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US Civil War

US Civil War (1861-1865)

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The war fought between the american North against the South over slavery.
Introduction

This American war was between the Northern States ('the Union') and the Southern States who had succeeded from the nation and formed the 'Confederacy'. The division being accentuated by the two side's differing views on slavery.  The Union wanted to outlaw slavery, while the Confederacy did not.

More than 2.8 million men (and a few hundred women) served in the Union and Confederate armies during the four year struggle which was the was the bloodiest war in US history, with more than 600,000 casualties. The Union eventually emerged the victors and slavery in the US was abolished shortly afterwards.

Timeline
  6 Nov 1860  CEAbraham Lincoln is elected 16th President.
   Dec 1860  CEThe Crittenden Compromise was proposed as an unsuccessful last-minute effort to avert the US Civil War. Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky proposed that the existing North-Souith boundary set out by the Missouri Compromise would be rcognised, with the continuation of slavery where it already existed, but called for vigorous suppression of the African slave trade.
    1860  CEConfederacy formed by southern states of America.
  1 Jan 1861  CEUS President Lincoln declares slavery in Confederate states unlawful
 21 Jan 1861  CEJefferson Davis of Mississippi & 4 other southern senators resign
 29 Jan 1861  CEKansas becomes 34th American state
   Jan 1861  CEThe South Secedes fron the Uniion, starting with South Carolina and is quickly followed by six other states, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
   Feb 1861  CEJefferson Davis elected to 6 year term as Confederate President.
   Feb 1861  CEProvisionary Confederate Congress establishes Confederate Army
  4 Mar 1861  CEConfederate States adopt 'Stars & Bars' flag
  4 Mar 1861  CELincoln inaugurated as 16th American President, the first time US has 5 former Presidents living.
 11 Mar 1861  CEConfederate convention in Montgomery, adopts constitution
 31 Mar 1861  CEConfederacy takes over mint at New Orleans
 12 Apr 1861  CEFort Sumter, SC is shelled by Confederacy, starting the American Civil War 1861-1865.
   Apr 1861  CERichmond VA is designated Confederate Capital
  6 May 1861  CEJefferson Davis approves a bill declaring War between US & Confederacy
  1 Jun 1861  CEUS & Confederacy simultaneously stop mail interchange
  1 Aug 1861  CEBrazil recognizes Confederacy
 16 Oct 1861  CEConfederacy starts selling postage stamps
    1861  CEThe end of the antebellum period in American history. Antebellum means literally 'existing before the war', in this case the American Civil War.
    1861  CEAt Gretna LA, one of first guns of Rebel navy is cast
    1861  CEConfederate currency is authorized in $50, $100, $500, $1,000.
    1861  CEFederal army mobilized by Pres Lincoln
    1861  CENorth Carolina becomes 11th & last American state to secede from Union
    1861  CEQueen Victoria announces England's position of neutrality between American North and South.
    1861  CECol Robert E Lee turns down offer to command Union armies and subsequently resigns from the Union Army.
    1861  CEUS President Lincoln orders blockade of Confederate ports.
    1861  CERobert E Lee named commander of Virginia forces
    1862  CEConfederate Congress adopts confederacy seal
    1862  CEConfederate Constitution & Presidency are declared permanent
    1862  CEGalena, first US iron-clad warship for service at sea, launched, Connecticut
    1862  CEGeneral Robert E Lee (1807-1870) takes command of the Confederate armies of E Vaginbia & North Carolina.
    1862  CELee crosses the Potomac & enters Maryland
    1862  CELincoln receives the first group of blacks to confer with a US president.
    1862  CESlavery abolished in District of Columbia
  1 Jan 1863  CEUS President Lincoln makes his Emancipation Proclamation speech decaring all slaves free.
 20 Jun 1863  CEWest Virginia admitted as 35th American state
  1 Jul 1863  CEThe Battle of Gettysburg, Meade and Lee commanding the Union and Confederate troops.
 19 Nov 1863  CELincoln delivers his address in Gettysburg - "4 score & 7 years..."
    1863  CEAbraham Lincoln announces plan for Reconstruction of South.
    1863  CEConfederate 'National Flag' replaces 'Stars & Bars'
    1863  CEPresident Davis delivers his 'State of the Confederacy' address
    1863  CEStonewall Jackson attacks Chancellorsville VA, and is wounded by his own men when the South defeats the North.
    1863  CEVoters in West Virginia approve gradual emancipation of slaves.
    1863  CEThe photograph 'The Sharpshooter' by Alexander Gardner was taken after the Battle of Gettysburg.
    1863  CEDuring the American Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln asked Thomas Nast to do an illustration showing Santa with the Union troops. Many historians say this was one of the most demoralizing moments for the Confederate army... seeing Santa side with the North.
  8 Nov 1864  CEAbraham Lincoln elected to his 2nd term as President.
    1864  CEIn the American Civil War union general Sherman marched through Georgia taking Atlanta.
    1864  CEBattle of Okolona, Mississippi.
    1864  CECSS 'Alabama' sunk by USS 'Kearsarge' off Cherbourg, France.
    1864  CEGrant is named commander of the Union armies
    1864  CENevada admitted as 36th American state
    1864  CEUlysses S Grant is appointed commander of Union Army.
 15 Jan 1865  CEUnion fleet bombs Fort Fisher, North Carolina, and take it by storm.
  4 Mar 1865  CEUS President Lincoln inaugurated for his 2nd term as US President
  8 Apr 1865  CESiege of Spanish Fort, which began on 27 March, suceeeds and is captured by Union troops.
  9 Apr 1865  CESurrender of confederate forces at the Appotomax Couthouse ending the American Civil War.
 15 Apr 1865  CEUS president Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) assassinated in Washington, when he is shot in Ford's Theatre by by John Wilkes Booth.
 19 Apr 1865  CEAbraham Lincoln's funeral train leaves Washington
 26 Apr 1865  CEJohn Wilkes Booth is shot and killed in a tobacco barn in Virginia.
   Apr 1865  CEMary Surratt is one of nine people arrested as a conspirator in Lincoln's assassination. Four were hanged, four imprisoned, and one acquitted.
 10 May 1865  CEUS President Jefferson Davis is captured by Union Cavalry in Irwinsville, Georgia.
 13 May 1865  CEThe end of the last land action of Civil war at Palmito Ranch and Palmito Hill, Texas.
 23 May 1865  CEThe two day 'Grand Review' victory parade of the Union's main fighting forces begins in Washington DC.
 18 Dec 1865  CEThe 13th amendment to the US Constitution is approved (National Freedom Day) abolishing slavery.
    1865  CEThe steam ship 'Sultana' explodes on the Mississippi River, killing 1,450 paroled Union POWs.
    1865  CEAll slaves in Texas freed
    1865  CECSA Pres Jefferson Davis flees Confederate capital of Richmond, VA
    1865  CERobert E Lee is named commander-in-chief of Confederate Army
    1865  CESeveral Confederate veterans form the Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski, Tennasee.
    1865  CESherman's march through Georgia begins.
    1865  CEUS Congress of Confederate States of American adjourns for last time
    1865  CEMathew Brady, Alexander Gardner, and others document the American Civil War (1861-1865)
    1866  CEUS President Andrew Johnson formally declares Civil War over.
    1868  CEDespite bitter opposition, US President A Johnson grants an unconditional pardon to all persons involved in the Southern rebellion (the US Civil War).
    1868  CEThe staes of Florida, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and LA are readmitted to the US.
    1868  CEUS Memorial Day first observed when 2 women in Columbus MS placed flowers on both Confederate and Union graves.
    1870  CEMississippi becomes the 9th American state to be re-admitted to US after Civil War.
    1877  CEThe last federal occupying troops withdraw from the US south (New Orleans).
    1905  CEUS rebel battle flags captured during the US civil war are returned to the South.
 
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