on the arm of a young boy.
1 Jul 1796  CEEdward Jenner (1749-1823), following on from a prevoius experiment on 14th May, conducted a second experiment scraping pus from a smallpox sore and inserting it into two cuts on the arm of a young boy. The boy caught the cowpox from the prevoius experiment, but did not catch smallpox.
  1797  CEMedical education begins at Dartmouth College.
  1798  CEDr George Balfour becomes first naval surgeon in the US navy.
  1798  CECongress establishes the Marine Hospital Service, currently the U.S. Public Health Service.
  1798  CEOnly 312 individuals have received medical college degrees in the U.S. since 1765. By 1900, this would increase to 5,200.
  1798  CEChlorine is used to purify water.
  1798  CEXavier Bichat announces that the human body is made of tissues and that diseases attack particular tissues.
  1798  CEAfter repeating the same cowpox/smallpox vaccination experiment sucessfuully on 23 different cases, Edward Jenner published his findings and submitted them to the Royal Society. They refused to publish his findings because of opposition to vaccination from doctors.
  1799  CEEdward Jenner's smallpox vaccination is introduced.
  1800  CEHumphry Davy announces the anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide.
  1801  CEPhilippe Pinel advocates a more humane treatment of the insane.
  1801  CEThomas Young discovers the cause of astigmatism.
  1802  CEEdward Jenner was awarded a grant of £10,000 by the government.
  1803  CEGerman pharmacist F.W. Serturner isolated morphine from opium latex
  1805  CEFirst formally organized medical library founded in Boston.
  1805  CEFrederick Serturner isolates morphine.
  1806  CEEdward Jenner was awarded a grant of further £20,000 by the government.
  1809  CEJean Lamarck advocated a theory of evoloution through inherritance of acquired characteristics.
  1809  CEFirst successful ovariotomy (without anaesthetic).
  1810  CEIllinois passes the first state vaccination legislation in the US.
  1810  CEMedical education begins at Yale.
  1810  CESamuel Hahnemann introduces homeopathy.
  1812  CENew England Journal of Medicine (precursor) founded, currently the oldest US medical journal.
  1812  CECollege of Physicians and Surgeons of the Western District of the State of New York (Fairfield, New York) founded. By 1840, it had enrolled 3123 students and graduated 589.
  1812  CECollege of Medicine of Maryland trusteeship is vested with its faculty, which gains corporate authority. American medical education subsequently evolves into proprietary medical education, where the faculties divide matriculation fees.
  1812  CEMedical education in the US combines apprenticeship and public lectures of widely varying interpretations. Little uniformity exists among faculties across institutions.
  1812  CEBenjamin Rush's 'Medical Inquiries and Observations upon the Diseases of the Mind' appears.
  1814  CECharles Waterton experimented with a donkey using a mixture of Amazonian plant mixture called 'curare'. This later led to the observation that curare immobilizes voluntary muscle tissue through blocking transmission of nerve impulses to muscles.
  1816  CERene Laennec invents the stethoscope.
  1817  CEMedical education begins at Transylvania University (Lexington, Kentucky), the first medical school west of the Alleghenies.
  1817  CEJames Parkinson's 'Essay on the Shaking Palsy' appears.
  1817  CEFirst cholera pandemic begins.
  1818  CEHumphry Davy discovers nitrous oxide ('laughing gas').
  1819  CEMedical College of Ohio (Cincinnati) founded by Daniel Drake, M.D.. At this time, less than twenty percent of physicians practicing in Ohio have medical degrees.
  1820  CEFrench chemists isolated quinine from the bark of Cinchona making possible the production of a purified chemical treatment for malaria.
  1820  CEThe first general pharmacopoeia in US published, Boston.
  1820  CEBichat, using the new mathematics of probability discovered by Laplace, begins the first application of statistics (compiled from the French Revolution) to medicine.
  1821  CECollege of Apothecaries organized in Philadelphia, the first US pharmacy college.
  1821  CEPhiladelphia College of Pharmacy founded, the first American school of pharmacy.
  1821  CECharles Bell describes facial paralysis.
  1822  CECharles M Graham of New York patents artificial teeth (false teeth).
26 Jan 1823  CEEdward Jenner died in the small village of Berkeley in Gloucestershire, aged 74.
  1823  CEThe periodical 'The Lancet' first appears.
  1824  CESecond cholera pandemic begins.
  1825  CEFirst dental school in North America is established in Bainbridge, Ohio.
  1826  CEPierre Bretonneau describes the symptoms of diphtheria.
  1827  CERichard Bright describes kidney disease.
  1828  CEFriedrich Wohler synthesizes urea.
  1829  CESiamese twins Chang and Eng Bunker arrive in Boston to be exhibited.
  1829  CEHaemophilia described by Schonlein.
  1829  CEScandal of William Burke and William Hare, who murdered to supply bodies to Scottish anatomist Robert Knox.
  1830  CEGerman anatomist Johannes Muller discovered proteins.
  1831  CESamuel Guthrie discovers chloroform.
  1831  CEDuring the cholera epidemic of 1831-58 in England, William Farr uses statistical mapping to trace cholera to drinking water, inaugurating the science of epidemiology.
  1832  CEThe first appearance of cholera at Edinburgh in Scotland. Thomas Latta injects a saline solution into a patient and pioneers a new treatment.
  1832  CEThe first appearance of cholera in London.
  1832  CEWarburton Anatomy Act legalizes the sale of bodies for dissection in England.
  1832  CEThomas Hodgkin describes cancer of the lymph nodes.
  1833  CEAnselme Payen and J F Persoz first isolated an enzyme.
  1833  CEOhio state legislature repeals all laws pertaining to the regulation of the practice of medicine, out of frustration over 'regular physician - sectarian physician' animosities and rivalries.
  1834  CEAmalgam first used for filling teeth.
  1835  CEBotanico-Medical College (Columbus) founded, followers of Thomsonianism.
  1835  CETheodor Schwann uncovers pepsin in gastric juice.
  1836  CETheodor Schwann discovers pepsin in extracts from the stomach lining, the first isolation of an animal enzyme.
  1836  CEUS Library of the Surgeon General's Office created, forerunner to the National Library of Medicine.
  1837  CETheodor Schwann shows that heating air will prevent it from causing putrefaction (rotting).
  1838  CEMatthias Schleiden discovers that all living plant tissue is composed of cells.
  1839  CETheodor Schwann defines the cell as the basic unit of animal structure.
  1839  CEThird cholera pandemic begins.
  1840  CEThe Gould medicinal plant business began in Maldin in Massachusetts. Products such as catnip tea were sold under their own label. They also supplied botanicals to other makers of medicines.
  1840  CESmallpox vaccination, pioneered by Edward Jenner, became free for all infants and became compulsory in Britain in 1853.In 1980 the World Health Assembly declared that smallpox had been eradicated throughout the world.
  1841  CEF. G. Henle publishes a treatise on microscopic anatomy.
  1842  CEMatthias J. Schleiden (and Theodor Schwann in 1847) established the theory that the cell is the basic unit of all life helping to create the new general study of biology.
  1842  CEIn Georgia, after observations he had made during 'ether frolics', Crawford Long performs the first surgical operation using ether anesthesia.
  1844  CEThe first dental use of nitrous oxide, Hartford, Ct, when Horace Wells pulls one of his own teeth painlessly.
  1844  CEDudley Medical University (Medina County) founded.
  1845  CEEther was first used in childbirth in US, Jefferson, Georgia.
  1845  CEPatent awarded for adhesive medicated plaster, the precusor of the bandaid.
  1846  CEThe first public use of ether anesthesia, by dentist Dr William Thomas Green Morton, in surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.
  1847  CEIgnaz Semmelweis studies and prevents the transmission of puerperal fever.
  1847  CEIn Philadelphia, the American Medical Association is founded.
  1847  CEBotanico-Medical School, followers of Thomsonianism, founded in Cleveland.
  1848  CEJohn Parker Paynard originates the medicated adhesive plaster.
  1848  CEThe first US homeopathic medical college opens in Pennsylvania.
  1849  CEElizabeth Blackwell became the first woman in the US to receive medical degree.
  1849  CEMrs Elizabeth Blackwell becomes first woman physician in US
  1850  CEWomen's Medical College of Pennsylvania becomes the first US female medical school.
  1850  CEWestern College of Homeopathic Medicine (Cleveland) formed, followers of Samuel Hahnemann.
  1851  CEGail Borden announces invention of evaporated milk.
  1851  CEFemale Medical College of Pennsylvania established in Philadelphia, the first medical college for women in the world.
  1851  CEHermann von Helmholtz introduces the ophthalmoscope.
  1852  CEGreat Ormond St Hospital for Sick Children, London, admits its first patient.
  1852  CEMiami Medical College (Cincinnati) founded, becoming the College of Medicine of the University of Cincinnati in 1916.
  1852  CEAntonius Mathijsen develops plaster of paris casts for setting fractures.
  1853  CEThe US Marine Hospital at Presidio in San Franciso is established.
  1853  CECharles Pravaz invents the hypodermic syringe.
  1853  CEChloroform administered to Queen Victoria in childbirth.
  1855  CELouisiana creates the first state health department in the USA.
  1855  CEBoston Veterinary Institute, the first US veterinary college, is founded.
  1856  CEFrench chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), created the dicipline of micrbiology by establishing that micro-organisms are responsible for fermentation.
  1858  CERudolf Virchow proposes that cells can only arise from pre-existing cells.
  1858  CEFirst edition of Gray's 'Anatomy' appears.
  1858  CEIn Cellularpathologie, Virchow demonstrates that every cell is a product of another cell.
   1859  CEElizabeth Garrett Anderson met Elizabeth Blackwell, America’s first woman doctor. As a result, Anderson wanted to become a doctor.
  1859  CECharles Darwin published 'On the origin of species by means of natural selection' explaining that evolution is a simple change in the overall character of a population of either plants or animals.
  1859  CEPhysio-Medical Institute (Cincinnati) formed, followers of Alva Curtis.
  1860  CENightingale Nursing School founded in London.
  1861  CEThe process of osmosis was discovered.
  1861  CEPasteur discovers anaerobic bacteria.
  1861  CEThe Civil War Sanitary Commission is founded in New York City, America's first voluntary health association.
  1862  CEHaemoglobin was first crystallized.
  1862  CELouis Pasteur convincingly disproves the spontaneous generation of cellular life.
  1863  CEInternational Community of the Red Cross founded in Geneva (Nobel prizes 1917, 1944, 1963)
  1863  CEFourth cholera pandemic begins.
   1865  CEElizabeth Garrett Anderson qualified as the first British woman doctor.
  1865  CEGregor Mendel, an Austrian monk, presents his experiments on the crossbreeding of pea plants and postulates dominant and recessive factors but achieved little recognition.
  1865  CEJoseph Lister performs the first antiseptic surgery, using phenol as a disinfectant.
   1866  CEElizabeth Garrett Anderson opened her own hospital, the St Mary's Dispensary for Women and Children. This later to become the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital.
  1866  CESir Thomas Clifford Allbutt invents the medical thermometer.
  1866  CEPasteurization is first used, to prevent wine spoilage.
  1867  CECleveland Homeopathic College for Women formed.
  1867  CEFirst international medical congress, in Paris.
  1869  CEJacques Reverdin describes skin-grafting.
  1870  CELouis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) establish the germ theory of disease.
  1871  CEPhysiologist Henry Bowditch establishes the first experimental medicine laboratory in the US, at Harvard.
  1871  CECharles Eliot, President of Harvard Medical School, institutes the first real reform in American medical education by raising entrance requirements, grading the curriculum, and lengthening it to three years.
   1872  CEElizabeth Garrett Anderson opened the New Hospital for Women, a London infirmary entirely staffed by females, for females.
  1872  CEAmerican Public Health Association formed.
  1873  CEDentist John Beers of San Francisco patents the gold crown.
  1873  CEFirst three schools of nursing in the U.S. founded, in Boston, New Haven, and New York City. The Bellevue school in New York City is modeled after Florence Nightingale's educational specifications.
  1873  CEUniversity of Pennsylvania constructs the first hospital in the U.S. built for use by a medical school.
   1874  CEElizabeth Garrett Anderson co-founded the London School of Medicine for Women.
  1874  CEDr Andrew T Sill, of Macon, Missouri, develops the science of osteopathy.
  1874  CELondon School of Medicine for Women opened by Sophia Jex-Blake.
  1875  CEElectric dental drill is patented by George F Green.
  1875  CEFormal opening of US Marine Hospital at Presidio.
  1876  CEOskar Hertwig and Hermann Fol show that fertilized eggs possess both male and female nuclei.
  1876  CEInternational Electropathic Institute (Mentor, Ohio) formed.
  1876  CEAmerican Medical College Association formed, raising educational standards and requirements for its member colleges. It becomes the present Association of American Medical Colleges in 1890.
  1876  CESiegfried von Basch invents the modern blood pressure measuring device.
  1876  CERobert Koch, the originator of modern bacteriology by plate cultures in the 1880s, identifies the anthrax bacillus.
  1876  CEA connection between the pancreas and sugar diabetes is discovered.
29 Apr 1878  CELouis Pasteur (1822-1895), reads the paper 'The Germ Theory and Its Applications to Medicine and Surgery' before the French Academy of Sciences.
  1879  CEConstantine Fahlberg discovers saccharin, an artificial sweetener.
  1879  CENational Board of Health established, the first organized medical research program of the US government.
  1879  CEListerine is introduced as a patent medicine.
  1879  CEPatrick Manson discovers mosquitoes transmit filariasis.
  1880  CEIn this decade over 25% of sailors in the Japanese Navy developed beriberi from insufficient quantities of the vitamin thiamine. It was not until several years later that C. Eijkman, a Dutch physician, working in the East Indies demonstrate that a diet of brown rice, as opposed to white rice, prevented the disease.
  1880  CEGregor Mendel discovers hereditary factors in plants.
  1880  CEMetchnikoff discovers the role of white blood cells in disease control.
  1880  CECharles Laveran isolates the blood parasite that causes malaria.
  1880  CECivil War army surgeon and bibliographer John Shaw Billings issues the first volume of the most exhaustive medical bibliography ever.
  1881  CELouis Pasteur develops an anthrax vaccine.
  1881  CEAmerican Red Cross founded by Clara Barton.
  1881  CEFifth cholera pandemic begins.
  1882  CEThe first Dutch female physician Aletta Jacobs opens office.
  1882  CEUS Senate ratifies treaty establishing the Red Cross.
  1882  CELouis Pasteur develops a rabies vaccine.
  1882  CERobert Koch isolates the tubercle bacillus, and identifies it as the cause of 'TB'.
  1883  CERobert Koch discovers the cholera vibrio.
  1884  CEAn assistant to Sigmund Freud discovered purified cocaine could be used as a local anesthetic. Later a similar chemical compound was produced synthetically Procaine (or Novocain) which has replaced cocaine for anesthesis.
  1884  CEElie Metchnikoff describes phagocytosis.
4 Jan 1885  CEDr W W Grant of Iowa, performs first appendectomy on the patient Mary Gartside who was 22 years old.
  1886  CEThe Dutch government began a study of beri-beri a disease that was devastating the native Indonesian population.
  1888  CEEugene Kalt develops the first contact lens.
  1889  CEIn Germany, Bayer introduces aspirin in powder form.
  1889  CEOhio College of Obstetrics, Medicine, & Midwifery (Cincinnati) formed.
  1890  CEA US St Louis physician formulated peanut butter as a food for invalids and in 1893 J. H. Kellogg made peanut butter for patients with poor teeth.
  1890  CEEmil von Behring discovers antitoxins and uses them to develop tetanus and diptheria vaccines.
  1890  CECleveland Medical College (Homeopathic) formed, followers of Samuel Hahnemann.
  1890  CEWilliam Halsted introduces surgical gloves.
  1891  CENational Confederation of State Medical Examining and Licensing Boards founded.
  1892  CEDr Washington Sheffield invents the toothpaste tube.
  1892  CEAnti-Tuberculosis Society of Philadelphia founded.
  1893  CEJohns Hopkins University School of Medicine founded, offering the first formal progressive clinical education of physicians.
  1893  CEDaniel Williams performs the first open-heart surgery in Chicago.
  1893  CEJean Charcot writes on the use of hypnotism in medicine.
  1894  CEThe first US poliomyelitis epidemic breaks out in Rutland, Vermont.
  1894  CEVaccine for diphtheria announced by Dr Roux of Paris.
  1894  CEFirst use of the diphtheria antitoxin in Britain.
8 Nov 1895  CEGerman physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovers x-rays and the world immediately appreciates their medical potential.
  1895  CED.D. Palmer of Davenport, Iowa, becomes the first US chiropractor.
  1896  CEEmile Grubbe is the first doctor to use radiation treatment for breast cancer.
  1896  CEThe first X-ray photo in US by Dr Henry Smith, Davidson, NC, to examine bone fractures.
  1896  CEGerman physicist Wilhelm Röntgen announces his discovery of x-rays.
  1896  CEJosef Maria Eder and Eduard Valenta publish stereoscopic Röntgen photographs.
  1896  CEScipione Riva-Rocci invents a device for measuring blood pressure.
  1898  CEMartinus Beijerinck uses filtering experiments to show that tobacco mosaic disease is caused by something smaller than a bacteria which he names a 'virus'.
  1898  CEThe Bayer Company introduced heroin as a substitute for morphine and codeine. However, by 1917 this drug was found to be greatly addictive and its use in over-the-counter cough syrups was discontinued.
  1899  CEFelix Hoffmann patents 'Aspirin'.
  1899  CEThe Bayer Company begins production of aspirin.
  1899  CESixth cholera pandemic begins.
  1900  CEDr Walter Reed begins research that beats Yellow Fever.
  1900  CEHugo de Vries rediscovers Mendel's laws of genetics.
  1900  CEKarl Landsteiner discovers human blood groups, or types.
  1900  CEFreud's 'The Interpretation of Dreams' is published.
  1900  CEUS Army Yellow Fever Commission founded.
  1900  CEHenry Carter of the US Public Health Service shows that a lapse of twelve to fifteen days is necessary before a case of yellow fever becomes dangerous to others.
  1900  CEDr Jesse Lazear dies tragically in experiments, confirmed by Walter Reed, demonstrating that yellow fever is transmitted by the Aedes Aegypti mosquito.
  1901  CEWilliam Gorgas eradicates yellow fever from Havana, Cuba, the first time in 150 years.
  1901  CERockefeller Institute for Medical Research founded, the first US institute devoted entirely to biomedical research.
  1901  CEAn academic degree is required for admission to Harvard Medical School.
  1902  CEDr Harvey Cushing, the first US brain surgeon, performs the first brain operation.
  1902  CEParke, Davis & Co of Detroit creates the first commercially operated research lab in the US.
  1902  CEJohn McCormick Institute for Infectious Diseases established in Chicago.
  1903  CEHenry Phipps Institute for Tuberculosis established in Philadelphia.
  1903  CEWillem Einthoven describes the first electrocardiograph.
  1904  CENetherlands Indies colony begins opium production.
  1905  CEErnest Henry Starling (1866-1927) and William Maddock Bayliss (1860-1924) isolate secretin, the first known hormone.
  1905  CEGeorge W. Crile performs the first direct blood transfusion.
  1905  CEJ.B. Murphy develops the first artificial hip joints.
  1906  CEFrederick Hopkins suggests the existence of vitamins and suggests that a lack of vitamins causes scurvy and rickets.
  1906  CEFrederick Hopkins suggests the existence of vitamins ('accessory food factors') and suggests that a lack of vitamins causes scurvy and rickets.
  1906  CEUS Pure Food and Drug Act enacted, establishing the basis for federal regulation of foods and drugs.
  1906  CEC. Sherrington's neurology classic 'The Integrative Action of the Nervous System' is published.
  1907  CEEmil Fischer artificially synthesizes peptide amino acid chains and thereby shows that amino acids in proteins are connected by amino group-acid group bonds.
  1907  CEIvan Pavlov demonstrates conditioned responses with salivating dogs.
  1907  CEPaul Ehrlich develops a chemotheraputic cure for sleeping sickness.
  1907  CEBubonic Plague breaks out in San Fransisco.
  1907  CEGold dental inlays first described by William Taggart, who invented them.
  1908  CESulphanilamide first synthesized.
  1910  CEUsing Salvarsan for syphilis, Paul Ehrlich inaugurates modern chemotherapy.
  1911  CEGeorg von Hevesy conceives the idea of using radioactive tracers later to be used in medical diagnosis and many other applications.
  1911  CEWilliam Hill develops the first gastroscope.
  1912  CEFrederick Hopkins showed that there were chemical substances obtained from food that are essential to human growth and maintenance. Casimir Funk termed these substances 'vitamines'.
  1912  CEHarvey Cushing's 'The Pituitary Gland and its Disorders' is published.
  1913  CEAmerican College of Surgeons founded.
  1913  CEJohn Abel builds the first kidney dialysis machine.
  1913  CEW. H. Bragg and W. L. Bragg construct the first X-ray spectroscope.
  1914  CEIn Brussels, the first successful blood transfusion took place.
  1914  CECollege of Homeopathic Medicine, Ohio State University, formed.
  1914  CEFirst successful heart surgery performed, on a dog.
  1914  CEHenry Dale discovers the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in ergot.
5 Dec 1916  CEMaurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins, was born, at Pongaroa, New Zealand. His parents came from Ireland and his father Edgar Henry Wilkins was a doctor in the School Medical Service.
  1916  CEUS President Wilson signs Harrison Drug Act.
  1916  CERockefeller Foundation appropriation establishes the first formalized school of public health at Johns Hopkins University.
  1916  CEMargaret Sanger establishes the first American birth-control clinic, in Brooklyn, N.Y.
  1916  CEWalter Gaskell names the involuntary nervous system.
  1917  CEAmerican Board of Ophthalmology formed, the first medical specialty board in the US.
  1917  CECarl Jung's 'Psychology of the Unconscious' is published.
  1918  CEThe first use of iron lung (Boston's Children Hospital)
  1918  CESpanish influenza pandemic begins.
  1920  CEEarl Dickson invents the Band-Aid.
  1921  CEEdward Mellanby discovers vitamin D and shows that its absence causes rickets.
  1921  CEToronto's Dr F. G. Banting & Dr C. H. Best announce the isolation of insulin.
  1922  CEInsulin is first used to treat diabetes. the patient was Leonard Thompson, 14, of Canada.
  1923  CEInsulin becomes generally available for diabetics.
  1923  CEAlbert Calmette and Camille Guerin develop the BCG vaccine for tuberculosis.
  1926  CEJames Sumner crystallizes the first enzyme (urease).
  1927  CEBoston physician Herman Blumgart first uses radioactive tracers to diagnose heart disease.
  1927  CEPhilip Drinker and Louis Shaw develop the 'iron lung'.
  1928  CEAlexander Fleming discovers penicillin in a mold.
  1928  CEErnst Ruska develops the electron microscope.
  1928  CEAlbert Szent-Gyorgyi isolates vitamin C.
  1929  CEPhoebus Levene discovers the sugar deoxyribose in nucleic acids. He goes on to describe the components of DNA, the phosphate groups and the nucleic acid bases.
  1929  CEMedical diathermy machine is first used, in Schenectady, New York.
  1929  CEHenry Dale and H.W. Dudley demonstrate chemical transmission of nerve impulses.
  1929  CEWerner Forssmann develops a cardiac catheter.
  1930  CENational Institute of Health (NIH) created.
  1931  CEFrederick S. McKay discovers that fluoride prevents tooth decay.
  1932  CEYellow fever vaccine for humans is announced.
  1932  CEGerhard Domagk develops a chemotheraputic cure for streptococcus.
  1932  CEArmand Quick introduces a test to measure the clotting ability of blood.
  1933  CEDried human blood serum is first prepared, at the University of Pennsylvania.
  1935  CEPassage of the US Social Security Act.
  1935  CEThe Mayo Clinic establishes the first blood bank.
  1935  CEPrefrontal lobotomy developed to treat mental illness.
  1936  CEThe first radioactive isotope medicine administered, Berkeley, Ca
  1937  CEThe first US blood bank is established in Chicago, Illonois.
  1937  CEThe first US state contraceptive clinic opens (Raleigh NC)
  1937  CEHealth Service Plan Commission, later called the Blue Cross Commission, organized.
  1937  CENational Cancer Institute of NIH established.
  1937  CEDaniele Bovet and Anne-marie Staub synthesize antihistamine for allergy relief.
  1937  CEMax Theiler develops vaccine against yellow fever.
  1937  CECharles Dodds discovers a synthetic oestrogen (stilboestrol).
  1938  CEMarch of Dimes is established to fight polio.
  1938  CEPassage of the US Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
  1938  CEFirst total artificial hip replacement.
  1939  CEGeorge N. Papanicolau develops the pap test for detecting cervical cancer.
  1940  CEFlorey and Chain develop penicillin as an antibiotic.
  1940  CELandsteiner discovers the Rhesus factor in blood.
  1941  CESister Elizabeth Kenny new treatment for infantile paralysis approved
  1941  CEGregg links rubella in pregnancy to abnormalities in children.
  1942  CEKaiser Permanente Health Plan formed, the first HMO.
  1943  CEWaksman discovers the antibiotic streptomycin.
  1944  CEJohn Hopkins hospital performs 1st open heart surgery
  1944  CEThe first eye bank opens (NYC)
  1944  CEBlalock performs the first blue-baby operation.
  1945  CEFluoridation of water introduced in the US to prevent tooth decay.
  1946  CEFirst randomized clinical trials of streptomycin for treatment of TB begin.
  1948  CEThe World Health Organisation is formed by the UN.
  1948  CEThe US National Institutes of Health established.
  1949  CEThe first 12 women graduate from Harvard Medical School
  1949  CEThe first photograph of genes is taken at University of Southern California by Pease and Baker.
  1950  CEThe first kidney transplant (Chicago).
  1950  CEThe US National Science Foundation established.
  1951  CEThe US Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals formed.
  1951  CEJohn Gibbon develops the heart-lung machine.
  1952  CEAlfred Hershey and Martha Chase use radioactive tracers to show that DNA, not protein, is the genetic material in bacteriophage viruses which carries information from generation to generation.
  1952  CEFred Sanger - Hans Tuppy and Ted Thompson complete their chromatographic analysis of the insulin amino acid sequence
  1952  CEDr Jonas Salk develops the first polio (myelitis) vaccine.
  1952  CERosalind Franklin uses X-ray diffraction to study the structure of DNA and suggests that its sugar-phosphate backbone is on its outside.
  1952  CEThe first plastic lens for cataract patients fitted (Philadelphia)
  1952  CEThe first transistorized hearing aid offered for sale (Elmsford NY)
  1952  CEVirginia Apgar develops a scoring system to help determine the health of newborn babies.
  1952  CEArtificial heart valves implanted inaugurating open heart surgery.
  1953  CEJames Watson and Francis Crick propose a double helix structure for DNA.
  1953  CEMax Perutz and John Kendrew determine the structure of hemoglobin using X-ray diffraction studies
  1953  CEStanley Miller shows that amino acids can be formed when simulated lightning is passed through vessels containing water - methane - ammonia and hydrogen
  1953  CEThe first successful separation of Siamese twins
  1953  CEThe US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare established.
  1953  CEJohn Gibbon operates successfully using the heart-lung machine.
  1953  CEGraham and Wynder show that tobacco tars cause cancer in mice.
  1954  CEThe first mass inoculation with Salk vaccine (Pittsburgh)
  1954  CEThe first microbiology laboratory dedicated (New Brunswick NJ)
  1954  CEFirst successful kidney transplant.
  1954  CEPlastic contact lenses produced.
  1955  CEArthur Kornberg discovers DNA polymerase enzymes
  1955  CESevero Ochoa discovers RNA polymerase enzymes.
  1955  CEThe first separation of virus into component parts reported
  1955  CEJohnson & Johnson introduces Tylenol.
  1956  CEThe first prefrontal lobotomy performed, Washington DC
  1957  CEAlbert Sabin develops a live polio vaccine.
  1957  CELillehei develops the first compact heart pacemaker.
  1957  CEAsian influenza pandemic begins.
  1958  CEUltrasound used by Ian Donald to diagnose foetus disorders.
  1960  CEBirth control pill is approved for general use.
  1962  CEDr Watson (US) & Drs Crick & Wilkins (Britain) win Nobel Prize for Medicine for work in determining structure of DNA.
  1962  CEJohanne Relleke gets stung by bees 2,443 times in Rhodesia & survives.
  1964  CEUS report "Smoking & Health" connects smoking to lung cancer
  1964  CEUS Surgeon General Luther Terry reports that smoking may be hazardous
  1967  CEThe first human heart transplant performed by Dr Christian Barnard, in South Africa.
  1968  CEChristian Barnard performs 2nd heart transplant
  1968  CEDr N E Shumway performs 1st US adult cardiac transplant operation
  1969  CEDr Denton Cooley implants 1st temporary artificial heart
  1969  CETobacco advertising is banned on Canadian radio and TV.
  1969  CEUS Federal govt bans use of cyclamates artificial sweeteners
  1970  CEHamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans discover DNA restriction enzymes
  1970  CEHoward Temin and David Baltimore independently discover reverse transcriptase enzymes
  1971  CEBerkeley chemists announces 1st synthetic growth hormones
  1971  CEDevelopment of a serum hepatitis vaccine for children announced
  1972  CEComputer axial tomography (which is commonly known as CAT scanning) is introduced which combines many high-definition cross-sectional x-rays to produce a two-dimensional image of a patient's anatomy
  1972  CERobert Woodward synthesizes vitamin B-12
  1974  CELeslie Orgel shows that RNA can replicate without RNA-replicase and that zinc aids this replication.
  1974  CEManfred Eigen and Manfred Sumper show that mixtures of nucleotide monomers and RNA-replicase will give rise to RNA molecules which replicate, mutate and evolve.
  1974  CEDr Christian Barnard transplants the first human heart without removing the old heart.
  1976  CEGovernment halts swine flu vaccination program following reports of paralysis
  1977  CEFred Sanger and Alan Coulson present a rapid gene sequencing technique which uses dideoxynucleotides and gel electrophoresis.
  1977  CEWalter Gilbert and Allan Maxam invent a rapid gene sequencing technique which uses cloning with base destroying chemicals and and gel electrophoresis
  1978  CEFred Sanger presents the 5386 base sequence for the virus phiX174 which was the first sequencing of an entire genome.
  1980  CEWorld Health Organisation announced that smallpox had been eradicated.
  1980  CEThe World Health Assembly declared that smallpox had been eradicated throughout the world.
  1982  CEThe first permanent artificial heart successfully implanted (University of Utah) in retired dentist Barney Clark; lived 112 days with the Jarvic-7 heart
  1983  CEUS Supreme Court struck down state & local restrictions on abortion
  1984  CE6 year old Texan Stormie Jones gets 1st heart & liver transplant
  1984  CEThe first baby conceived by embryo transplant born in Long Beach CA
  1984  CEWilliam Schroeder, becomes 2nd to receive Jarvik-7 artificial heart
  1985  CE3rd person to receive an artificial heart (Murray Haydon)
  1985  CEUS approves screening test for AIDS
  1985  CEWilliam Schroeder is 1st artificial heart patient to leave hospital He spent 15 minutes outside Humana Hospital in Louisville KY
  1986  CEMary Lund of Minnesota, is 1st female recipient of an artificial heart
  1986  CEUS Federal health officals announce AZT will be available to AIDS patients
  1987  CEThe first heart-lung transplant take place (Baltimore)
  1987  CEUS FDA approves sale of AZT (AIDS treatment)
  1995  CEBlind teenage boy receives a 'Bionic Eye' at a Washington Hospital
  1995  CEUS approves 1st chicken pox vaccine, Varivax by Merck & Co
5 Jul 1996  CEDolly the sheep, the first mamal to be cloned from an adult cell, was born.
  1996  CEUK admits humans can catch CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease aka Mad Cow Disease)
  1997  CEScientists in Scotland announced they had succeeded in cloning an adult mammal, producing a lamb named 'Dolly'.
 Nov 2001  CEDr José Cibelli, of the research company Advanced Cell Technology (ACT), suceeded in cloning a human embryo to the six cell level. This was in an attempt to create stem cells rather than create a complete human.
14 Feb 2003  CEDolly the sheep, the first mamal to be cloned from an adult cell, died. A decision was taken to 'euthanase' six-year-old Dolly after a veterinary examination showed that she had a progressive lung disease.
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