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The British Monarchy
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The English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642-1649)

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Introduction

The war fought in England between the royalist forces (the "cavaliers") and revolutionary forces (the "roundheads", "puritans" or "parliamentarians") culminated in the beheading of King Charles I of England and the start of a period of time when England became a republic ruled by parliament.

The revolutionary forces were led by Oliver Cromwell who later became the leader of parliament and was at one time invited to become King. After Cromwell's death and a period of instability, the restoration of the monarchy took place when King Charles I's son, Charles II was invited back to the throne.

Timeline
  4 Jan 1642  CEEnglish King Charles I attempted to arrest five members of the English parliament. This attempt failed, since they were spirited away before the king's troops arrived.
   Jul 1642  CERobert Devereux 3rd Earl of Essex was appointed Lord General of the English Parliamentary army, until 1645.
 22 Aug 1642  CECivil war in England officially began as Charles I declared war on Parliament from Nottingham. Charles I went to the House of Commons to arrest some of its members and was refused entry. From this point on no monarch was allowed entry. The war ended in 1651.
 23 Oct 1642  CEThe battle of Egehill, when the English Parlimentariand fought the Royalists under Chales I. The result was inconclusive.
 29 Oct 1642  CEKing Charles I and his Royalist army enter Oxford.
 11 Nov 1642  CEKing Charles I and his Royalist army move East and entered Colnbrook.
 12 Nov 1642  CEThe Battle of Turnam Green, West of London, between the Royalist army under King Charles I and the Parliamentarians under Robert Devereux. No actual battle was fought as Charles had no chance against 24,000 men so turned south to Kingston and then withdrew to Reading.
    1642  CEThe Globe Theater in London is closed by The Puritans.
    1642  CEBritish King Charles I and his family flee London for Oxford.
    1642  CEBritish King Charles I with 400 soldiers attacks the English parliament.
    1642  CE(1642-1648) The English civil war severely damaged St. Paul's Cathedral in London.
 13 Jul 1643  CEIn England, the Roundheads, led by Sir William Waller, were defeated by royalist troops under Lord Wilmot in the Battle of Roundway Down.
    1643  CEBattle at Grantham when English Parliamentary armies beat the Royalists.
    1643  CEBritish leader Sir Thomas Fairfax takes Leeds for the Parliamentarians.
    1643  CEIn England the bloody battle of Chalgrove Field occurred. Royalist strategy meetings were held at the Horsenden Manor at Buckinghamshsire.
  2 Jul 1644  CELord Cromwell crushed the Royalists at the Battle of Marston Moor near York, England.
    1644  CEBattle at Nantwich Cheshire British Parliamentary armies win.
 10 Jan 1645  CEThe Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, was beheaded on Tower Hill, accused of acting as an enemy of the Parliament.
 14 Jun 1645  CEOliver Cromwell's army routed the King's army at Naseby.
    1646  CEEnglish Royalist leader, King Charles I, surrenders in Scotland.
  4 Jun 1647  CEThe English army seized King Charles I as a hostage.
    1647  CEScottish Presbyterian army seizes King Charles I as a prisoner.
    1647  CEScottish Presbyterians sell captured Charles I to English parliament for 400.
 30 Jan 1649  CEKing Charles I of England was beheaded at Banqueting House, Whitehall by the hangman Richard Brandon. Britain then became a republic between 1649 and 1660.
 30 Jan 1649  CEParliament became the supreme power in England under the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who ruled over Parliament as Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth from 1649-1658.
    1657  CEBritish Humble Petition offers Lord Protector Cromwell the crown. He refuses but accepts the title of 'Lord Protector'.
    1657  CEOliver Cromwell grants residency to Luis Caravajal.
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
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