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Exploration of Space

Exploration of Space (1918-)

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Man's exploration of the enviroment beyond the confines of Earth.

The early beginnings of the space age were marked by experiments with solid fuel rockets in 1918, but the main leaps forward were to take place during the second world war when developing weapons. The successful launch of the first earth-orbit satellite, Sputnik, in 1957 heralded the beginning of the so-called 'space race'.

During the cold war, the race between the Soviet Union and the USA to put a man on the Moon culminated in Neil Armstrong's historic achievements in 1969 in Apollo 11.

Since then, although others have walked on the Moon the concentration has been on unmanned exploration of the solar system although technologies such as the space shuttle have made manned transport into earth-orbit a regular occurrence.

    1918  CEGoddard demonstrates tube-launched solid propellant rockets.
    1942  CELaunch of the first A-4/V-2 rocket to an altitude of 53 miles (85 km).
    1946  CEThe US Army establishes the first radar contact with Moon, Belmar, New Jersey.
    1946  CEUS V-2 rocket reaches 183 km, White Sands Proving Grounds, NM.
    1950  CEThe first congress of Internat'l Astronautical Federation opens in Paris.
    1952  CEWernher von Braun discusses the technical details of a manned exploration of Mars in The Mars Project.
    1955  CEConstruction begins on Soviet cosmodrome launch facilities at Baikonur in Kazachstan.
  4 Oct 1957  CEThe USSR launches Sputnik 1 the first artificial earth satellite and in response the US forms the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA).
  3 Nov 1957  CEUSSR launches Sputnik 2, the second artificial Earth satellite with the first animal in space, the dog Laika.
    1957  CEThe first test firing of the Vanguard satellite launch vehicle, TV-3, fails when the Vanguard rocket blows up.
    1957  CEThe Vanguard TV-1 booster test reaches 195 km.
  4 Jan 1958  CESputnik 1 reenters atmosphere & burns up
 31 Jan 1958  CEThe first US satellite (Explorer I) launched with a payload of approximately 1 kg
  1 Oct 1958  CENational Advisory Council on Aeronautics renamed NASA
    1958  CEThe second US Moon probe, Pioneer 1, reaches 113,810 km, and falls back to Earth.
    1958  CEExplorer 2 fails to reach Earth orbit.
    1958  CEThe US Navy launches Vanguard 1, the first US artificial satelite, into orbit. It was designed to measure the Earth's shape.
    1958  CEThe first voice from space; a recorded Christmas message by Eisenhower.
    1958  CEThe US Army launches Explorer 3, America's third successful satellite. It discovered the Earth's radiation belt.
    1958  CEUS lunar probe Pioneer 3 reaches 107,269 km, falls back
    1958  CEUS manned space-flight project renamed Project Mercury
    1958  CEUSSR launches Sputnik III
    1958  CEVanguard Project transferred from military to NASA
    1958  CEVanguard SLV-1 launched for Earth orbit (failed)
    1958  CEVanguard SLV-2 launched for Earth orbit (failed)
    1958  CEVanguard TV-3 back-up launches into Earth orbit; reaches 6 km
    1958  CEVanguard TV-5 launched for Earth orbit (failed)
    1958  CEWorld's 1st Moon probe, US's Thor-Able, explodes at T +77 sec
  3 Mar 1959  CEUS Pioneer 4, which performed a distant luner flyby and became the first US probe to enter solar orbit, is launched.
 13 Sep 1959  CEUSSR Luna 2, the hard lander, is the first human-made device to impact the Moon east of Mare Serenitatis.
  4 Oct 1959  CEUSSR Luna 3 performs luner flyby and sends back the first photos of Moon's far side.
    1959  CECongressional Committee of Astronautics meets Project 7 astronauts.
    1959  CEExplorer 6 transmits 1st TV photo of Earth from space
    1959  CEExplorer VI reveals an intense radiation belt around the Earth
    1959  CEFar side of Moon seen for 1st time by USSR's Luna 3
    1959  CEFarthest man made radio signal heard from Pioneer IV at 400,000 miles.
    1959  CELaunch of Discoverer 1 (WTR)-1st polar orbit
    1959  CELuna 1 (Mechta) becomes 1st craft to leave Earth's gravity
    1959  CEMonkeys Able & Baker zoom 300 miles (500 km) into space on Jupiter missile, became 1st animals retrieved from a space mission
    1959  CENASA names 1st 7 astronauts for Project Mercury
    1959  CESoviet Luna 3, 1st successful photographic spacecraft, impacts Moon
    1959  CEThe first weather satellite launched, Vanguard 2, 9.8 kg
    1959  CETransit 1A, 1st navigational satellite launched; failed to orbit
    1959  CEUSAF launches Discover II into polar orbit
    1959  CEUSSR launches Mechta (Luna 1) for 1st lunar fly-by, 1st solar orbit
    1959  CEVanguard 3 launched into Earth orbit
    1959  CEVanguard SLV-5 launched for Earth orbit (failed)
    1959  CEVanguard SLV-6 launched for Earth orbit (failed)
 11 Mar 1960  CEUS Pioneer 5 is launched into solar orbit between Earth and Venus.
    1960  CECourier 1B Launched; 1st active repeater satellite in orbit.
    1960  CEDisaster on USSR launch pad, kills missile expert Nedelin & team (unconfirmed). The USSR claimed he was killed in plane crash.
    1960  CEDiscoverer 13 launched into orbit. It returned the first object from space.
    1960  CEEcho 1, the first communications satellite, was launched.
    1960  CEExplorer 8 fails to reach Earth orbit.
    1960  CEMercury-Redstone 1 test launch fails at 10 cm altitude
    1960  CEMercury-Redstone 1A reaches 210 km in test flight
    1960  CERCA (TV & Infra-Red Observation 'weather' Satellite) I launched
    1960  CESoviet Sputnik 4 launched into Earth orbit; later recovery failed
    1960  CESoviet Sputnik 5 carries 2 dogs, 3 mice into orbit (later recovered alive)
    1960  CEThe first launch of Delta satellite launching vehicle; it failed
    1960  CEThe first weather satellite was launched (Tiros 1)
    1960  CETiros 2, a weather satellite is launched
    1960  CETransit 1B, 1st navigational satellite, placed in Earth orbit
    1960  CEUSSR launch 1st (unmanned) space capsule
    1960  CEUSSR recovers 2 dogs, the first living organisms to return from space.
 12 Feb 1961  CESoviet Venera 1 launches toward Venus for a Venus flyby.
 12 Apr 1961  CESoviet Yuri Gagarin is the first man in space in Vostok 1.
 25 May 1961  CEJohn F Kennedy sets goal of putting a man on Moon before the end of decade.
    1961  CEAlan Shepard becomes the first American in space (aboard Freedom 7).
    1961  CEAlan Shepard receives NASA Distinguished Service Medal, Washington.
    1961  CECosmonaut Gherman Titov circles Earth for a full day in Vostok 2.
    1961  CEExplorer (10) fails to reach Earth orbit.
    1961  CEExplorer (12) fails to reach Earth orbit.
    1961  CEGherman S Titov, 2nd Russian in space aboard Vostok 2 (17 orbits), first case of motion sickness in space reported.
    1961  CEHam is first primate in space (158 miles) aboard Mercury/Redstone 2.
    1961  CEHam radio satellite Oscar 1 launched with military Discoverer 36.
    1961  CELaunch of Transit 4a, with first nuclear power supply (SNAP-3).
    1961  CEMercury/Atlas rocket lifted off with an electronic mannequin.
    1961  CEMercury-Atlas 2 reentry test reaches 172 km.
    1961  CEMercury-Atlas 5 carries a chimp (Enos) to orbit.
  1961  CENASA launches Explorer 11 into Earth orbit to study gamma rays.
  1961  CESoviet Sputnik 10 carries a dog into Earth orbit; later recovered.
  1961  CESoviet Sputnik 7 launches into Earth orbit; probable Venus probe failure.
  1961  CESoviet Sputnik 9 carries Chernushka (dog) into orbit.
  1961  CESoviet Union fires a rocket from Sputnik V to Venus.
  1961  CEThe first all-solid-propellant rocket put in orbit, Wallops Island VA.
  1961  CEThe first animal returned from space, dog named Blackie aboard Sputnik 9.
  1961  CEThe first Saturn launch vehicle makes an unmanned flight test.
  1961  CEUnmanned Mercury test explodes on launch pad.
  1961  CEUnmanned Mercury-Atlas 4 launched into Earth orbit.
  1961  CEUS lunar probe Ranger 1 reaches 190 km from Earth, falls back.
  1961  CEUS Ranger 2 launched to Moon; failed.
  1961  CEUS satellite Explorer 9 is launched.
  1961  CEUS Air Force launches Samos spy satellite to replace U-2 flights.
23 Apr 1962  CEUS Ranger 4, 1the first US satellite to impact the Moon launched from Cape Canaveral.
27 Aug 1962  CEUS Mariner 2 is launched, and makes the first US visit to another planet when it performs a flyby of Venus on 14 December 1 1962. It went off air on 3 January 1963 and is now in a solar orbit.
18 Oct 1962  CEUS Ranger 5 launches for the Moon. It was to be a lander but became a flyby because of a spacecraft failure.
  1962  CEAndrian G Nikolayev, becomes 3rd Russian in space aboard Vostok 3.
  1962  CEJohn Glenn is first American to orbit Earth (Friendship 7).
  1962  CELaunch of Alouette 1, first Canadian satellite (on US Delta rocket).
  1962  CELaunch of OSO 1, first astronomy satellite (solar flare data).
  1962  CEM Scott Carpenter aboard Aurora 7 launched into earth orbit.
  1962  CEOscar 2, an amateur radio satellite, is launched into Earth orbit.
  1962  CERussia launches Vostok 4, Pavel Popovich, who lands safely.
  1962  CEScott Carpenter orbits Earth 3 times in US Aurora 7.
  1962  CEThe first launching of Titan 2-rocket.
  1962  CETransit 5A1, first operational navigational satellite, launched.
  1962  CEUS launches Ranger 3, misses Moon by 22,000-mile (37,000-km).
  1962  CEUS Ranger 4 spacecraft crash lands on the Moon.
  1962  CEUS space officials announce selection of 9 new astronauts.
  1962  CEUS/UK launch Ariel; first international payload.
  1962  CEUSSR launches Mars 1; radio contact lost before arrival at Mars.
  1962  CEWally Schirra in Sigma 7 launched into Earth orbit.
2 Apr 1963  CESoviet Luna 4 launches. It was intended to be a lunar lander but missed the Moon and is now in an Earth Moon orbit.
  1963  CE2 Russian space missions return to Earth
  1963  CEExplorer 17 attains Earth orbit (254/914 km)
  1963  CEGordon Cooper completes 22 orbits in Faith 7, ends US Project Mercury
  1963  CELast Project Mercury flight, L Gordon Cooper in Faith 7, launched
  1963  CESETC Telstar 2 launched (apogee 6,700 miles (10,800 km))
  1963  CESoviet Luna (4) reaches Earth orbit but fails to reach Moon
  1963  CESoviet lunar probe failure
  1963  CEUS launches communications satellite Syncom 1
  1963  CEValentina Tereshkova 1st woman in space returns to Earth
  1963  CEValentina Tereshkova becomes 1st woman in space, aboard Vostok 6
  1963  CEValery Bykovsky in Vostok 5 orbits earth 81 times in 5 days
5 Nov 1964  CEUS Mariner 3 launched toward Mars in a Mars flyby attempt. The solar panels did not open, preventing the flyby. No data returned and it is now in a solar orbit.
  1964  CEAstronaut John Glenn withdraws from Ohio senate race
  1964  CECentaur 3 launch vehicle fails to make Earth orbit
  1964  CEEcho 2, US communications satellite launched
  1964  CEESRO established, European Space Research Organization
  1964  CELaunch of Voskhod 1, 1st 3 man crew (Komarov, Feokistov, Yegorov)
  1964  CEMariner 4 launched; 1st probe to fly by Mars
  1964  CENASA launches its 1st Orbital Geophysical Observatory (OGO-1)
  1964  CERanger 6 launched; makes perfect flight to Moon, but cameras fail
  1964  CEUnmanned Apollo 1 Saturn launcher test attains Earth orbit
  1964  CEUnmanned Apollo 2 Saturn test launched into Earth orbit
  1964  CEUnmanned Gemini 1 launched
  1964  CEUSSR launches Zond 1 to Venus; no data returned
  1964  CEUSSR launches Zond 2 towards Mars; no data returned
  1964  CEVoskhod 1 crew returns
  1965  CEAstronauts Cooper & Conrad complete 120 Earth orbits in Gemini 5
  1965  CEBorman & Lovell Splash down in Atlantic ends 2 week Gemini VII mission
  1965  CEEarly Bird satellite goes into commercial service
  1965  CEFrance launches 1st satellite, 92 lb (42 kg) A1-capsule (Asterix)
  1965  CEGemini 3 launched, 1st US 2-man space flight (Grissom & Young)
  1965  CEGemini 4 completes 62 orbits
  1965  CEGemini 4 launched; 2nd US 2-man flight (McDivitt & White)
  1965  CEGemini 5 launched into Earth orbit (2 astronauts)
  1965  CEGemini 6 launched; makes 1st rendezvous in space (with Gemini 7)
  1965  CEGemini 6 returns to Earth
  1965  CEGemini 7 launched with 2 astronauts
  1965  CEIntelsat 1 ("Early Bird") 1st coml geosynchronous comm satellite
  1965  CEJPL proposes modified Apollo flight to fly around Mars & return
  1965  CEOrbiting Solar Observatory 2 launches into Earth orbit (552/636 km)
  1965  CEPioneer 6 launched into solar orbit
  1965  CERanger 8 makes hard landing on the Moon, returns photos, other data
  1965  CESyncom 3, 1st geosynchronous communications satellite, passes from civilian to military control
  1965  CEThe first atomic powered spacecraft (snap) launched
  1965  CEThe first French satellite launched, France becomes 3rd nation in space
  1965  CEThe first ground station-to-aircraft radio communication via satellite
  1965  CEUS launches TIROS 9 weather satellite
  1965  CEUS Ranger 8 launched, will transmit 7,137 lunar pictures
  1965  CEUS Ranger 9 launched; takes 5,814 pictures before lunar impact
  1965  CEUS Ranger 9 strikes Moon, 10 miles (16 km) northeast of crater Alphonsus
  1965  CEUSSR launches Kosmos 57 into earth orbit (Voskhod Test)
  1965  CEUSSR launches Luna 5; later impacts on Moon
  1965  CEUSSR launches Luna 6; missed Moon
  1965  CEUSSR launches Luna 7; crash lands on Moon
  1965  CEUSSR launches Luna 8; crashes on Moon
  1965  CEUSSR launches Voshkod 2; Alexei Leonov makes 1st spacewalk (20 minutes)
  1965  CEVenera 2 launched by Soviet Union toward Venus
  1965  CEVenera 3 launched, 1st to land on another planet (crashes into Venus)
  1966  CEFrench satellite Diapason D-1A launch into Earth orbit
  1966  CEGemini 12 launched on 4-day flight
  1966  CEGemini 8 launched with Armstrong & Scott, aborted after 6.5 orbits
  1966  CEGemini 9 launched; 7th US 2-man flight (Stafford & Cernan)
  1966  CEGemini XI launched for 71-hour flight
  1966  CEGemini XI returns to Earth
  1966  CEGemini XII returns to Earth
  1966  CEKosmos 122, 1st Soviet weather satellite, launched
  1966  CELuna 13 lands on Moon
  1966  CELunar Orbiter 1 takes 1st photograph of Earth from Moon
  1966  CELunar Orbiter 2 launched by US
  1966  CEPioneer 7 launched into solar orbit
  1966  CESoviet Union's Luna 10 becomes 1st spacecraft to orbit Moon
  1966  CESoviets launch Kosmos 110 with Veterok & Ugolek, 1st 2-dog crew
  1966  CEThe first lunar orbiter launched by US
  1966  CEThe first operational weather satellite, ESSA-1 launched (US)
  1966  CEThe first Pacific communications satellite launched, Intelsat 2
  1966  CEThe first soft landing on the Moon (Soviet Luna 9)
  1966  CEThe first US lunar orbiter begins orbiting the Moon
  1966  CEUS launches Surveyor 1 to the Moon
  1966  CEUS Surveyor 1 lands in Oceanus Procellarum; 1st lunar soft-landing
  1966  CEUS Surveyor B launched toward Moon; crashed Sept 23
  1966  CEUSSR launches Luna 10, 1st lunar orbiter
  1966  CEUSSR launches Luna 11 for orbit around Moon
  1966  CEUSSR launches Luna 12 for orbit around Moon
  1966  CEUSSR launches Luna 13; soft-landed in Oceanus Procellarum
  1966  CEUSSR launches Luna 9 toward the Moon
  1966  CEVenera 3 becomes 1st man-made object to impact on a planet (Venus)
  1967  CEApollo 1 fire kills astronauts Grissom, White & Chaffee
  1967  CEATS II launched but fails to reach orbit
  1967  CEATS-3 launched by US to take 1st pictures of full Earth disk
  1967  CEFrench Diadème 1-D satellite launches into Earth orbit
  1967  CEFrench Diadème D-1C satellite launches into Earth orbit
  1967  CEKosmos 140 (Soyuz test) launches into Earth orbit
  1967  CELaunch of Mariner V for Venus fly-by
  1967  CELunar Orbiter 4 launched by US; begins orbiting Moon May 7
  1967  CEMariner 5 makes fly-by of Venus
  1967  CESoviet Venera 4 becomes the 1st probe to send data back from Venus
  1967  CESoyuz 1 launched; Vladimir Komarov becomes 1st in-flight casualty
  1967  CESurveyor 3 launched; soft lands on Moon, April 20
  1967  CESurveyor 5 launched; makes soft landing on Moon Sept 10
  1967  CESurveyor 6 becomes 1st man-made object to lift off the Moon
  1967  CEThe first successful test flight of a Saturn V
  1967  CEThe first unmanned Saturn V flight to test Apollo 4 reentry module
  1967  CEUS launches Lunar Orbiter 3
  1967  CEUS launches Pioneer 8 into solar orbit
  1967  CEUS launches Surveyor 6; makes soft landing on Moon Nov 9
  1967  CEUS Lunar Orbiter 5 launched; enters lunar orbit Aug 5
  1967  CEUS Surveyor 3 lands on Moon
  1967  CEUS Surveyor 5 makes 1st chemical analysis of lunar material
  1967  CEUSSR Kosmos 186 & 188 make 1st automatic docking & Venmera 13 launch
  1967  CEUSSR launches Kosmos 166 for observation of Sun from Earth orbit
  1967  CEUSSR launches Venera 4 for parachute landing on Venus
  1967  CEUSSR's Kosmos 186 & 188 complete the 1st automatic docking
21 Dec 1968  CEApollo 8, the first manned Moon voyage, launches for moon orbit. The crew were: Frank Borman, Jim Lovell and Bill Anders.
23 Dec 1968  CEBorman, Lovell & Anders become 1st men to orbit Moon
24 Dec 1968  CEFrank Borman transmits a Christmas reading from Apollo 8, while orbiting Moon.
  1968  CEApollo 5 launched to Moon; unmanned lunar module tests made
  1968  CEApollo 6 launched atop Saturn V; unmanned
  1968  CEApollo 7 (Schirra, Eisele & Cunningham) made 163 orbits in 260 hours
  1968  CEApollo 7 returns to Earth
  1968  CEApollo 8 astronauts read passages from Book of Genesis
  1968  CEApollo 8 returns to Earth
  1968  CEEuropean Space Research Organization launches 1st satellite
  1968  CEExplorer 36 (GEOS-B) launched into earth orbit (1080/1570 km)
  1968  CELaunch of Zond 5, the 1st lunar flyaround with Earth reentry. Probable test flight for a manned fly-around (scooped by Apollo 8)
  1968  CELaunch of Zond 6, 2nd unmanned circumlunar & return flight
  1968  CEOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 launched into Earth orbit
  1968  CEOrbiting Geophysical Observatory 5 launched
  1968  CESoyuz 3 launched
  1968  CESoyuz 4 & 5 completed 1st docking of 2 manned spacecraft
  1968  CESurveyor 7 (last of series) launched by US for soft-landing on Moon
  1968  CESurveyor 7 lands on the Moon
  1968  CESurveyor 7 space probe soft lands on the Moon
  1968  CEThe first live telecast from a manned US spacecraft (Apollo 7)
  1968  CEThe first US case of space motion sickness
  1968  CEUS launches Solar Explorer 2 to study the Sun
  1968  CEUS Surveyor 7 lands near lunar crater Tycho
  1968  CEUSSR launches space probe Zond 4; fails to leave Earth orbit
  1968  CEUSSR's Zond 5 is launched on 1st circumlunar flight
  1968  CEZond 5 completes circumnavigation of the Moon
  1968  CEZond 5 completes flight
20 Jul 1969  CEApollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. Fellow astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin becomes the second to walk on the moon.
31 Jul 1969  CEMariner 6 flys-by Mars and returns high resolution pictures.
5 Aug 1969  CEMariner 7 flies past Mars and returns picture of the surface.
14 Nov 1969  CEApollo 12 launches for the moon; beoming the 2nd manned Moon landing. The Crew were: Charles Conrad, Richard F. Gordon and Alan L. Bean.
 Nov 1969  CECharles Conrad and Alan L. Bean become 3rd and 4th humans to walk on the Moon.
  1969  CEAstronauts send first live photographs from the moon.
  1969  CEApollo 10 (Stafford/Cernan/Young) launched toward lunar orbit
  1969  CEApollo 10 astronauts returned to Earth
  1969  CEApollo 10 transmit 1st color pictures of Earth from space
  1969  CEApollo 12 returns to Earth
  1969  CEApollo 9 launched into 151 Earth orbits (10 days)
  1969  CEApollo 9 returns to Earth
  1969  CELaunch of Mariner 7, flies 2,190 miles above southern Mars
  1969  CEMariner 6 launched for fly-by of Mars
  1969  CEOrbiting Solar Observatory 5 launched into earth orbit
  1969  CERussian probe Venera 6 landed on Venus
  1969  CESoviet Soyuz 4 & Soyuz 5 perform 1st transfer of crew in space
  1969  CESoviet weather satellite Meteor 1 launched
  1969  CESoyuz 4 launched; rendezvous with Soyuz 5 two days later
  1969  CESoyuz 5 launched by Soviet Union
  1969  CESoyuz 6 launched; Soyuz 7 & 8 follow in next 2 days
  1969  CESoyuz 7 is launched
  1969  CESoyuz 8 is launched
  1969  CEStafford & Cernan pilot Apollo 10 LEM 9.4 miles (15km) above lunar surface
  1969  CEThe first launching of heavy N-1 rocket at Baikonur Kazachstan (explodes)
  1969  CEUS/Canada ISIS 1 launched to study ionosphere
  1969  CEUSSR Venera 5 launched for 1st successful planet landing (Venus)
  1969  CEUSSR's Venera 6 launched for parachute landing on Venus
  1969  CEVenera 5 lands on Venus, returns data on atmosphere
11 Apr 1970  CEApollo 13 launches for the Moon but is unable to land and returns in 6 days.
  1970  CEA Nikolayev & V Sevastyanov return after 18 days in Soyuz 9
  1970  CEApollo 13 limps back safely, Beech-built oxygen tank no help
  1970  CEAustralia's 1st amateur radio satellite (Oscar 5) launched (California).
  1970  CEBritish expedition climbs south face of Annapurna I
  1970  CEChina PR launches its 1st satellite transmitting song "East is Red"
  1970  CEJapan becomes 4th nation to put a satellite (Osumi) in orbit
  1970  CELuna 16 lands on Moon's Mare Fecunditatis, drills core sample
  1970  CELuna 16 leaves the Moon
  1970  CELuna 17, with unmanned self-propelled Lunokhod 1, is launched
  1970  CERussia lands Lunokhod 1 unmanned remote-controlled vehicle on Moon
  1970  CESmall Astronomy Satellite Explorer 42 launched to study X-rays
  1970  CESoviet Venera 7 is 1st spacecraft to land on another planet (Venus)
  1970  CESoyuz 9 launched into Earth orbit for 18 days
  1970  CEThe first Automated return of lunar sample by Luna 16
  1970  CEThe first successful landing on Venus (USSR)
  1970  CEUS launches 2nd generation weather satellite, ITOS 1
  1970  CEUSSR launches Luna 16; returns samples from lunar Sea of Fertility
  1970  CEUSSR launches Sputnik 52 & Molniya 1-13 communications satellite
  1970  CEVenera 7 launched by USSR for soft landing on Venus
 Feb 1971  CEApollo 14 lander Antares lands on Moon (Shepard & Mitchell).
 Feb 1971  CEApollo 14, 3rd US manned Moon expedition, lands near Fra Mauro. Alan Shepard and Edward Mitchell walk on Moon for 4 hours.
 Feb 1971  CEThe first time a golf ball is hit on the Moon (by Alan Shepard).
 Jul 1971  CEApollo 15 astronaut Dave Scott becomes 1st person to drive a car on the Moon.
  1971  CEApollo 14 launched, 1st landing in lunar highlands
  1971  CEApollo 14 returns to Earth
  1971  CEApollo 15 returns to Earth
  1971  CEBoeing receives contract for Mariner 10, Mercury exploration
  1971  CEMariner 9, 1st to orbit another planet (Mars)
  1971  CENASA launches Intelsat 4 F-3 for COMSAT Corp
  1971  CERussia launches its 1st Salyut space station
  1971  CESoviet Mars 2 becomes 1st spacecraft to crash land on Mars
  1971  CESoviet Mars 3 is 1st to soft land on Mars
  1971  CESoviet Soyuz 11 crew completes 1st transfer to orbiting Salyut
  1971  CESoyuz 10 launched; cosmonauts become 1st in Salyut 1 space station
  1971  CESoyuz 11 takes 3 cosmonauts to Salyut 1 space station
  1971  CEUS launches 1st satellite into lunar orbit from manned spacecraft
  1971  CEUS Mariner 9 1st satellite to orbit Mars launched
  1971  CEUS/Canada ISIS 2 launched to study ionosphere
  1971  CEUSSR launches Mars 2, 1st spacecraft to crash land on Mars
  1971  CEUSSR Mars 3 launched, 1st spacecraft to soft land on Mars
  1971  CEUSSR Salyut 1 launched; 1st manned lab in orbit
 Apr 1972  CEApollo 16 astronauts John W. Young and Charles M. Duke land on Moon and explore with with Boeing Lunar Rover #2.
 Apr 1972  CEApollo 16 astronauts John Young and Charles Duke explore the Moon.
7 Dec 1972  CEApollo 17, the last of Apollo Moon series, is launched for the moon.
19 Dec 1972  CEApollo 17, the last of Apollo Moon landing series, returns safely to Earth.
 Dec 1972  CEApollo 17 astronauts Eugene A. Cernan and Harrison H. Schmit become 11th & 12th humans to walk on the Moon.
  1972  CELandsat I 'eye-in-the-sky' satellite is launched
  1972  CEApollo 16 launched; 5th manned lunar landing (Decartes Highlands)
  1972  CEApollo 16 returns to Earth
  1972  CELuna 20 (Russia) launched to orbit & soft landing on Moon
  1972  CEMariner 9 begins mapping Mars
  1972  CEMariner 9 takes pictures of Martian north pole
  1972  CENASA announces development of space shuttle
  1972  CENASA selects 3 part configuration for Space Shuttle
  1972  CEOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 4 (Copernicus) launched
  1972  CEPioneer 10 launched for Jupiter flyby
  1972  CERockwell receives NASA contract to construct the Space Shuttle
  1972  CESmall Astronomy Satellite Explorer 48 launched to study gamma rays
  1972  CESpaceflight 71-2 launched; 1st flexible substrate photovoltaic flown
  1972  CEUS launches HEOS A-2 for interplanetary observations (396/244,998)
  1972  CEUSSR launches Prognoz 2 into earth orbit (549/200,000 km)
  1972  CEVenera 8 launched to Venus
  1973  CE2 Skylab 3 astronauts walk in space for a record 7 hours
  1973  CE3-man crew of Skylab II make safe splashdown in Pacific after 59 days
  1973  CECanadian ANIK A2 becomes 1st commercial satellite in orbit
  1973  CEIntelsat communications satellite launched
  1973  CELuna 21 launched, to Moon
  1973  CENASA launches Radio Astronomy Explorer 49 into lunar orbit
  1973  CEPioneer 10 passes Jupiter (1st fly-by of an outer planet)
  1973  CEPioneer 11 launched toward Jupiter & Saturn
  1973  CESkylab 2's astronauts land
  1973  CESkylab 4 launched into Earth orbit
  1973  CESkylab launched, the 1st Space Station
  1973  CESoyuz 12 carries 2 cosmonauts into Earth orbit (2 days)
  1973  CESoyuz 13 launched into Earth orbit for 8 days
  1973  CEThe first picture of a comet from space (Comet Kohoutek-Skylab)
  1973  CEUS launches 1st Skylab; crew Kerwin, Conrad, Weitz
  1973  CEUSSR launches Luna 21 for Moon landing
  1973  CEUSSR launches Mars 6
  1973  CEUSSR launches Mars 7
  1973  CEUSSR launches Prognoz 3 to study sun (589/200,300 km)
  1973  CEUSSR's Lunakhod 2 begins radio-controlled exploration of the Moon
  1974  CEHelios 1 launched by US, Germany; later makes closest flyby of Sun
  1974  CEMariner 10's, 1st fly-by of Mercury, returns photos
  1974  CESkylab 4's astronauts land
  1974  CESoyuz 14 returns to Earth
  1974  CESoyuz 15 carries 2 cosmonauts to space station Salyut 3
  1974  CESoyuz 16 launched into Earth orbit for 6 days
  1974  CEThe first intentional interstellar radio message sent, Arecibo telescope towards M 41, a cluster of stars some 25,000 light years away
  1974  CETitan-Centaur test launch fails
  1974  CEUS Mariner 10 makes 2nd fly-by of Mercury
  1974  CEUS Mariner 10 returns 1st close-up photos of Venus' cloud structure
  1975  CEEuropean Space Agency (ESA) forms
  1975  CEIndia launches 1st satellite with help of USSR
  1975  CELandsat 2, an Earth Resources Technology Satellite, launched
  1975  CENASA launches space vehicle S-195
  1975  CENASA launches space vehicle S-196, it failed
  1975  CERollout of 1st space shuttle orbiter Enterprise (OV-101)
  1975  CESalyut 4 with crew of 2 is launched for 30 days
  1975  CESmall Astronomy Satellite Explorer 53 launched to study X-rays
  1975  CESoviet spacecraft Venera 9 soft-lands on Venus
  1975  CESoyuz 17 carries 2 cosmonauts to space station Salyut 4
  1975  CESoyuz 18 launches
  1975  CESoyuz 18A launch aborted short of orbit; cosmonauts return safely
  1975  CESoyuz 18B carries 2 cosmonauts to space station Salyut 4
  1975  CESoyuz 19 returns to Earth
  1975  CEThe first Space Shuttle main engine test at Natl Space Tech Labs, Miss
  1975  CEUS Mariner 10 makes 3rd & final fly-by of Mercury
  1975  CEUSSR launches Venera 10 for Venus landing
  1975  CEUSSR launches Venera 9 for Venus landing
  1975  CEUSSR's Venera 10 makes day-side Venus landing
  1975  CEVenera 9, first craft to orbit the planet Venus launched
  1975  CEViking 1 launched toward orbit around Mars, soft landing
  1975  CEViking 2 launched toward orbit around Mars, soft landing
  1976  CEViking I and Viking II land on Mars
  1976  CE4th Space Shuttle Enterprise, approach & land test (ALT) flight
  1976  CE5th Enterprise, approach & lands test (ALT) flight
  1976  CEHermes rocket launched by European Space Agency
  1976  CENASA launches space vehicle S-179
  1976  CENASA launches space vehicle S-197
  1976  CENASA publicly unveils space shuttle Enterprise in Palmdale, Calif
  1976  CEScientists in Pasadena, Calif, announce Viking I found strongest indications to date of possible life on Mars
  1976  CESoyuz 21 returns to Earth
  1976  CESoyuz 22 carries 2 cosmonauts into Earth orbit for 8 days
  1976  CESoyuz 23 carries 2 to Salyut 6, but returns without docking
  1976  CEThe first approach & lands test (ALT) of orbiter Enterprise
  1976  CEUS Viking 1 goes into Martian orbit after 10-month flight from Earth
  1976  CEUS Viking 2 goes into Martian orbit after 11-month flight from Earth
  1976  CEUS-German Helios B solar probe launched into solar orbit
  1976  CEUSSR launches Luna 24, last Lunar flight to date from Earth
  1976  CEUSSR's Luna 24 soft-lands on Moon
  1976  CEViking 1 radio signal from Mars help prove general theory of relativity.
  1976  CEViking 2 soft lands on Mars (Utopia), returns photos
 Aug 1977  CEThe Voyager 2 spacecraft is launched carrying a 12-inch copper phonograph record containing greetings in every language and the spacecraft.
  1977  CE2nd test of the Space Shuttle Enterprise
  1977  CE3rd test of Space Shuttle Enterprise
  1977  CE4th test of the space shuttle Enterprise
  1977  CE5th & final test of space shuttle Enterprise
  1977  CEBurn up of Salyut 4 Space Station (USSR)
  1977  CEEuropean weather satellite Meteosat 1 launched from Cape Canaveral
  1977  CEHigh Energy Astronomy Observatory 1 launched into Earth orbit
  1977  CEInternational Sun-Earth Explorers 1 & 2 launched into Earth orbit
  1977  CENASA launches space vehicle S-200
  1977  CENASA launches Voyager 2 towards Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune
  1977  CEShuttle Enterprise makes 1st test flight atop a 747 jetliner
  1977  CESoviet space station Salyut 6 launched into Earth orbit
  1977  CESoyuz 24 launches with 2 cosmonauts
  1977  CESoyuz 25 launched to Saluyt 6, but returned after failing to dock
  1977  CESoyuz 26 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 6 space station
  1977  CESpace shuttle Enterprise makes 1st atmospheric flight
  1977  CESpace Shuttle test model "Enterprise" carries a crew aloft for 1st time, It was fixed to a modified Boeing 747
  1977  CEThe first flight of Space Shuttle (atop a Boeing 747)
  1977  CEThe first Space walk made by G Grechko from Salyut
  1977  CEThe first test glide of the shuttle
  1977  CEUS Voyager I takes 1st space photograph of Earth & Moon together
  1977  CEVoyager 1 (US) launched toward fly-by of Jupiter, Saturn
  1977  CEVoyager 2 launched for fly-by of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
  1978  CECrew of Soyuz 29 returns to Earth aboard Soyuz 31
  1978  CECrew of Soyuz 31 returns to Earth aboard Soyuz 29
  1978  CEInternational Ultraviolet Explorer placed in Earth orbit
  1978  CELandsat 3 launched from Vandenberg AFB, California
  1978  CENASA launches HEAO
  1978  CENASA launches space vehicle S-201
  1978  CEPioneer Venus 1 begins orbiting Venus
  1978  CEPioneer Venus 1 goes into orbit around Venus
  1978  CEPioneer Venus 2 drops 5 probes into atmosphere of Venus
  1978  CEPioneer-Venus 2 with 5 atmospheric probes launched toward Venus
  1978  CESoyuz 27 links with Salyut 6 & Soyuz 26 (1st time 3 spacecraft link)
  1978  CESoyuz 28 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Czechoslovakian) to Salyut 6
  1978  CESoyuz 29 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 6; they stay 139 days
  1978  CESoyuz 30 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Polish) to Salyut 6 space station
  1978  CESoyuz 31 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 East German) to Salyut 6
  1978  CEThiokol conducts 2nd test firing of space shuttle's SRB
  1978  CETiros N, US's 1st 3rd generation weather satellite, is launched
  1978  CEUS launches Pioneer Venus 1; produces 1st global radar map of Venus
  1978  CEUS Seasat 1, 1st oceanographic satellite, launched into polar orbit
  1978  CEUSSR launches Kosmos 1000 navigational satellite
  1979  CEBhaskara 1, Indian Earth resources/meteorology satellite, launched
  1979  CEColumbia flies on Shuttle carrier aircraft to Kennedy Space Center
  1979  CEColumbia flown on aircraft carrier lands at Kennedy Space Center
  1979  CECrew of Soyuz 32 returns to Earth aboard Soyuz 34 aft 175 d flight
  1979  CEJapan launches Hakucho x-ray satellite & Corsa-B (550/580 km)
  1979  CEKosmos 1076, 1st Soviet oceanographic satellite, launched
  1979  CENASA launches Fltsatcom-2
  1979  CENASA launches HEAO
  1979  CENASA launches space vehicle S-198
  1979  CENASA launches space vehicle S-203
  1979  CEPioneer 11 launched towards Jupiter
  1979  CEPioneer 11 makes 1st fly-by of Saturn, discovers new moon, rings
  1979  CEShuttle Columbia (OV-102) transported 38 miles overland from Palmdale
  1979  CESoyuz 32 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 6 space station
  1979  CESoyuz 33 launched with a Russian & a Bulgarian
  1979  CEThe first space shuttle SRB qualification test firing; 122 seconds
  1979  CEUS Voyager I photo reveals Jupiter's rings
  1979  CEVoyager 1 passes Jupiter
  1979  CEVoyager I's closest approach to Jupiter (172,000 miles)
  1980  CEVoyager 1 sends back images of Saturn and its system
  1980  CEColumbia mated to SRBs & external tank at Vehicle Assembly Building
  1980  CECosmonauts Popov & Ryumin set space endurance record of 184 days
  1980  CECosmonauts Ryumin & Popov break space endurance record of 176 days
  1980  CECrew of Soyuz 35 returns to Earth aboard Soyuz 37
  1980  CECrew of Soyuz 36 returns to Earth aboard Soyuz 35
  1980  CENASA launches Flt Satcom-4
  1980  CENASA launches Fltsatcom-3
  1980  CENASA launches Intelsat V
  1980  CEReinhold Messner of Italy is 1st to solo ascent Mt Everest
  1980  CEShuttle STS-1 moves from Vandenberg AFB to Launch Complex 39A
  1980  CESoyuz 35 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 6
  1980  CESoyuz 36 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Hungarian) to Salyut 6
  1980  CESoyuz 38 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Cuban) to Salyut 6 space station
  1980  CESoyuz T-2 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 6 space station
  1980  CESoyuz T-3 carries 3 cosmonauts to Salyut 6 space station, launched
  1980  CETitan II missile explosion (Damascus, AR)
  1980  CEUS launches Solar Maximum Mission Observatory to study solar flares
  1980  CEUS space probe Voyager I approaches 77,000-mi (124,000 km) of Saturn
  1980  CEVostok rocket exploded on launch pad while being refueled, killing 50
  1980  CEVoyager 1 space probe discovers 15th moon of Saturn
  1981  CEFirst flight of the space shuttle 'Columbia'
  1981  CEVoyager 2 sends back images of Saturn and its system
  1981  CE2 workers killed in space shuttle Columbia accident
  1981  CE2nd shuttle mission-1st time spacecraft launched twice (Columbia 2)
  1981  CE2nd Space Shuttle Mission-Columbia 2-returns to Earth
  1981  CEColumbia mated with SRBs & external tank for STS-2 mission
  1981  CEColumbia shuttle launch scrubbed with 31 secs remaining
  1981  CEColumbia space shuttle returns [04/24]
  1981  CEComputer glitch keeps Space Shuttle Columbia grounded
  1981  CEEuropean Space Agency's Ariane carries 2 satellites into orbit
  1981  CEFlight readiness firing of Columbia's main engines; 20 seconds
  1981  CEIndia's APPLE satellite, 1st to be stabilized on 3 axes, launched
  1981  CEJapan launches Hinotori satellite to study solar flares (580/640 k)
  1981  CEMaiden voyage Space Transit System-space shuttle Columbia launched
  1981  CENASA launches Comstar D-4
  1981  CENASA launches Fltsatcom-5, it failed
  1981  CENASA launches Intelsat V
  1981  CENASA launches space vehicle S-192
  1981  CESatellites China 10 & 11 launched into Earth orbit by B-1 rocket
  1981  CESoyuz 39 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Mongolian) to Salyut 6
  1981  CESoyuz 40 carries 2 cosmonauts (1 Rumanian) to Salyut 6
  1981  CESoyuz T-4 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 6 space station
  1981  CESpace Shuttle vehicle moves to Launch Complex 39A for STS-2 mission
  1981  CESpacelab I arrives at Kennedy Space Center
  1981  CEThe first Space Shuttle-Columbia 1-returns to Earth
  1981  CEVoyager 2's closest approach to Saturn (63,000 miles/100,000 km)
  1982  CE3rd space shuttle mission-Columbia 3 lands at White Sands NM
  1982  CE3rd Space Shuttle Mission-Columbia 3 launched
  1982  CE4th Space Shuttle Mission-Columbia 4 launched
  1982  CE5th Space Shuttle Mission-Columbia 5-lands at Edwards AFB
  1982  CE5th space shuttle mission-Columbia 5-launched 1st commercial flight
  1982  CEAssembled STS-3 vehicle moves from Vandenberg AFB to launch pad
  1982  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg AFB and mated for STS-6
  1982  CEColumbia mated with SRBs & external tank in preparation for STS-5
  1982  CEColumbia moves to Vandenberg Air Force Base for mating in preparation for STS-4
  1982  CEColumbia returns to Kennedy Space Center from White Sands
  1982  CEColumbia returns to Kennedy Space Center via Kelly AFB, Texas
  1982  CEColumbia Shuttle moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating for STS-3 mission
  1982  CEConestoga 1, 1st private commercial rocket, makes suborbital flight
  1982  CEFlight readiness firing of Challenger's main engines; 20 seconds
  1982  CEJean-Loup Chretien and 2 others, lift off (Soyuz T-16)
  1982  CELaunch of STS-3-Lousma & Fullerton [03/23]
  1982  CENASA launches Intelsat V
  1982  CENASA launches RCA-E
  1982  CENASA launches Telesat-F
  1982  CEOrbiter Challenger (OV-099) rolled out at Palmdale
  1982  CERussian spacecraft Venera 14 lands on Venus and sends back data
  1982  CESoyuz T-5 is launched-Berezovoi & Lebedev for 211 days in space
  1982  CESoyuz T-7 launched, Svetlana Savtiskaya 2nd woman in space
  1982  CESTS-4 vehicle moves to launch pad
  1982  CESTS-5 vehicle moves to launch pad
  1982  CESTS-6 vehicle moves to launch pad
  1982  CEUnmanned rocket sled reaches 9,851 kph at White Sands, NM
  1982  CEUSSR Salyut 7 space station put into orbit
  1983  CE2nd flight readiness firing of Challenger's main engines; 22 seconds
  1983  CE6th space shuttle mission, Challenger 1 launched
  1983  CE6th Space Shuttle Mission-Challenger 1 returns to Earth
  1983  CE7th Shuttle Mission-Challenger 2 launched-Sally Ride 1st US woman
  1983  CE7th Space Shuttle Mission-Challenger 2 lands at Edwards AFB
  1983  CE8th Space Shuttle Mission-Challenger 3-lands at Edwards AFB
  1983  CE8th Space Shuttle Mission-Challenger 3-launched (6 days)
  1983  CE9th Space Shuttle Mission-Columbia 6-is launched
  1983  CE9th Space Shuttle Mission-Columbia 6-lands at Edwards AFB
  1983  CEChallenger flies back to Kennedy Space Center via Kelly AFB
  1983  CEChallenger moves to launch pad for STS-7
  1983  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg Air Force Base, for mating for STS-7 mission
  1983  CEChallenger returns to Kennedy Space Center via Sheppard AFB, Texas
  1983  CEColumbia flies to Kennedy Space Center via El Paso, Kelly AFB
  1983  CEColumbia moves to Orbiter Processing Facility
  1983  CEColumbia moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating in preparation of STS-9
  1983  CECosmonauts Titov & Strekalov are saved from exploding Soyuz T-10
  1983  CEDiscovery flies from Vandenberg AFB to Kennedy Space Center
  1983  CEDiscovery transported to Vandenberg AFB, California
  1983  CEDutch/British infrared satellite IRAS launched from California
  1983  CEEuropean Space Agency launches European Comm Satellite 1, Oscar 10
  1983  CEIndia entered space age launching SLV-3 rocket
  1983  CEInfrared telescope satellite launched into polar orbit
  1983  CEJapan launches Tenma satellite to study x-rays (450/570 km)
  1983  CENASA launches Exosat
  1983  CENASA launches Galaxy-A
  1983  CENASA launches Galaxy-B
  1983  CENASA launches Goes-F
  1983  CENASA launches Intelsat V
  1983  CENASA launches RCA-6
  1983  CENASA launches RCA-F
  1983  CENASA launches space vehicle S-205
  1983  CEOrbiter Discovery (OV-103) moves overland to Dryden
  1983  CEPioneer 10 becomes 1st man-made object to leave Solar System
  1983  CERussian radioactive satellite falls into Indian Ocean
  1983  CESoyuz T-8 launched; mission aborted when capsule fails to dock
  1983  CESoyuz T-9 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 7 space station, in space for 149 days
  1983  CESTS-6 specialist Story Musgrave & Don Peterson 1st STS spacewalk
  1983  CESTS-8 vehicle moves to launch pad
  1983  CESTS-9 vehicle again moves to launch pad
  1983  CESTS-9 vehicle moves to launch pad
  1983  CESTS-9 vehicle moves to Vandenberg AFB due to SRB nozzle problem
  1983  CEThe first time a satellite is retrieved from orbit by Space Shuttle
  1984  CE10th Space Shuttle Mission (41B)-Challenger 4 launched
  1984  CE10th space shuttle mission (41-B)-Challenger 4-returns to Earth
  1984  CE11th Space Shuttle Mission (41-C)-Challenger 5 is launched
  1984  CE11th Space Shuttle Mission (41C)-Challenger 5-returns to Earth
  1984  CE12th Space Shuttle Mission (41-D) -Discovery 1- lands at Edwards AFB
  1984  CE12th Space Shuttle Mission (41-D)-Discovery 1-launched (6 days)
  1984  CE13th Space Shuttle Mission (41-G)-Challenger 6-launched
  1984  CE14th Shuttle Mission (51A) -Discovery 2- lands at Kennedy Center
  1984  CE3 cosmonauts return after a record 237 days in orbit
  1984  CEAnna Fisher becomes the 1st "mom" to go into orbit
  1984  CEAstronauts aboard "Discovery" pluck a 2nd satellite from orbit
  1984  CEBruce McCandless makes 1st untethered space walk (US)
  1984  CEChallenger astronauts complete 1st in space satellite repair
  1984  CEChallenger flies back to Kennedy Space Center via Kelly AFB
  1984  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 41 B mission
  1984  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 41-C mission
  1984  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 41G mission
  1984  CEDamaged Solar Max satellite snared by Challenger shuttle
  1984  CEDiscovery moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 51A mission
  1984  CEDiscovery moves to Vandenberg Air Force Base for mating of STS 41-D
  1984  CEDiscovery returns to Kennedy Space Center via Altus AFB, Okla
  1984  CEFlight readiness firing of Discovery's main engines
  1984  CEIntelsat 5 re-enters Earth's atmosphere 5 months after it failed
  1984  CEKathy Sullivan becomes 1st US woman to walk in space
  1984  CENASA launches Ampte
  1984  CENASA launches Galaxy-C
  1984  CENASA launches Intelsat V, it failed
  1984  CENASA launches Landsat-D Prime (Landsat 5) to thematic map the Earth
  1984  CENASA launches NATO-3D
  1984  CENASA launches space vehicle S-208
  1984  CESoyuz T-10 launches with crew of 3 to Salyut 7
  1984  CESoyuz T-11 carries 3 cosmonauts (1 Indian-Rakesh Sharma) to Salyut 7
  1984  CESpace Shuttle 41-B (STS-11) Challenger launched
  1984  CESpace shuttle astronauts snared a satellite 1st space salvage
  1984  CESTS 41-B vehicle moves to launch pad
  1984  CESTS 41-C vehicle moves to launch pad
  1984  CESTS 41-D launch attempt scrubbed because of computer problem
  1984  CESTS 41-D vehicle again moves out to the launch pad
  1984  CESTS 41-D vehicle moves to launch pad
  1984  CESTS 41-G launch vehicle moves to launch pad
  1984  CESTS 41-G mission; lands at Kennedy Space Center
  1984  CESTS 51-A launch scrubbed because of high shear winds
  1984  CESTS 51-A launch vehicle moves to launch pad
  1984  CESTS 51-A mission; launch
  1984  CEThe first flight of Shuttle Discovery (41-D) scrubbed at T -4s
  1984  CEThe first time 8 people in space
  1984  CEUSSR launches Vega 1 for rendezvous with Halley's Comet
  1984  CEUSSR launches Vega 2 for fly-by of Halley's Come
  1985  CE15th Space Shuttle (51-C) Mission-Discovery 3 is launched
  1985  CE15th Space Shuttle (51-C) Mission-Discovery 3 returns to Earth
  1985  CE16th Shuttle Mission (51D)-Discovery 4 launched-with Senator Jake Garn
  1985  CE16th Space Shuttle Mission (51-D)-Discovery 4 returns to Earth
  1985  CE17th Space Shuttle Mission (51-B)-Challenger 7 lands at Edwards Air Force Base
  1985  CE17th space shuttle mission (51-B)-Challenger 7 launched
  1985  CE18th Space Shuttle Mission (51-G)-Discovery 5 launched
  1985  CE18th Space Shuttle Mission (51-G)-Discovery 5 returns to Earth
  1985  CE19th space shuttle mission (51-F), Challenger 8, lands at Edwards AFB
  1985  CE20th Space Shuttle Mission (51-I)-Discovery 6-launched
  1985  CE20th Space Shuttle Mission (51-I)-Discovery 6-returns to Earth
  1985  CE21st Shuttle Mission (51J)-Atlantis 1-all-military flight launched
  1985  CE21st Space Shuttle Mission (51-J)-Atlantis 1 lands at Edwards AFB
  1985  CE22nd Space Shuttle Mission (61A) -Challenger 9- lands at Edwards AFB
  1985  CE22nd Space Shuttle Mission (61-A)-Challenger 9-launched
  1985  CE23rd Shuttle Mission (61-B)-Atlantis 2-lands at Edwards AFB
  1985  CE23rd Space Shuttle Mission (61-B)-Atlantis 2-is launched
  1985  CEAtlantis (OV-104) rollout at Palmdale
  1985  CEAtlantis ferried to Kennedy Space Center via Ellington AFB, Texas
  1985  CEAtlantis moves to launch pad for the 51-J mission
  1985  CEAtlantis moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 61-B mission
  1985  CEAtlantis returns to Kennedy Space Center via Kelly AFB
  1985  CEChallenger flies back to Kennedy Space Center via Davis-Monthan AFB
  1985  CEChallenger flies to Kennedy Space Center via Davis-Monthan AFB, Ariz
  1985  CEChallenger moves to launch pad for 51-B missing
  1985  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 51-B mission
  1985  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 51-E mission
  1985  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 51-F
  1985  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 51-L mission
  1985  CEChallenger moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 61A mission
  1985  CEChallenger transports back to Kennedy Space Center via Kelly Air Force Base
  1985  CEChallenger vehicle moves to the launch pad for STS 61A mission
  1985  CEColumbia moves to the Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 61-C
  1985  CEDiscovery ferried back to Kennedy Space Center via Bergstrom AFB, Tx
  1985  CEDiscovery flies back to Kennedy Space Center via Kelly AFB
  1985  CEDiscovery moves to launch pad for STS 51-C mission
  1985  CEDiscovery moves to Vandenberg AFB for mating of STS 51-D mission
  1985  CEDiscovery moves to Vandenberg Air Force Base for mating of STS 51-G
  1985  CEEn route to Halley's Comet, USSR's Vega 2 drops lander on Venus
  1985  CEEnterprise (OV-101) flies from Kennedy Space Center to Dulles Airport Washington, DC, & turned over to the Smithsonian Institution
  1985  CEFlight readiness firing of Atlantis' main engines; 20 seconds
  1985  CEJapan launches its 2nd probe of Halley's Comet, Suisei
  1985  CEJapan launches Planet A, a probe to Halley's comet
  1985  CEJapan launches Sakigake space probe to Halley's Comet
  1985  CEJapanese space probe Sakigake launched to Halley's comet
  1985  CEKosmos 1700 communications satellite placed in geostationary orbit
  1985  CENASA launches Intelsat VA
  1985  CENASA launches space vehicle S-207
  1985  CENASA launches space vehicle S-209
  1985  CEShuttle Columbia carries Spacelab into orbit
  1985  CESoyuz T-13 carries 2 cosmonauts to Salyut 7 space station
  1985  CESoyuz T-14 carries 3 cosmonauts to Salyut 7 space station
  1985  CESTS 51-D vehicle moves to launch pad
  1985  CESTS 51-E vehicle moves to launch pad
  1985  CESTS 51-E vehicle rolls back to Vandenberg AFB; mission cancelled
  1985  CESTS 51-F vehicle moves to the launch pad
  1985  CESTS 51-G vehicle moves to the launch pad
  1985  CESTS 51-I mission scrubbed at T -5m because of bad weather
  1985  CESTS 51-I scrubbed at T -9m because of an onboard computer problem
  1985  CESTS 51-I vehicle moves to the launch pad
  1985  CESTS 51-L vehicle moves to Launch Pad 39B
  1985  CESTS 61-B vehicle moves to the launch pad
  1985  CESTS 61-C scrubbed at T -13s because of SRB auxiliary power problem
  1985  CESTS 61-C vehicle moves to launch pad
  1985  CEUS-French expedition locates wreckage of Titanic off Newfoundland
  1985  CEUSSR's Vega 1 deposits lander on surface of Venus
  1986  CEThe Challenger spacecraft exploded shortly after takeoff killing the seven astronauts aboard
  1986  CEVoyager 2 sends back images of Uranus and its system and discovers 6 new moons
  1986  CE24th space shuttle (61-C) mission-Columbia 7-launched
  1986  CE24th Space Shuttle (61-C) Mission-Columbia 7-returns to Earth
  1986  CE25th Space Shuttle (51L)-Challenger 10 explodes 73 seconds after liftoff
  1986  CEAriane-2 (ESA) launched
  1986  CEColumbia returns to Kennedy Space Center via Davis-Monthan AFB
  1986  CEDiscovery moves to OPF where more than 200 modification are made
  1986  CEEuropean Space Agency's Giotto flies by Halley's Comet (605 km)
  1986  CEGiotto encounters Comet Halley
  1986  CEJapanese probe Sakigake flies by Halley's Comet at 6.8 millionkm
  1986  CEJapanese probe Suisei passes Halley's Comet at 109,800 km
  1986  CENASA announces searchers found remains of Challenger astronauts
  1986  CENASA announces tests designed to verify ignition pressure dynamics
  1986  CENASA launches DOD-1
  1986  CENASA launches Fltsatcom-7
  1986  CENASA launches Goes-G, it failed to achieve orbit
  1986  CENASA launches space vehicle S-199
  1986  CENASA publishes "Strategy for Safely Returning the Space Shuttle to Flight Status"
  1986  CERogers Comm report on Challenger disaster blames Morton Thiokol
  1986  CESoviet probe Vega 2 flies by Halley's Comet at 8,030 km
  1986  CESoyuz T-15 carries 2 cosmonauts to Soviet space station Mir
  1986  CESpace probe Giotto encounters Halley's Comet
  1986  CESTS 61-C mission scrubbed at T -9m because of weather problems
  1986  CESTS 61-C mission scrubbed T -9m because of bad weather at Kennedy
  1986  CESTS 61-C scrubbed at T-31 seconds because of liquid oxygen valve problem
  1986  CEUS President Reagan announces formation of Committee on Challenger Accident
  1986  CEUSSR launches Mir space station into Earth orbit
  1986  CEUSSR's Vega 1 flies by Halley's Comet at 8,889 km
  1986  CEVoyager 2 makes 1st fly-by of Uranus (81,593 km), finds new moons
  1986  CEVoyager 2, 1st Uranus fly-by
  1986  CEVoyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, took off from Edwards AFB, CA on 1st non-stop, non-refueled flight around world
  1987  CE4th full-duration test firing of redesigned SRB motor
  1987  CEDiscovery in Orbital Processing Facility is powered up for STS-26
  1987  CEDiscovery rolls over from OPF to Vandenberg AFB
  1987  CEDiscovery's SRBs and External Tank are mated
  1987  CEFlight Readiness Firing of Discovery's main engines is successful
  1987  CENASA launches Fltsatcom-6, it failed to reach orbit
  1987  CENASA launches GEOS-H
  1987  CENASA launches Palapa B2P
  1987  CENASA launches space vehicle S-209
  1987  CESoyuz TM-2 launches
  1987  CESoyuz TM-4 carries 3 cosmonauts to space station Mir
  1987  CEVladimir Titov and Musa Manarov launched
  1988  CE26th Space Shuttle mission, Discovery 7 launched
  1988  CE26th Space Shuttle Mission, Discovery 7 returns to Earth after 4-days
  1988  CEChallenger Center opens its classroom doors in Houston
  1988  CECrippled soviet Soyuz TM-5 lands safely with 2 cosmonauts aboard
  1988  CEDeep Rover 1-man research submarine unveiled at Crater Lake, Oregon
  1988  CEDiscovery of most distant galaxy (15 x 10^12 light yrs) announced
  1988  CEIsrael launches 1st satellite, for secret military reconnaissance
  1988  CENASA launches DOD-2
  1988  CENASA launches space vehicle S-206
  1988  CENASA launches space vehicle S-211
  1988  CENASA launches space vehicle S-213
  1988  CENASA launches space vehicle S-214
  1988  CENASA reports accelerated breakdown of ozone layer by CFK
  1988  CENASA unveils plans for lunar colony & manned missions to Mars
  1988  CEPioneer 6's closest approach to Earth since 1965 launch (1.87 M km)
  1988  CEShuttle Atlantis launches world's 1st nuclear-war-fighting satellite
  1988  CESoviet space shuttle makes unmanned maiden flight (2 orbits)
  1988  CESoviets 1st scheduled shuttle launch (postponed)
  1988  CESTS-27 Atlantis lands in California after secret mission
  1988  CESTS-27 Atlantis launched (Secret military mission)
  1988  CEUS space shuttle STS-26 launched
  1988  CEUSSR launches 3 cosmonauts (Valery Polyakav, 1 Afghan) to station Mir