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Chemistry (0150-)

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Inorganic and organic chemistry.
c.    0150  CETs'an T'ung Ch'i, by Wei Po-yang of China, earliest extant alchemy
    0343  CEKo Hung (283-?), Chinese alchemist, immortality pills, wrote 'Pao-pu-tzu'.
    1620  CEJan Baptista van Helmont introduces the word 'gas'.
    1635  CEJohann Joachim Becher (1635-1682), German alchemist, was born.
    1660  CERobert Boyle states that sound will not travel in a vacuum.
    1661  CERobert Boyle carefully experimented with increase in plant biomass in an effort to determine what had happened to the water taken up by plants.
    1661  CEIrish chemist Robert Boyle develops the corpuscular theory of matter postulating the exitence of atoms.
    1662  CEIrish chemist Robert Boyle develops Boyle's law for ideal gases relating volume to pressure.
    1665  CERobert Boyle states that air is necessary for candles to burn.
    1670  CERobert Boyle produces hydrogen by reacting metals with acid.
    1673  CEThe Chelsea Physic Garden was established by the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London.
    1676  CEEdme Mariotte shows that pressure is inversely proportional to volume (Boyle's law) and height of atmosphere.
    1749  CEThomas Melvill performs early spectrscopy and discovers the yellow line of sodium in salt.
    1754  CEJoseph Black discovers carbon dioxide and shows that there are gases other than air.
    1772  CEAntoine Lavoisier shows conservation of mass in chemical reactions.
    1772  CECarl Scheele saw air as two gases one of which encouraged combustion.
    1775  CEBlack identified element 12, Magnesium (Mg).
    1781  CEJoseph Priestly creates water by igniting hydrogen and oxygen.
    1783  CELavoisier verified conclusions by Cavendish, Priestley and Watt that water is the sole product when an inflammable air (hydrogen) is burned in oxygen. This was the first evidence that water is not an element but a combination of oxygen and another element.
    1783  CERene Hauy explains the nature of crystals.
    1784  CEHenry Cavendish postulates that water is a compound of Oxygen and Hydrogen.
    1786  CEAntoine Lavoisier explains the distinction between elements and compounds.
    1787  CEAntoine Lavoisier develops a system for naming chemicals.
    1789  CEAntoine Lavoisier states the law of conservation of mass in chemical reactions.
    1789  CELavoisier published his important treatise 'Traite elementaire de chimie' in which 33 elements were listed and much terminology proposed but in 1794 he was executed during the French Revolution.
    1790  CEAdair Crawford discovers the element 38, Strontium (Sr), in compounds.
    1800  CEWilliam Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle use electrolysis to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen.
    1801  CEAndres Manuel del Rio is the first to discover element 23, Vanadium (V), in compounds. Unfortunately, a French chemist incorrectly declared that del Rio's new element was only impure chromium which was accepted by del Rio.
    1801  CECharles Hatchett discovers the element 41 Niobium (Nb) in ores.
    1802  CEAnders Ekeberg discovers the element tantalum
    1802  CEHumphry Davy discovered and founded Electrochemistry.
    1803  CEJohn Dalton introduces atomic ideas into chemistry and states that matter is composed of atoms of different weights.
    1803  CESmithson Tennant discovers the elements osmium and iridium.
    1803  CEWilliam Wollaston discovers the elements rhodium and palladium.
    1807  CESweedish chemist Jons Berzelius proposed that chemicals produced by living creatures should be termed 'organic'.
    1807  CEHumphry Davy isolated the element 11, Sodium (Na) and element 19, Potasium (K) by electrolysis.
    1807  CEIsaac de Rivas makes a hydrogen gas powered vehicle.
    1808  CEBritish chemist John Dalton draws up list of relative atomic masses.
    1808  CEDavy, Gay-Lussac and Thenard isloated element 5, Boron (B).
    1808  CESir Humphry Davy isolates the element 12, Magnesium (Mg), element 38, Strontium (Sr), element 56, Barium (Ba) and element 20, Calcium (Ca).
    1808  CEJoseph Gay-Lussac develops the Law of gas volumes in chemical reactions.
    1811  CEItalian physicist Amedeo Avagado proposed a hypothesis relating volumes and numbers of molecules in a gas
    1811  CEBernard Courtois discovers the element 53 Iodine (I).
    1813  CEBerzelius devised chemical symbols and formulae to represent elements and compounds.
    1815  CEWilliam Prout postulates that atomic weights of elements are multiples of that for hydrogen.
    1817  CEFriedrich Strohmeyer discovers the element 48 Cadmium (Cd).
    1817  CEJ÷autns Berzelius discovers the element 34 Selenium (Se).
    1817  CEJohan Arfvedson discovers element 3, Lithium (Li).
    1818  CEIn Sweden, Berzelius isolates selenium a material whose electrical conductivity changes with light.
    1819  CEDulong and Petit describe the relation of specific heats to atomic weight in 12 solid elements.
    1823  CEJohn William Herschel suggests the identification of the chemical composition of a smaple from its spectrum.
    1823  CEMichael Faraday liquifies Chlorine.
    1824  CEJ÷autns Berzelius discovers element 14, Silicon (Si).
    1825  CEHans Christian Oersted isolates the element 13, Aluminium (Al).
    1826  CEAntoine-J. Balard discovers the element 35, Bromine (Br).
    1827  CEScotish Botanist Robert Brown discovers the Brownian motion of pollen and dye particles in water resulting from molecular vibrations
    1827  CEWohler isolates element 13, Aluminium (Al).
    1828  CEFriedrich W÷hler synthesizes urea which was the first synthesis of an organic compound.
    1829  CEJohann Wolfgang discovers triads of chemical elements.
    1829  CEJons Berzelius discovers the element 90, Thorium (Th).
    1830  CENils Sefstrom rediscovers and names element 23, Vanadium (V).
    1830  CESefstrom rediscovers element 23 and names it Vanadium (V).
    1833  CEAnselme Payen and J F Persoz first isolated an enzyme.
    1836  CETheodor Schwann discovers pepsin in extracts from the stomach lining, the first isolation of an animal enzyme.
    1839  CEKarl Mosander discovers element 57, Lanthanum (La).
    1841  CEEugene-Melchoir Peligot isolates the element Uranium.
    1844  CEKark Klaus discovered element 44, Ruthenium (Ru).
    1847  CEBunson invents a gas burner for use in chemical laboratories.
    1855  CEGerman Chemist Robert von Bunsen invented the 'Bunsen Burner'.
 19 May 1858  CEFriedrich August Kekule published his structural theory of chemical compounds in a paper describing concepts concerning the tetravalent nature of carbon and its chain-forming capabilities.
    1858  CEItalian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro differentiated between atomic and molecular weights.
    1861  CEGerman chemist Friedrich Kekule von Stradonitz defined organic chemistry as the chemistry of carbon compounds.
    1861  CEBelgian chemist Ernst Solvay patented a method for production of sodium carbonate from sodium chloride and ammonia. The first production plant was established in 1863.
    1861  CEVon Bunsen and Kirchhoff find that the elements Caesium and Rubidium are found in spectra.
    1861  CEWilliam Crookes discovers the element 81, Thallium (Tl), which was found by its spectra.
    1863  CEReich and Richter discover the element 49, Indium (In), from its spectra.
    1864  CEJohn Newlands develops the chemical law of octaves.
    1865  CEAugust KekulÚ realizes that benzene is composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms in a hexagonal ring.
    1867  CEHenry Roscoe isolates the element 23, Vanadium (V) in its pur form.
    1868  CELockyer and Crookes recognise and name element 2, Helium (He).
  1868  CEPierre-Jules-CÚsar Janssen and Norman Lockyer discover an unidentified yellow line in solar prominence spectra during an eclipse and suggest it comes from a new element which they name 'Helium'.
  1869  CEDmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev published his organizational groundwork explaining the pattern of relationships in the properties of elements which was the logic that underlies today's periodic table
  1871  CEDmitri Mendeleyev examines the periodic table and predicts the existence of Gallium, Scandium and Germanium.
  1874  CEJacobus van't Hoff and Joseph-Achille Le Bel advance a three-dimensional stereochemical representation of organic molecules and propose a tetrahedral carbon atom.
  1875  CEHeinrich Weber describes the specific heat curves of solids.
  1875  CEJohn Kerr discovers the electrically induced birefringence of some liquids.
  1875  CEPaul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovers the element35, Gallium (Ga).
  1877  CECailletet and Pictet liquify Oxygen and Nitrogen.
  1878  CEJosiah Willard Gibbs describes the thermodynamics of chemistry and phase changes.
  1879  CELars Fredrik Nilson discovers the element 21, Scandium (Sc).
  1884  CEEmil Fischer begins his detailed analysis of the compositions and structure of sugars.
  1884  CELudwig Boltzmann derives the Stefan-Boltzmann black body radiant flux law of thermodynamics.
  1886  CEClemens Winkler discovers the element 32, Germanium (Ge).
  1888  CEHenri-Louis Le ChÔtelier states that the response of a chemical system perturbed from equilbrium will be to counteract the perturbation.
  1894  CELord Rayleigh and William Ramsay discover element 18, Argon (Ar), by spectroscopically analyzing the gas left over after nitrogen and oxygen are removed from air.
  1898  CEJames Dewar liquifies Hydrogen.
  1898  CEMarie Curie and Pierre Curie isolate and study Radium and Polonium the elements that constitute most of the radioactivity in uranium ore.
  1898  CERamsey and Travers discover element 10, Neon (Ne), element 36, Krypton (Kr) & element 54, Xenon (Xe).
  1899  CEAndre Debierne discovers the element 89, Actinium (Ac).
  1900  CEFriedrich Dorn discovers element 86, Radon (Rn).
  1907  CEUrbain and von Welsbach discover element 71, Lutetium (Lu).
  1910  CEMatthew Hunter isolates the element Titanium.
  1913  CEWilliam Bragg and Lawrence Bragg demonstrate X-ray diffraction and crystal structure.
  1913  CEK. Fajans and O.H. Gohring discover element 91, and name it Brevium. When a longer-lived isotope was identified by Hahn and Meitner in 1918, the name Protactinium (Pa) was adopted.
  1913  CEFrederick Soddy first uses the term 'isotope'.
  1913  CEHans Geiger proposes the relation of atomic number to nuclear charge.
  1913  CEHenry Moseley shows that the nuclear charge is the real basis for numbering the elements.
  1913  CEWilliam Bragg and Lawrence Bragg work out the Bragg condition for strong X-ray reflection.
  1921  CECharles Bury deduces the electronic structure of elements from their chemistry.
  1923  CECoster and von Hevesy discover element 72, Hafnium (Hf).
  1923  CEPieter Debye and Erich Huckel publish a statistical treatment of the dissociation of electrolytes.
  1925  CENoddack, Tacke and Berg discover element 75, Rhenium (Re).
  1937  CEPerrier and Segre discover element 43, Technetium (Tc), which is the first element made artifically.
  1939  CEMarguerite Perey discovers element 87, Francium (Fr).
  1940  CECorson, MacKenzie and Segre synthasise element 85, Astatine (At).
  1941  CEMacMillan, Kennedy, Seaborg and Wahl, discover element 94, Plutonium (Pu), the second transuranian element.
  1944  CESeaborg, James, Morgan, Ghiorso and Thompson discovered elements 95, Americium (Am), and element 96, Curium (Cm).
  1949  CESeaborg, Ghiorso and Thompson discover element 97, Berkelium (Bk).
  1950  CESeaborg, Ghiorso, Street and Thompson discover element 98, Californium (Cf).
 Dec 1952  CEGhiorso and co-workers at Berkeley discover element 99, Einsteinium (Es).
  1952  CEGhiorso and co-workers discover element 100, Fermium (Fm) in the debris from a thermonuclear explosion in the pacific.
  1955  CESeaborg et al discover element 101, Mendelevium (Md).
 Apr 1958  CEA. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, J.R. Walton, and G.T. Seaborg discover element 102, Nobelium (No).
  1960  CEJuan Orˇ finds that concentrated solutions of ammonium cyanide in water can produce the nucleotide organic base adenine
  1960  CERobert Woodward synthesizes chlorophyll
  1961  CEGhiorso, Sikkeland, Larsh and Latimer discover element 103, Lawrencium (Lr), in Berkeley, California.
  1964  CEThe USSR discovers element 104, Rutherfordium (Rf).
  1967  CEThe USSR discovers the element 105, Dubnium (Db).
  1974  CEThe Soviets and the Americans discover element 106, Seaborgium (Sg).
  1976  CEThe Soviets discover element 107, Bohrium (Bh).
  1982  CEWest German group at Darnstadt discovers element 109, Meitnerium (Mt), also called Unnilennium.
  1984  CEDarnstadt discovers element 108, Hassium (Hs).
  1994  CEDarnstadt discovers element 110, Ununnitium (Uun).
  1995  CEDarnstadt discovers element 111, Unununium (UUb).
  1996  CEDarnstadt discovers element 112, Ununbium (Uub).
 Jan 1999  CEElement 114 was reported informally following expriments the month before by scientists at Dubna (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) in Russia. Only one atom was identified and the claim has not yet been ratified.
7 Jun 1999  CEElements 116 and 118 were identified in experiemnts conducted in the USA at at The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, The University of Calfornia, and Oregon State University. This dicovery was retracted in 27 July 2001.
27 Jul 2001  CEThe discovery of Elements 116 and 118 was retracted after several confirmation experiments failed to reproduce the results.
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