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Martin Luther

Martin Luther (1483-1546)

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The founder of the Lutheran church.
    1392  CEThe University at Erfurt on the Gera River was founded. Erfurt is the capital of the state of Thuringia and Martin Luther later studied there.
 10 Nov 1483  CEMartin Luther (1483-1546), leader of the Protestant Reformation, was born in Eisleben, Germany. He was a monk in the Catholic Church until 1517, when he founded the Lutheran Church.
    1502  CELucas Cranch, German painter, began his career in Vienna. In 1521 he painted the famous portrait of Martin Luther.
    1507  CEJohannes Oporinus (1507-1568) was born and became a scholar-printer issueing more than 800 publications including the Koran and writings by Luther.
    1507  CEMartin Luther was ordained.
    1510  CEMartin Luther became professor of theology at the University of Wittenberg.
 31 Oct 1517  CEMartin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Thesis to the door of the Wittenberg Palace All Saints' Church. This event signaled the beginning of the Protestant Reformation in Germany and Protestantism in general.
    1518  CELuther was summoned to the Diet of Augsburg where he refused to recant.
    1518  CEUlrich Zwingli, a Swiss clergyman, supported Martin Luther's Reformation.
    1519  CEThe first Altenburger sermon by Luther and Karl von Miltitz.
    1519  CEMartin Luther disputed with Johann Eck in the Leipzig Disputation and questioned the infallibility of the Pope.
 10 Dec 1520  CEMartin Luther publicly burned the papal edict demanding that he recant, or face excommunication.
    1520  CEThe Pope threatens to excommunicate Luther from the Catholic Church.
  3 Jan 1521  CEPope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther from the Roman Catholic Church.
 17 Apr 1521  CEUnder the protection of Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Luther first appeared before Charles V and the Imperial Diet. Martin Luther was excommunicated from the Roman Catholic Church.
 18 Apr 1521  CEMartin Luther confronted the emperor Charles V in the Diet of Worms and refused to retract his views which led to his excommunication.
 21 Apr 1521  CEMartin Luther was called before an Imperial Diet in Worms. He was already accused of heresy and excommunicated by the Pope. Here he was absolved of all charges.
  8 May 1521  CEEmperor Charles V and the Diet issued the Edict of Worms. It banned Luther's work and enjoined his detention but was not able to be enforced.
    1521  CEThe 'Diet of Worms' and Luther refuses to back down.
    1521  CEEdict of Worms outlaws Martin Luther and his followers.
    1522  CEMarten Luther preaches his 'Invocavit'.
    1522  CEMartin Luther completed his translation of the New Testament into German and returned to Wittenberg. His supporter, Ulrich Zwingli, condemned Lenten fasting and celibacy.
    1524  CEMartin Luther and Johann Walther produced jointly a German hymnal called 'Geistliche Lieder'.
    1525  CEMartin Luther got married and served chicken to his guests.
    1525  CELuther wrote 'Against the Murderous and Thieving Hordes of Peasants'.
 15 Oct 1529  CEOttoman armies under Suleiman ended their siege of Vienna and head back to Belgrade. The Ottomans siege of Vienna was a key battle of world history. The Ottoman Empire reached its peak with the Turks settled in Buda on the left bank of the Danube after failing in their siege of Vienna.
 21 Oct 1529  CEHenry VIII of England was named Defender of the Faith by the Pope after defending the seven sacraments against Luther.
    1529  CEThe Turks began the siege of Vienna.
    1529  CELuther published two hymns: 'Away in a Manger' and 'A Mighty Fortress Is Our God'.
    1530  CEMartin Luther and Philip Melanchthon drew up the Augsburg Confessions and presented them unsuccessfully to the German Diet at Augsburg convened by Charles V.
    1543  CELuther wrote a pamphlet titled: 'On the Jews and Their Lies'. The founder of the Protestant movement, Martin Luther, despised Jews and it has been said that he helped to set the stage for the Holocaust.
 18 Feb 1546  CEMartin Luther, leader of the Protestant Reformation in Germany, died.
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