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The British Monarchy

The British Monarchy (0871-2002)

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From the early Saxon Kings through to the modern monarchy.
Introduction

From before the days of the the early Saxon Kings the story of the British monarchy has always been a turbulent one.  The modern monarchy has one of the longest recorded genealogies in Europe, due to the tradition of the succession.

Until the time of Alfred the Great there were no unifying forces on mainland Britain, with local chieftains and 'kings' ruling regions mainly by force of arms. Thanks to the unifying attempts by Alfred, Edgar was later crowned as the first King of England in 973.

After the Norman invasion of England in 1066 England remained relatively united until 1541 when Ireland was also put under the rule of English King Henry VIII.

Upon Henry's daughter Queen Elizabeth I's death in 1603 the succession passed to James I of England (James VI of Scotland)  when English, Irish and Scottish kingdoms became united and the foundations of the modern monarchy were laid.

Timeline
    0796  CEKing Offa of Mercia dies, ending a reign that witnessed the incorporation of Kent, Sussex, Essex, and East Anglia into the Mercian kingdoms.
    0829  CEBy 829, King Egbert of Wessex had conquered the Celtic regions of Cornwall and the English kingdoms of Kent, Sussex, Essex, East Anglia and Mercia, and all the regional Kings of England had sworn alliegence to him as thier overlord and supreme ruler.
    0848  CEAlfred the Great (848-899), the fourth son of King Aethelwulf, was born, in Wantage. He became King of the West Saxons (Wessex) in 871 when Aethelwulf's third son, Ethelred died.
    0853  CEAlfred goes to Rome.
    0858  CEIn Britain, King Aethelwulf dies and Ethelbald, his first son becomes King of Wessex.
    0860  CEIn Britain, Ethelbert the second son of King Aethelwulf becomes King of Wessex.
    0865  CEIn Britain, Ethelred the third son of King Aethelwulf becomes King of Wessex.
   Apr 0871  CEAlfred the Great (848-899) became King of Wessex and the West Saxons [until 899].
    0871  CEKing Ethelred of Wessex dies, probably from wounds recieved in battle. He is survived by a young son, but the poeple of Wessex belived that they needed an adult warrior King and so chose Ethelred's younger brother and second-in-command, Alfred to suceceed.
   Apr 0878  CEKing Alfred the Great beats the Danish invading army at the Battle of Edington near Chippenham. This decisive victory forced the Danish King Guthrum to agree to a peace in which Alfred and Guthrum divided England between them and Guthrum would become a christian.
 26 Oct 0899  CEAlfred the Great dies after forcing the Danes to withdraw from his realm, consolidating English power, compiling laws, and encouraging learning. His son, Edward, succeeds him
 26 Jan 0900  CEEdward 'The Elder', the son of Alfred the Great, becomes King of England.
   Sep 0925  CEAthelstan, the son of Edward 'The Elder', becomes King of Wessex and Mercia.
    0927  CEAthelstan captures York and becomes overlord King of England, and the four anglo-saxon kingdoms were never seperate states again.
    0933  CEEdwin is drowned.
   Oct 0939  CEEdmund succeeds his brother Athelstan.
   May 0946  CEEdmund dies and Edred Atheling, his brother, becomes King of Wessex.
    0955  CEEdred dies and Eadwig, son of Edmund, becomes King of Wessex at the age of 16 and his brother Edgar becomes King of Mercia.
    0955  CEIn England, King Eadwig of Wessex failed to appear at his coronation feast. Dunstan, chronicler of the event, found him cavorting with a young lady and her mother.
    0957  CEEdgar becomes King of Mercia and Northumbria.
  1 Oct 0959  CEEadwig dies and his brother Edgar becomes the King of Wessex. Hence, Edgar became King of Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex, the three most powerful kingdoms in England at that time. He could be considered the first ruler of a united England.
 11 May 0973  CEThe coronation of Edgar, when he was formally crowned the first King of all England.
   Jul 0975  CEEdgar dies and Edward 'the Martyr' becomes King of England.
 18 Mar 0978  CEThe Murder of Edward the Martyr by the servants of Ethelred's mother as he rode into the courtyard of Corfe Castle. He was just 15 years old.
   Mar 0979  CEEthelred II, the Unready, half-brother of Edward, became King of England at the age of ten [until 1016]. 'Unready' is from 'Unraed' in Anglo-Saxon meaning failure to follow good advice.
    0994  CECanute (994-1035), or 'Knut'/'Cnut', son of Svein, or 'Sweyn', the King of Denmark and later King of England, Denmark and Norway, was born.
   Nov 1002  CEEnglish King Ethelred II, the Unready, marries Emma of Normandy (?-1052), the daughter of Richard I of the Normans.
    1013  CE(Autum) English King Ethelred II and Emma and Edward leave England for exile in Normandy.
   Apr 1016  CEEthelred the Unready dies and Edmund II (Ironside) becomes King of England. Canute attempts to take the English throne with the support of most of the nobels.
 18 Oct 1016  CETreaty between Canute and Edmund Ironside son of son of Ethelred (the Unready) II. Edmund was to have Wessex and Canute everything north of the Thames. It was also agreed that whoever survived the other would take control of the whole realm.
 30 Nov 1016  CEEdmund II (Ironside) dies unexpectedly of natural causes and Canute, Prince of Denmark became King of all England as Canute I.
 12 Nov 1035  CEKing Canute, King of England, Denmark and Norway, dies. His possessions are divided and Harold I, Harefoot, becomes King of England and Hardicanute becomes King of Denmark.
   Dec 1037  CEHarold I Harefoot, illegitimate son of Canute, becomes King of England afterbeing proposed by Leofric.
 17 Mar 1040  CEHarold Harefoot dies
 17 Mar 1040  CEHarthacnut, son of Canute and Emma of Normandy, becomes King of England.
    1040  CEMacbeth succeeded King Duncan and ruled over Scotland until 1057.
  8 Jun 1042  CEEdward the Confessor, the second son of Ethelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy, becomes King of England.
    1042  CEHarthacnut, son of Canute and Emma of Normandy, dies at the age of 25.
 15 Aug 1057  CEMacbeth, the King of Scotland, was slain by the son of King Duncan.
  6 Jan 1066  CEHarold II Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, was crowned King of England.
   Jul 1066  CEKing Harold of England prepares for William's invasion
   Jul 1066  CEWilliam the Conqueror's invasion fleet gathers in the estuary of the River Dives in France.
 25 Sep 1066  CEKing Harold attacked Harold Hardrata's Vikings at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in Yorkshire. The King of Norway was killed and Harold's forces destroyed the Vikings who returned to Norway in 24 of their 300 ships.
 27 Sep 1066  CEWilliam the Conqueror lands in southern England at Pevensey with his invading army to claim the English throne.
  6 Oct 1066  CEKing Harold and his forces reach London.
 14 Oct 1066  CEBattle of Hastings, in which William the Conqueror wins England.
 25 Dec 1066  CEWilliam I (1027-1087) is crowned the King of England (William the Conqueror).
    1077  CEWindsor Castle was erected by William the Conqueror to monitor travel on the Thames River.
    1078  CEWilliam the Conqueror began work on the White Tower of London
 25 Dec 1085  CEAt the Christmas Council, William the Conqueror ordered the compilation of The Domesday Book from a survey of English manor's production capacity in order to collect taxes.
  1 Aug 1086  CECouncil of Salisbury
   Aug 1086  CEThe first draft of the Domesday Book, orderd by Willam the Conqueror, was completed. The survey contained records for 13,418 settlements in the English counties south of the rivers Ribble and Tees (the border with Scotland at the time).
    1086  CEZallaca: The Spanish are defeated
  9 Sep 1087  CEWilliam the Conqueror(1027-1087), Duke of Normandy and King of England, died in Rouen while conducting a war which began when the French king made fun of him for being fat.
 26 Sep 1087  CEWilliam II (Rufus) is crowned at Westminster as King of England.
    1089  CESerlo builds the crypt at Gloucester
    1089  CELanfranc dies
    1091  CEColchester Castle passes to Eudo
    1091  CEWilliam Rufus renews agreement with the Scots
    1092  CEWork begins on Carlisle Cathedral
    1092  CECarlisle Collegiate church founded
    1092  CECollegiate church founded at Carlisle.
    1092  CETewkesbury Abbey is founded
    1093  CEBenedictines take over at Chester.
    1093  CEAnselm becomes the Archbishop of Canterbury
    1093  CEDurham Cathedral begun
   Nov 1095  CEThe Council of Clermont
    1095  CEWulstan dies
    1096  CECanterbury Choir, East Transepts and Crypt building work
    1096  CEBuilding work begins on Alnwick castle
    1096  CEBuilding work begins on Norwich Cathedral
    1096  CEPeter the Hermit's Crusade
    1097  CEEdgar Macmalcolm becomes king of the Scots
  2 Aug 1100  CEWilliam II (Rufus) is killed while hunting
  5 Aug 1100  CEHenry I succeeds as King of England
 11 Nov 1100  CEHenry I Marries Matilda
  2 Apr 1101  CEHenry I appoints a Norman Monk, Roger as Chancellor
    1101  CERoger Bigod granted lands at Framlingham
    1101  CEArundel Castle siege
    1101  CEOn his return from the first crusade, Robert II (Robert Curthose) attempts to take the Crown of England fron his brother Henry I.
 
  1102  CEHenry I captures castle at Bridgenorth.
 
 
  1102  CEEarl Robert of Belesme
 
 
  1102  CEMatilda (1102-1167), the daughter of Henry I and Edith of Scotland, was born. Henry I was acknowledged as being the father of over twenty children.
 
 
28 Sep 1106  CEKing Henry I of England defeated his brother Robert at the Battle of Tinchebrai and reunited England and Normandy.
 
 
  1107  CEConstruction of Llandaff Cathedral
 
 
  1107  CEFitzHamon dies
 
 
  1107  CEAlexander I becomes king of the Scots
 
 
  1114  CECount of Champagne: Travels to the Holy Land
 
 
  1116  CEFire destroys Peterborough Abbey
 
 
1 May 1118  CEQueen Matilda, wife of Henry I, dies.
 
 
  1118  CEBaldwin II becomes the King of Jerusalem
 
 
  1119  CEHugues de Payen becomes Master of the Temple
 
 
  1119  CEKnights Templar order founded in Jerusalem
 
 
  1121  CENorwich Cathedral nave and tower
 
 
23 Oct 1123  CETewkesbury Abbey consecrated
 
 
  1125  CEMatilda returned to England after the death of her husband Emperor Henry V.
 
 
  1126  CEConstruction of Rochester Castle
 
 
  1126  CEHugues de Payen travels West
 
 
  1128  CEThe nave at Durham is vaulted
 
 
  1128  CEFirst Cistercian Abbey in Britain
 
 
  1128  CETemplar Church in London
 
 
  1128  CEHugues de Payen: Visits Scotland and England
 
 
  1131  CEGilbertines founded
 
 
  1131  CERievaulx Abbey founded
 
 
  1131  CEKnights Templars: In Spain
 
 
25 Mar 1133  CEThe son of Matilda and Geoffrey of Anjou, the future King Henry II, is born.
 
 
2 Aug 1133  CEEclipse
 
 
  1133  CECombermere Abbey founded
 
 
  1133  CEDurham Cathedral Chapter house
 
 
  1133  CEFoundation of Garendon Abbey
 
 
1 Dec 1135  CEKing Henry I of England dies of serious indigestion after eating too many eels.
 
 
22 Dec 1135  CEStephen of Bloise succeeds his uncle King Henry I of England.
 
 
22 Dec 1135  CEStephen I was crowned King of England.
 
 
  1135  CEBuildwas Abbey founded
 
 
  1135  CEStephen at Hereford
 
 
  1136  CEBuckfast Abbey founded
 
 
  1136  CECastle at Banbury is built
 
 
  1136  CEBaldwin de Redvers flees to Carisbrooke
 
 
  1136  CEHugues de Payen dies
 
 
  1138  CECalder Abbey attacked by the Scots
 
 
  1138  CEExeter castle building work
 
 
  1138  CEArundel Castle siege
 
 
  1138  CEStart of Civil War
 
 
  1138  CEFoundation of Bordesley Abbey
 
 
  1138  CETheobald becomes Archbishop
 
 
  1138  CECressing Temple Site
 
 
  1138  CEThe Scots invade Northumberland
 
 
2 Feb 1141  CEBattle of Lincoln when Stephen, King of England, is captured.
 
 
 Apr 1141  CEMatilda is elected Queen of England.
 
 
 Jun 1141  CEMatilda enters London to be crowned the first queen of England, but the people of London rebelled and she was forced to flee from the area.
 
 
  1147  CEHenry arrives in England with a small army intending to attack Stephen. He and his mecenary army are paid off by Stephedn and Henry returned to Normandy.
 
 
  1147  CERobert, Earl of Gloucester died, leaving Matilda without one of her powerfull allies.
 
 
  1150  CEHenry II becomes Duke of Normandy.
 
 
  1150  CERochester Cathedral West Front
 
 
17 Aug 1153  CEStephen's son Eustace dies, leaving Stephen without an heir.
 
 
  1153  CEMalcolm IV becomes king of Scotland.
 
 
25 Oct 1154  CEKing Stephen of England dies of a heart attack.
 
 
19 Dec 1154  CEHenry II of the Angevin dynasty was crowned King of England.
 
 
  1154  CESir Thomas Becket was given the high office of Chancellor to the King, Henry II.
 
 
30 Jan 1164  CEHenry II, King of England, constructs the Constitutions of Clarendon in an attempt to regain power for the civil courts, which have been loosing authority to ecclesiastical ones. The archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, strongly resists the decision of Henry.
 
 
  1165  CEWilliam I 'the Lion' becomes king of the Scots.
 
 
  1165  CEEleanor moves back to Aquitaine.
 
 
24 Dec 1167  CEJohn, the future King of England is born.
 
 
  1167  CEQueen Matilda (1102-1167), mother of King Henry II of England, dies in Normandy.
 
 
  1168  CERichard I, future King of England, was invested with Eleanor of Aquitaine's duchy of Aquitaine in the church of Saint Hillaire at Poitiers at the age of 14.
 
 
29 Dec 1170  CEThomas Becket, St. Thomas archbishop of Canterbury, was murdered in Canterbury Cathedral in England.
 
 
  1170  CEHenry II sent his Anglo-Norman barons to invade Ireland after he gained support from the English pope.
 
 
  1172  CERichard I, future King of England, was invested with the duchy of Poitiers at the age of 18.
 
 
  1173  CERichard I, future king of England, revolts aginast his father, Henry II of England, with his brothers Henry the 'Young King' and Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany.
 
 
11 Jun 1183  CEHenry the 'Young King', brother of Richard I, future king of England, dies.
 
 
 Nov 1187  CEThe Third Crusade is ordered (1187-1192) after the Muslim capture of Jerusalem. Richard I, future King of England, takes the Cross. Richard I, German Emperor Frederick I and French King Philip Augustus lead the cursade.
 
 
  1188  CEGeoffrey, Duke of Brittany, died. He was the elder brother of Richard I, future King of England.
 
 
6 Jul 1189  CEHenry II, King of England, dies of fever in Chinon and Richard I succeeded him as King of England.
 
 
20 Jul 1189  CEUpon Henry II's death Richard I was crowned Duke of Normandy, and Count of Anjou.
 
 
3 Sep 1189  CERichard I (The Lionheart) is crowned King of England in Westminster. He rules for ten years and is only present in the country a total of six months.
 
 
12 May 1191  CERichard the Lionheart married Bernegaria of Navarre, daughter of Sancho VI, King of Navarre, in Limassol, Cyprus.
 
 
  1192  CEKing Richard the Lionhearted was taken prisoner in Austria on his return from the Third Crusade. An entire year's supply of wool from the Cistercian and two other monasteries in England was promised as ransom for the King. It was never paid in full.
 
 
4 Feb 1194  CERichard I, King of England, was freed from captivity in Germany, after England pays Leopold O Fenrik VI's ransom of 100,000.
 
 
  1196  CEThe Chateau Gaillard in Normandy was built by Richard the Lionhearted, Duke of Normandy, to protect his domain from Philip Augustus, King of France.
 
 
 Feb 1199  CEBeginning of the siege at the castle of Chaluz in France.
 
 
6 Apr 1199  CEEnglish King Richard I was killed by an arrow at the siege of the castle of Chaluz in France. Richard left the throne to his younger brother John, in preference to Arthur of Brittany, the son of his elder brother, Geoffrey. Richard was burried in Fontevrault Abbey in Anjou.
 
 
25 Apr 1199  CEJohn is crowned Duke of Normandy
 
 
27 Apr 1199  CEJohn is crowned King of England.
 
 
24 Mar 1208  CEKing John of England opposed Innocent III on his nomination for archbishop of Canterbury.
 
 
15 May 1213  CEKing John submitted to the Pope, offering to make England and Ireland papal fiefs. Pope Innocent III lifted the interdict of 1208.
 
 
 Jan 1215  CEJohn meets the Barons in London
 
 
1 Apr 1215  CEPope sides with John
 
 
12 May 1215  CEBaron's war
 
 
17 May 1215  CELondon falls to the Rebels
 
 
27 May 1215  CEA truce is sought
 
 
17 Jun 1215  CEEnglish King John signs the Magna Carta at Runnymede in England.
 
 
  1215  CEColchester Castle occupied by the French
 
 
 Feb 1216  CESmall French fleet land in London
 
 
 Feb 1216  CEKing John puts down revolt
 
 
18 May 1216  CEA storm hits John's fleet
 
 
21 May 1216  CEPrince Louis of France claims English Throne
 
 
 Jun 1216  CEKings John fights rebels in East Anglia
 
 
19 Oct 1216  CEJohn, King of England, dies of dysentry at Newark. The Royal Menagerie was begun during the reign of King John.
 
 
19 Oct 1216  CEKing John of was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry III.
 
 
28 Oct 1216  CEHenry III, King of England, is Crowned.
 
 
 Oct 1216  CEKing John attacks Berwick
 
 
 Nov 1216  CELlewelyn divides Wales
 
 
20 May 1217  CEBattle of Lincoln - Barons' War
 
 
20 May 1217  CERebels defeated at Lincoln
 
 
24 Aug 1217  CEBattle off Sandwich
 
 
12 Sep 1217  CETreaty of Kingston
 
 
  1217  CEPorchester castle captured
 
 
  1217  CEHubert de Burgh forces Louis to accept peace terms
 
 
7 Jul 1220  CECeremony in Canterbury
 
 
  1220  CEChapter-house of Lincoln Cathedral
 
 
  1220  CEWork on the Lady Chapel of Salisbury Cathedral
 
 
  1220  CESalisbury Cathedral: Rebuilding started
 
 
  1225  CESalisbury Choir
 
 
  1225  CEBeeston Castle begun
 
 
  1227  CEBalmerino Abbey founded
 
 
  1228  CEStephen Langton dies
 
 
  1230  CEWells Cathedral West Front
 
 
  1230  CEWells: West Front Started
 
 
13 Aug 1231  CESimon de Montfort takes possession of his land
 
 
  1231  CETattershall Castle construction
 
 
  1232  CEOaks given to Gloucester
 
 
  1232  CEPeter des Rievaulx becomes treasurer
 
 
  1232  CEHenry III removes Hubert de Burgh
 
 
  1233  CEEarl of Pembroke's revolt
 
 
  1233  CEBaronian rebellion
 
 
  1235  CEHenry III received 3 leopards from Frederick II, the Holy Roman Emperor. They became part of the Royal Menagerie housed in the Tower of London.
 
 
14 Jan 1236  CEHenry III married Eleanor of Provence.
 
 
  1236  CECanterbury Cloister building work
 
 
  1237  CETransepts and Nave of Salisbury Cathedral
 
 
  1237  CEBeeston Castle claimed by Henry
 
 
 Jan 1238  CESimon marries Henry's sister
 
 
 Jun 1239  CEEdward I, future King of England, is born.
 
 
  1240  CENorth Transept of Rochester Cathedral
 
 
 Oct 1242  CEEarl Richard's vow
 
 
  1242  CEYork Minster North Transept
 
 
  1242  CEChapel of the Nine Altars
 
 
  1242  CEHenry tries to retake Poitou
 
 
  1244  CEBishop of Bath and Wells
 
 
  1245  CECarlisle Cathedral building work
 
 
  1245  CERebuilding of Westminster Abbey
 
 
  1245  CECarpini: Christian envoy travels to the Mongol Empire
 
 
  1246  CEPeter de Savoy granted Pevensey Castle
 
 
  1246  CEHailes Abbey begun
 
 
  1247  CEHenry receives a relic
 
 
8 Jul 1249  CEAlexander II of Scotlans dies
 
 
9 Jul 1249  CEAlexander III became King of the Scots
 
 
5 Nov 1251  CEDedication of Hailes Abbey
 
 
  1254  CEHenry gives Edward his own lands
 
 
  1254  CEEdward marries
 
 
 Oct 1255  CEEdward and Eleanor return to England
 
 
 Sep 1256  CEThe Welsh invade the coastal plains
 
 
  1256  CEHarvest lost
 
 
  1257  CEFloods and famine
 
 
  1257  CEHenry and Edward reclaim the Lost Territories
 
 
12 Apr 1258  CEHenry is opposed by the Barons
 
 
 Apr 1258  CEHenry asks for money
 
 
 Jun 1258  CEOdiham and Kenilworth handed over to the King
 
 
  1258  CEThe West Front of Salisbury Cathedral
 
 
  1258  CEBarons confront Henry
 
 
13 Oct 1259  CEProvisions of Westminster
 
 
4 Dec 1259  CETreaty of Paris/Abbeville
 
 
 Feb 1263  CEEdward returns to England
 
 
 Jun 1263  CESimon's forces do much damage
 
 
1 Oct 1263  CEThe Battle of Largs
 
 
  1263  CESalisbury Cathedral Cloisters
 
 
  1263  CEEdward joins Simon de Montfort
 
 
  1263  CEHenry is absolved from the Provisions of Oxford
 
 
  1263  CEEdward raids the Temple in London
 
 
23 Jan 1264  CEThe Mise of Amiens
 
 
 Apr 1264  CENorthampton captured by the King
 
 
14 May 1264  CEBattle of Lewes when Simon van Leicester beats English king Henry III.
 
 
 Jun 1264  CESimon summons Parliament
 
 
 Jun 1264  CEHaco of Norway attacks Scotland
 
 
  1264  CEArmy at Barham Down
 
 
  1264  CEPevensey Castle siege
 
 
  1264  CE(Summer) Edward moved to Kenilworth
 
 
20 Jan 1265  CEOrdinary people's Parliament
 
 
 Feb 1265  CEThe Barons split
 
 
 May 1265  CEEdward escapes
 
 
4 Aug 1265  CEBattle of Evesham
 
 
4 Aug 1265  CEKing Henry III put down a revolt of English barons lead by Simon de Montfort.
 
 
16 Oct 1265  CEPeace with the Barons
 
 
  1265  CEThe first English Parliament called into session by Earl of Leicester.
 
 
  1265  CEWork begins on the Lady Chapel at Chester.
 
 
  1265  CE(Summer) Armies march
 
 
2 Jul 1266  CETreaty of Perth
 
 
 Oct 1266  CEMise of Kenilworth
 
 
 Jun 1268  CEEdward take the cross
 
 
20 Jul 1270  CEThe Eighth, and last, Crusade began.
 
 
14 Sep 1270  CERelic given to Hailes Abbey
 
 
  1270  CETintern Abbey begun
 
 
 May 1271  CEEdward reaches Acre
 
 
  1271  CEEdward's Crusade
 
 
  1271  CEMarco Polo leaves Venice at the age of eighteen
 
 
16 Nov 1272  CEHenry III, King of England, dies of old age.
 
 
23 Nov 1272  CEEdward I, chosen as King of England.
 
 
  1272  CEPeterborough Cathedral's Lady Chapel
 
 
 Feb 1273  CEEdward visits the Pope
 
 
 May 1274  CELittle battle of Chalons
 
 
2 Aug 1274  CEEdward arrives home
 
 
19 Aug 1274  CEEdward I is crowned at Westminster
 
 
  1274  CEUpon Edward's succession to the English throne, he demanded Llywelyn ap Gruffydd pay homage to him before he recognized him as Prince of Wales.
 
 
  1275  CELlewelyn of Wales
 
 
  1275  CEChapter-house at Salisbury
 
 
  1276  CEEdward war on the Welsh begins
 
 
 Jul 1277  CEEdward reaches Worcester
 
 
 Jul 1277  CEConstruction of Flint Castle begun
 
 
13 Aug 1277  CEVale Royal Abbey foundation stone laid
 
 
 Sep 1277  CEConstruction of Rhuddlan Castle begun
 
 
 Dec 1277  CEEdward defeats Llewelyn
 
 
13 Oct 1278  CELlewelyn marries Eleanor
 
 
  1278  CEBuckland Abbey founded
 
 
  1280  CESouth Transept at Rochester
 
 
11 Dec 1282  CELlewelyn killed
 
 
  1282  CEAnother Welsh Uprising
 
 
 Mar 1283  CECastle Criccieth captured
 
 
 Jun 1283  CEDavid of Wales captured
 
 
  1283  CEConstruction of Caernavon Castle
 
 
  1283  CEConstruction of Conway Castle begun
 
 
  1283  CEDolwyddlan Castle captured
 
 
25 Apr 1284  CEEdward II, future King of England, was born.
 
 
  1284  CEIn England the eldest son of Edward I became the Prince of Wales.
 
 
19 Mar 1286  CEAlexander III of Scotland dies
 
 
  1286  CEEdward and Eleanor go to France
 
 
  1286  CEYork Minster Chapter-house
 
 
  1286  CEEdward and Gascony
 
 
  1289  CENorwich Cathedral Chapter-house
 
 
  1289  CEPhilip obtained the area of Quercy
 
 
 Sep 1290  CEMargaret, 'Maid of Norway' is drowned
 
 
 Sep 1290  CETreaty of Birgham-on-Tweed
 
 
28 Nov 1290  CEEleanor of Castile dies
 
 
 Dec 1290  CEThe 'Eleanor Crosses'
 
 
10 May 1291  CEEdward meets Scottish Claimants
 
 
  1291  CEScottish nobles recognize authority of English King Edward I.
 
 
17 Nov 1292  CEJohn Balliol is chosen by Edward I as Scottish King
 
 
  1292  CERebuilding work begins at Carlisle
 
 
  1292  CECarlisle Cathedral damaged by fire
 
 
  1292  CEEnglish and Norman sailor fight
 
 
  1293  CEPhilip obtains Maguellone and Montpellier
 
 
  1293  CEWells Cathedral: Chapter House begun
 
 
30 Oct 1294  CEA Welsh rebellion
 
 
  1294  CECommercial treaty with Portugal
 
 
  1294  CEOutrage at Philip's actions
 
 
  1294  CEBalliol: Edward asks for resources
 
 
 Jan 1295  CEEdward besiged at Conway
 
 
 Apr 1295  CEEdward occupies Anglesey
 
 
 Apr 1295  CEBeaumaris Castle begun
 
 
 Oct 1295  CETreaty Auld Alliance
 
 
  1295  CESouthwell Cathedral Chapter-house
 
 
27 Apr 1296  CEBattle of Dunbar
 
 
27 Apr 1296  CEEdward I defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar.
 
 
 Apr 1296  CEBalliol: Renounces homage to England
 
 
 Jul 1296  CEBalliol surrenders at Stracathro, Edward takes the Stone of Scone
 
 
 Aug 1296  CEThe First Interregnum
 
 
  1296  CE(Summer) Philip IV threatens Edward
 
 
 Jan 1297  CEMarriage proposal
 
 
 Feb 1297  CEEdward is deserted by the Barons
 
 
14 Apr 1297  CEEdward appeals for support
 
 
 Jul 1297  CEConfederacy formed and destroyed
 
 
 Aug 1297  CEEdward sails for Flanders
 
 
 Aug 1297  CEConfirmation of the Charters
 
 
11 Sep 1297  CEBattle at Stirling Bridge
 
 
  1297  CENorwich Cathedral cloisters
 
 
  1297  CE(Winter) Edward accepts Truce
 
 
  1298  CEBattle of Falkirk
 
 
 Mar 1299  CEEdward evades Parliament.
 
 
 Sep 1299  CEEdward marries
 
 
 May 1300  CEEdward starts another Scottish campaign
 
 
 Jul 1300  CECaerlaverock Castle siege.
 
 
 Aug 1300  CEThe Pope Intervenes
 
 
30 Oct 1300  CETruce with the Scots
 
 
20 May 1301  CETreaty finally signed
 
 
  1301  CEEdward of Caernarion (later Edward II) becomes the first prince of Wales.
 
 
  1301  CE(Summer) Edward advances into Scotland
 
 
  1302  CE(Spring) Treaty is signed
 
 
  1303  CE(Spring) John Comyn is appointed regent
 
 
  1304  CECanterbury Screen of choir and chapter house building work
 
 
10 Feb 1306  CEJohn Comyn murdered by Robert Bruce
 
 
25 Mar 1306  CERobert Bruce is crowned Robert I of Scotland
 
 
  1306  CEPhilip confiscates Italian bankers' goods
 
 
10 May 1307  CEBattle of Loudoun Hill
 
 
8 Jul 1307  CEEdward II becomes King of England.
 
 
  1307  CEPhilip adds Bigorre to his territories
 
 
25 Jan 1308  CEEdward marries
 
 
25 Feb 1308  CEThe coronation of Edward II, King of England.
 
 
 Sep 1310  CEEdward campaigns in Scotland
 
 
 Jul 1311  CEEdward returns to England
 
 
 Aug 1311  CEOrdinances
 
 
 Jun 1312  CEGaveston captured
 
 
  1313  CEMontagne and Tournai fall to Philip
 
 
20 Apr 1314  CEPope Clement V dies
 
 
29 Nov 1314  CEPhilip IV, the Fair dies, and is succeded by Louis X
 
 
  1316  CEPhilip V becomes King of France.
 
 
 Aug 1318  CEHugh Despenser is made Chamberlain
 
 
20 Sep 1319  CEBattle of Myton
 
 
16 Mar 1322  CEBattle of Boroughbridge
 
 
  1322  CECharles IV becomes King of France
 
 
 Sep 1326  CEIsabella and Mortimer land to take the throne
 
 
 Oct 1326  CEPrince Edward III is declared Keeper of the Realm.
 
 
  1326  CEClare College Cambridge founded
 
 
  1326  CEOriel College Oxford founded
 
 
 Jan 1327  CEEdward III takes the throne of England.
 
 
 Jan 1327  CEKing Edward II of England was deposed by his eldest son, Edward III.
 
 
1 Feb 1327  CEEdward III was crowned King of England.
 
 
 Apr 1327  CEDeposed Edward II, of England, is imprisoned.
 
 
 Sep 1327  CEDeposed Edward II is murdered at Berkeley Castle, possibly with a red hot poker.
 
 
17 Mar 1328  CETreaty of Edinburgh
 
 
  1329  CEDavid II becomes king of Scotland
 
 
  1329  CEBritish King Edward III agrees to do homage to Philip.
 
 
24 Sep 1332  CEBaliol crowned king of Scotland
 
 
19 Jul 1333  CEBattle of Halidon Hill
 
 
  1334  CEThe sprire of Salisbury Cathedral
 
 
12 Aug 1336  CEExports of Wool Stopped
 
 
  1340  CEEnglish King Edward III was proclaimed King of France.
 
 
  1340  CEQueen's College Oxford founded.
 
 
  1340  CEBattle of the Salado River
 
 
  1344  CEConstruction of Chillingham Castle
 
 
 May 1346  CEEdward III of England called for a fleet of 1000 ships and an army of 10,000 knights and soldiers to assemble at Portsmouth for an attack on his distant cousin, Philip VI of France.
 
 
12 Jul 1346  CEEdward III landed his army on the Normandy beaches unopposed.
 
 
18 Jul 1346  CEEdward III divided his army into 3 groups and began a march on Paris.
 
 
16 Aug 1346  CEPhilip VI offered Edward III sovereignty over Aquitaine in return for peace. Edward rejected the offer and learned that Philip had raised an army of 36,000 that included 15,000 Genoese crossbowmen. Edward marched toward Flanders in order to meet with allies.
 
 
25 Aug 1346  CEEdward III of England defeated Philip VI's army at the Battle of Crecy in France. The longbow proved instrumental in the victory. At the end of the battle 1,542 French lords and knights were killed along with 20,000 soldiers. The English lost 2 knights and 80 men.
 
 
3 Sep 1346  CEEdward III of England began the siege of Calais, along the coast of France.
 
 
28 Sep 1346  CEEdward III and Philip VI signed a temporary truce. Their hostilities marked the beginning of the Hundred Years War, which only ended in 1453.
 
 
17 Oct 1346  CEEnglish forces defeated the Scots under David II during the Battle of Neville's Cross, Scotland.
 
 
3 Aug 1347  CESix burghers of the surrounded French city of Calais surrendered to Edward III of England in hopes of relieving the siege.
 
 
 Aug 1347  CEEdward accepts truce
 
 
23 Apr 1348  CEKing Edward III of England established the Order of the Garter, the first English order of knighthood.
 
 
 Jun 1348  CEThe Plague reaches England
 
 
  1348  CEConstruction of Maxstoke Castle
 
 
  1351  CEHenry of Gosmont becomes Duke of Lancaster
 
 
  1351  CEStatutes of Provisors
 
 
  1351  CEStatute of Labourers
 
 
  1351  CEIn England the Statute of Treasons was passed under which anyone who violated the wife of the heir to the throne was guilty of high treason.
 
 
  1354  CEStatute of Staples
 
 
19 Sep 1356  CEIn a landmark battle of the Hundred Years' War, English Prince Edward defeated the French at Poitiers.
 
 
  1356  CEScottish King Edward Baliol resigns.
 
 
  1361  CEAnother outbreak of the plague
 
 
  1362  CEJohn becomes Duke of Lancaster
 
 
  1365  CEWells Cathedral South-west Tower
 
 
 Oct 1366  CEWykeham becomes Bishop
 
 
6 Jan 1367  CERichard II, son of Edward the Black Prince, was born.
 
 
 Apr 1367  CEWykeham becomes Chancellor
 
 
  1369  CEAgain England is hit by the plague
 
 
  1371  CEKing Robert II Stuart of Scotland crowned.
 
 
  1371  CEWykeham asks for war supplies
 
 
  1372  CECanterbury Crypt Lady Chapel building work
 
 
  1373  CENunney Castle construction begins
 
 
 Jun 1376  CEDeath of the Black Prince
 
 
21 Jun 1377  CEEdward III, King of England, dies of old age.
 
 
21 Jun 1377  CERichard II, who was still a child, succeeded his father, Edward III as King of England.
 
 
16 Jul 1377  CERichard II crowned King of England.
 
 
  1377  CECarisbrooke defended against the French.
 
 
  1380  CEConstruction of Wressle Castle
 
 
  1380  CERichard takes control
 
 
7 Jun 1381  CEThe Peasants' Revolt reaches Maidstone.
 
 
10 Jun 1381  CEThe Peasants' Revolt reach Canterbury.
 
 
10 Jun 1381  CEWilliam Courtenay: Becomes Archbishop of Canterbury
 
 
11 Jun 1381  CERebels move towards London
 
 
12 Jun 1381  CERebels reach London
 
 
14 Jan 1382  CEEnglish King Richard marries.
 
 
 Apr 1384  CECriticism of Richard
 
 
  1385  CERichard make his uncles Dukes
 
 
  1385  CERichard leads army to North
 
 
8 Jul 1386  CEJohn leaves Plymouth
 
 
  1386  CE(Spring) Gaunt and the Castilian throne
 
 
  1386  CE(Summer) Commision appointed
 
 
  1386  CE(Summer) French fleet mass at Sluys.
 
 
19 Dec 1387  CEBattle of Radcot Bridge
 
 
  1390  CEConstruction of Lumley Castle
 
 
  1393  CEConstruction of Wardour Castle
 
 
  1394  CEWinchester Cathedral rebuilding work
 
 
29 Sep 1399  CERichard II of England was deposed. His cousin, Henry of Lancaster, declared himself king under the name Henry IV. Richard had earlier introduced the lace handkerchief, triple-taxed the citizenry and stole the estates of his relatives.
 
 
13 Oct 1399  CEHenry IV becomes King of England.
 
 
13 Oct 1399  CERichard II was formally deposed as king. Henry of Lancaster returned to England to claim his inherited lands. He marched with an army into Briston and captured Richard II and claimed the throne. Henry IV of England was crowned.
 
 
14 Feb 1400  CEThe deposed Richard II was murdered in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire.
 
 
  1400  CEChapter House at Canterbury building work
 
 
  1400  CEHenry Yeveley dies.
 
 
  1404  CEWorcester Cathedral north and south cloisters
 
 
20 Mar 1413  CEHenry IV, King of England, dies of severe skin disease.
 
 
9 Apr 1413  CEHenry V crowned King of England.
 
 
6 Dec 1421  CEHenry VI, the youngest king of England, was born.
 
 
1 Sep 1422  CEHenry VI crowned King of England.
 
 
  1422  CEHenry V, King of England, dies of dysentry.
 
 
6 Nov 1429  CECoronation of Henry VI, King of England.
 
 
  1432  CEYork Minster south-west tower
 
 
1 May 1436  CERichard, Duke of York is appointed Lieutenant-general
 
 
  1440  CEHurstmonceaux Castle construction
 
 
  1440  CETattershall Castle brick tower construction
 
 
28 Apr 1442  CEFuture Edward IV is born
 
 
 Sep 1450  CEEdward returns from Ireland.
 
 
 Aug 1453  CEThe English King's health suffers.
 
 
 Nov 1453  CESomerset sent to the Tower
 
 
27 Mar 1454  CERichard, duke of York made Protector
 
 
 Dec 1454  CEEnglish King Henry's health returns.
 
 
 Feb 1455  CESomerset released from the Tower
 
 
 Mar 1455  CESomerset back in command
 
 
22 May 1455  CEThe Battle of St. Albans, during the War of the Roses. The army of the Duke of York met the army of Queen Margaret of Anjou. The 2nd Duke of Somerset was killed. The Yorkists briefly took possession of King Henry VI.
 
 
28 Jan 1457  CEHenry VII, future kong of England, is born.
 
 
24 Jun 1459  CEGreat Council
 
 
12 Oct 1459  CEBattle of Ludford Bridge
 
 
26 Jun 1460  CEEarls of March and March land in England
 
 
 Jun 1460  CEYorkists take control of Kent
 
 
2 Jul 1460  CEYorkists enter London
 
 
10 Jul 1460  CEBattle of Northampton
 
 
3 Aug 1460  CEJames II accidentally killed
 
 
4 Mar 1461  CEHenry VI was deposed and the Duke of York was proclaimed King as Edward IV. He tried to settle once and for all the dynastic struggle between York and Lancaster.
 
 
28 Jun 1461  CEEdward IV, King of England, is crowned.
 
 
28 Jul 1469  CEBattle of Edgecote
 
 
9 Oct 1470  CEHenry VI of England was restored to the throne.
 
 
1 Nov 1470  CEEdward V, King of England, was born.
 
 
  1470  CEYork Minster north-west tower
 
 
 Mar 1471  CEEdward IV returned to England.
 
 
4 Apr 1471  CEIn the Battle of Tewkesbury between the English House of Lancaster and House of York the Yorkists defeated the Lancastrians.
 
 
21 May 1471  CEDeposed King Henry VI was murdered in the tower of London, and Edward IV took the throne.
 
 
  1471  CEEglish King Edward IV enters London.
 
 
18 Feb 1478  CEGeorge, the Duke of Clarence, who had opposed his brother Edward IV, was murdered in the Tower of London.
 
 
9 Apr 1483  CEEdward V becomes King of England.
 
 
 May 1483  CEEdward V, King of England, dissapeared and was probaly murdered.
 
 
25 Jun 1483  CEThe Duke of Gloucester usurps the English throne and is crowned as Richard III, King of England.
 
 
26 Jun 1483  CERichard III usurped himself to the English throne.
 
 
6 Jul 1483  CEEngland's King Richard III was crowned.
 
 
  1483  CEEdward IV, King of England, dies severe indigestion.
 
 
  1483  CEHenry, Duke of Buckingham, was executed during the reign of Richard III.
 
 
22 Aug 1485  CERichard III slain at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last of the Plantagenet dynasty.
 
 
22 Aug 1485  CEHenry Tudor defeated Richard III at Bosworth. England's King Richard III, the last of the Plantagenet kings, was killed in the Battle of Bosworth. This victory establishes the Tudor dynasty in England and ended the War of the Roses. Henry reestablishes royal power over the aristocracy, ends funding of foreign wars and reforms finances.
 
 
30 Oct 1485  CEHenry VII is crowned King of England beginning the Tudor dynasty.
 
 
30 Oct 1485  CEHenry VII of England was crowned.
 
 
16 Dec 1485  CEKatherine of Argon, first wife of Henry VIII, was born.
 
 
18 Jan 1486  CEEnglish King Henry VII married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV.
 
 
2 Feb 1491  CEDuring the War of the Roses, the army of York defeated the forces of Lancaster at Mortimer's Cross. The victory fixed Edward IV on the thrown.
 
 
28 Jun 1491  CEHenry VIII, King of England and founder of the Church of England, was born at Greenwich.
 
 
  1493  CECanterbury central tower building work
 
 
  1496  CEEnglish King Henry VII ends his commercial dispute with Flanders.
 
 
  1496  CEEnglish King Henry VII hires John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) to explore. Like Columbus and Magellan, Cabot thought there was a better route to the riches of the Orient by heading west instead of east.
 
 
 May 1498  CECabot disappears on voyage
 
 
  1504  CEHenry Tudor, king of England, had coins minted with an accurate self likeness.
 
 
  1508  CEIn England Althorp was bought by John Spencer, the ancestor of the 9th Earl Spencer, Princess Diana's brother. The estate in Great Brington was selected as the grave site for Princess Diana in 1997.
 
 
22 Apr 1509  CEHenry Tudor was crowned King Henry VIII of England following the death of his father, Henry VII.
 
 
11 Jun 1509  CEEngland's King Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon.
 
 
24 Jun 1509  CEHenry VIII was crowned king of England.
 
 
  1509  CEEnglish King Henry VIII, succeeds his father, Henry VII and ascended to throne of England.
 
 
  1514  CEEngland and France declared a truce in their warfare. Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII, married Louis XII.
 
 
18 Feb 1516  CEMary Tudor, later Queen Mary I of England and popularly known as 'Bloody Mary', was born in Greenwich Palace.
 
 
  1518  CEHenry VIII authorized a college of physicians and it was founded by Oxford physician Thomas Linacre.
 
 
  1521  CEPope Leo X conferred the title of 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII of England.
 
 
  1525  CECardinal Wolsey presented Hampton Court Palace to Henry VIII.
 
 
17 Oct 1529  CEHenry VIII of England stripped Thomas Wolsey of his office for failing to secure an annulment of his marriage.
 
 
21 Oct 1529  CEHenry VIII of England was named Defender of the Faith by the Pope after defending the seven sacraments against Luther.
 
 
  1530  CEEnglish King Henry VIII's divorce request is denied by the Pope Henry then declares that he, not the Pope, is supreme head of England's church.
 
 
11 Feb 1531  CEHenry VIII was recognized as the supreme head of the Church of England.
 
 
  1531  CEPope Clemens VII forbids English king Henry VIII to re-marry.
 
 
  1532  CEBetween 1532 and 1540, Thomas Cromwell disbanded most of the monasteries in England and absorbed their vast wealth under the crown.
 
 
 Jan 1533  CEEnglish King Henry VIII secretly marries his second wife Anne Boleyn when she was already pregnant with the future Queen, Elizabeth I. She was 26 when married Henry VIII who was 42 and they had 3 children, Queen Elizabeth I, Henry Tudor, Duke of Cornwall and an unnamed baby.
 
 
23 May 1533  CEThe marriage of England's King Henry VIII to Catherine of Aragon was declared null and void.
 
 
28 May 1533  CEBritain's Archbishop declared the marriage of King Henry VIII to Anne Boleyn valid.
 
 
1 Jun 1533  CEAnne Boleyn, Henry VIII's new queen, was crowned.
 
 
11 Jul 1533  CEPope Clement VII excommunicated England's King Henry VIII.
 
 
7 Sep 1533  CEEngland's Queen Elizabeth I was born in Greenwich.
 
 
  1534  CEHenry VIII was declared Supreme Head of the Church in England. He suppressed the monasteries and renounced papal jurisdiction. He issued the Act of Supremacy which signified a break with the Catholic Church of Rome.
 
 
6 Jul 1535  CEThomas More's sentence to death by hanging was commuted to beheading. Thomas More was beheaded in England for treason, for refusing to renounce the Catholic church in favor of King Henry VIII's Church of England.
 
 
31 Aug 1535  CEPope Paul III deposed & excommunicated King Henry VIII.
 
 
17 May 1536  CEAnne Boleyn's brother, Lord Rochford, was executed for adultery and incest.
 
 
19 May 1536  CEAnne Boleyn, the second wife of England's King Henry VIII, was beheaded on Tower Green after she was convicted of adultery and incest with her brother, Lord Rochford, who was executed two days before. It was the day before Henry VIII's marriage to Jane Seymour.
 
 
20 May 1536  CEEnglish King Henry VIII marries Jane Seymour.
 
 
  1536  CEEnglish King Henry VIII accused Anne Boleyn and her brother Lord Rochford were accused of adultery and incest.
 
 
  1536  CEEnglish King Henry VIII orders the bible be placed in every church.
 
 
  1536  CEIn England Hyde Park was seized from the monks at Westminster Abbey by Henry VIII and preserved as forest for the royal hunt.
 
 
12 Oct 1537  CEEdward IV, the only son of Henry VIII by his third wife Jane Seymour, was born.
 
 
24 Oct 1537  CEJane Seymour, the third wife of England's King Henry VIII, died 12 days after giving birth to Prince Edward, later King Edward VI.
 
 
  1537  CERobert Aske was arrested and hung for the uprising in northern England against the closing of the monasteries by Thomas Cromwell.
 
 
  1539  CEThe Six Articles, a religious stature, was passed at the 'instance' of Henry VIII. It set forth the position of the English Church on six fundamental points in an effort to stem the growth and influence of the English Protestants.
 
 
19 Jul 1540  CEEngland's King Henry VIII had his 6-month-old marriage to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, annulled.
 
 
28 Jul 1540  CEThe chief minister of King Henry VIII, Thomas Cromwell, having been discredited by his enemies, was beheaded on Tower Hill in England.
 
 
28 Jul 1540  CEKing Henry VIII married his fifth wife, Catherine Howard.
 
 
  1540  CEEnglish King Henry VIII married his 4th wife, Anne of Cleves.
 
 
  1541  CEIreland came under the rule of England's Henry VIII.
 
 
8 Dec 1542  CEMary Queen of Scots was born. She became the Queen of England when she was a week old, but was forced to abdicate her throne to her son because she had become a Catholic. She was executed for plotting against Elizabeth I.
 
 
  1542  CEBritish Parliament passes bill of attainder against Queen Katherine Howard.
 
 
12 Jul 1543  CEEngland's King Henry VIII married his sixth and last wife, Catherine Parr, who outlived him.
 
 
9 Sep 1543  CEMary, Queen of Scots, was crowned.
 
 
28 Jan 1547  CEEngland's King Henry VIII died; his sixth and last wife was Catherine Parr. He was succeeded by his 9-year-old son, Edward VI.
 
 
 Jan 1547  CEAn inventory of the possessions of King Henry VIII was begun under Edward VI, Henry's son and successor. It took three years to complete. His total wealth amounted to some 600,000 pounds. A commoner's daily wage at this time was about two and one-half pence.
 
 
  1547  CE9-year-old Edward VI succeeds Henry VIII as King of England.
 
 
  1548  CEMary Queen of the Scots, who was engaged to the Dauphin, landed in France at age six.
 
 
  1549  CEThomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, issued the 'Book of Common Prayer'. Other prayer books were forbidden by the Act of Uniformity. The book was mandated by the government under Edward VI, son of Henry VIII, so that services could be spoken in the language of the people.
 
 
  1552  CEUnder Edward VI, The Second Book of Common Prayer, more radical than the first, was authorized by a second Uniformity Act and became mandatory in England.
 
 
19 Jul 1553  CE15-year-old Lady Jane Grey, daughter of John Dudley, the Duke of Northumberland, was deposed as Queen of England after claiming the crown for nine days. Mary, the daughter of King Henry VIII, was proclaimed Queen.
 
 
3 Aug 1553  CEMary Tudor, the new Queen of England, entered London.
 
 
12 Feb 1554  CELady Jane Grey, who had claimed the throne of England for nine days, the Queen of England for thirteen days, was beheaded on Tower Hill. She was barely 17 years old.
 
 
17 Nov 1558  CEElizabeth I ascended the English throne upon the death of Queen Mary. Upon the reign of Elizabeth I a new statement of doctrine of the Church of England was needed. The Church of England was reestablished.
 
 
  1558  CEEnglish Queen Elizabeth I ascends English throne upon death of Queen Mary.
 
 
  1558  CEElizabeth Tudor (1533-1603) became Queen Elizabeth I of England [until 1603]. She went bald at age 29 due to smallpox.
 
 
15 Jan 1559  CEEngland's Queen Elizabeth I was crowned in Westminster Abbey and Lord Dudley soon became her favorite.
 
 
8 May 1559  CEAn act of supremacy defined Queen Elizabeth I as the supreme governor of the church of England.
 
 
  1565  CEMary Queen of Scots married Henry, Lord Darnley.
 
 
  1565  CEElizabeth I of England granted the nobleman Hellier de Carteret the island fiefdom of Sark, which included the island of Brecqhou in the English Channel.
 
 
9 Feb 1567  CELord Darnley, the second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, was murdered in his sick-bed in a house in Edinburgh when the house blows up.
 
 
16 Jun 1567  CEMary, Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Lochleven Castle in Scotland.
 
 
24 Jul 1567  CEMary, Queen of Scots, was forced to abdicate her throne to her 1-year-old son James VI.
 
 
  1567  CEMary, Queen of Scots marries James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell.
 
 
18 May 1568  CEMary Queen of Scots flees to England expecting protection but Queen Elizabeth imprisoned her.
 
 
19 May 1568  CEMary Queen of Scots (1542-1587) is defeated by the Protestant confederate lords at the battle of Langside.
 
 
 Jun 1568  CEEnglish queen Elizabeth I arrests and imprisons Mary Queen of Scots.
 
 
  1578  CEEnglish Queen Elizabeth I gives Johan Casimir 20,000 to aid the Dutch rebellion.
 
 
  1581  CEJames VI signs the second Confession of Faith in Scotland.
 
 
  1586  CEMary Queen of Scots goes on trial for conspiracy against Elizabeth I.
 
 
1 Feb 1587  CEElizabeth I, Queen of England, signed the Warrant of Execution for Mary Queen of Scots.
 
 
8 Feb 1587  CEMary, Queen of Scots was beheaded in Fotheringhay Castle for her alleged part in the conspiracy to usurp Elizabeth I.
 
 
24 Mar 1603  CEQueen Elizabeth I dies, Scottish King James VI becomes King James I of England.
 
 
  1610  CEKing James I addresses English House of Commons.
 
 
  1613  CEEnglish King James I's daughter, Princess Elizabeth marries earl Frederik of Palts.
 
 
  1617  CEJames VI of Scotland, aka James I of England, made a homecoming to Edinburgh Castle.
 
 
  1622  CEKing James I disbands his third English parliament.
 
 
27 Mar 1625  CEBritish King James I dies and King Charles I, King Of England, Scotland & Ireland, ascends to throne.
 
 
2 Feb 1626  CECharles I was crowned King of England.
 
 
10 Mar 1629  CEEngland's King Charles I dissolved Parliament and did not call it back for 11 years.
 
 
  1629  CEBritish King Charles I leaces the house of commons.
 
 
29 May 1630  CECharles II, son of Chrles I and later King of England, was born.
 
 
22 Aug 1642  CECivil war in England officially began as Charles I declared war on Parliament from Nottingham. Charles I went to the House of Commons to arrest some of its members and was refused entry. From this point on no monarch was allowed entry. The war ended in 1651.
 
 
30 Jan 1649  CEThe Prince of Wales becomes King Charles II, of England, although technically Britain is a republic.
 
 
30 Jan 1649  CEKing Charles I of England was beheaded at Banqueting House, Whitehall by the hangman Richard Brandon. Britain then became a republic between 1649 and 1660.
 
 
30 Jan 1649  CEParliament became the supreme power in England under the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who ruled over Parliament as Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth from 1649-1658.
 
 
 Nov 1650  CEWilliam III, Prince of Orange and King of England, was born.
 
 
1 Jan 1651  CECharles II Stuart was crowned King of Scotland at Scone.
 
 
  1657  CEBritish Humble Petition offers Lord Protector Cromwell the crown. He refuses but accepts the title of 'Lord Protector'.
 
 
3 Sep 1658  CEOliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the New Commonwealth, ruler over England's parliament, dies from malaria. He is suceeded by his son Richard Cromwell as Lord Protector. When Oliver Cromwell was dying, he refused to take the only known treatment (quinine from cinchona) because it was introduced by Jesuits.
 
 
  1659  CERichard Cromwell resigns as English Lord Protector.
 
 
4 Apr 1660  CEKing Charles II signes the 'Declaration of Breda' to establish a general amnesty and freedom of conscience.
 
 
8 May 1660  CECharles II was proclaimed King of England. When a new Westminster parliament was elected, no representatives from Scotland were requested. Hence, the Cromwellian Union lapsed.
 
 
28 May 1660  CEGeorge I, future King of England, was born.
 
 
29 May 1660  CECharles II, who had fled to France, arrived in London and is restored to the English throne after the Puritan Commonwealth.
 
 
 May 1660  CEKing Charles II returns from exile sails from Scheveningen to England.
 
 
 Jun 1660  CECharles II was crowned King in Westminster Abbey.
 
 
  1660  CEBritish Long Parliament disbands.
 
 
  1660  CEEnglish King Charles II visits Netherlands.
 
 
  1660  CEGeneral Moncks army battles with the Tweed on way to London.
 
 
  1660  CEGeneral Moncks army reaches London.
 
 
  1660  CEThomas Fairfax' New Model-army occupies York.
 
 
  1661  CEKing Charles II marries Portuguese princess Catherina the Braganca.
 
 
  1661  CEThe first Yacht race, England's King Charles vs his brother James.
 
 
  1661  CEThe first pariament of King Charles II meets at Westminster.
 
 
  1661  CEThe Corporation Act excludes 'Nonconformists' from holding office in England.
 
 
  1662  CEThe Act of Uniformity compels Puritans to accept the doctrines of the Church of England or leave the church.
 
 
  1665  CEThe British Five-Mile Act prevents 'Nonconformist' clergy from coming within five miles of their parish towns.
 
 
  1671  CEThe second son of King Charles I, James, became a Catholic, leading to the first attempts to exclude him from succession but he later became James VII of Scotland and II of England (1685-1688).
 
 
  1673  CEEnglish King Charles II accepts the 'Test Act' which excluded Roman Catholics from public office.
 
 
4 Nov 1677  CEWilliam III and Mary II were married in England.
 
 
28 Nov 1678  CEEngland's King Charles II accused his wife, Catherine of Braganza, of treason, because she had yet to bear him children.
 
 
  1679  CEKing Charles II disbands English parliament.
 
 
  1679  CEMeal Tub Plot against James II of England.
 
 
  1681  CEThe Earl of Shaftsbury challenged the king on the question of succession. The king dissolved Parliament and threw Shaftsbury into the Tower of London and charged him with treason. Shaftsbury was acquitted and went to Holland with John Locke.
 
 
6 Feb 1685  CECharles II of England died and was succeeded by his brother, James II, a Roman Catholic. Charles II became a Roman Catholic on his deathbed.
 
 
23 Apr 1685  CEJames II is crowned King of England and Scotland (James VII of Scotland) in Westminster Abbey.
 
 
  1687  CEKing James II orders his declaration of indulgence read in church.
 
 
11 Dec 1688  CEJames II abdicated the throne because of William of Orange landing in England.
 
 
28 Dec 1688  CEWilliam of Orange made a triumphant march into London as James II flees.
 
 
  1688  CEKing James II of England (James VII of Scotland) was deposed and fled the country to exile in France precipitating the Jacobite Rebellions in 1689-1716 and 1745-1746.
 
 
22 Jan 1689  CEEngland's 'Bloodless' or 'Glorious' Revolution reached its climax when the British parliament invites Mary Stuart and Prince Willem III (William of Orange) to be joint monarchs.
 
 
21 Apr 1689  CEDutch prince William III (William of Orange) and Mary II were crowned joint Monarchs of England, Scotland and Ireland.
 
 
28 Dec 1694  CEGeorge I of England got divorced. He was crowned in 1714.
 
 
28 Dec 1694  CEQueen Mary II of England, dies of smallpox after five years of joint rule with her husband, King William III.
 
 
16 Sep 1701  CEDeposed Jacobite King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) died and as this was before the union of the Scottish and English parliaments, in the eyes of the Jacobites, his son James Francis Stewart, the 'Old Pretender', became the legitimate King of Scotland (James VIII).
 
 
19 Mar 1702  CEWilliam III (William of Orange) died from complications after being thrown from his horse
 
 
 Apr 1702  CEQueen Anne Stuart, William III's first wife and the younger daughter of James II, ascends the British throne upon the death of King William III.
 
 
  1702  CEQueen Anne Stuart addresses English parliament.
 
 
  1705  CEQueen Anne of England knights Isaac Newton at Trinity College in Cambridge.
 
 
  1708  CEEnglish pretender to the throne James III flees to Dunkerk.
 
 
  1708  CEEnglish pretender to the throne James III lands at Firth of Forth.
 
 
  1714  CEBritain's Queen Anne dies and King George I arrives in England as the reigning monarch.
 
 
  1714  CEGeorge I of Hanover became King of England inheriting the throne under the Act of Settlement.
 
 
11 Jun 1727  CEGeorge II succeeds his father George I.
 
 
  1734  CEPrince Willem KHF van Orange marries George II's daughter Mary Anne.
 
 
7 Jun 1743  CEBattle of Dettingen in Bavaria which was the last engagement in which a British monarch (King George II) participated in person.
 
 
  1749  CEGeorge II grants charter to Ohio Company to settle Ohio Valley.
 
 
  1751  CEBritish King George III's eldest son, Frederick, died before he could inherit the thone.
 
 
  1759  CEThe mother of King George III (Augusta) helps establish the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew Gardens on part of her estate.
 
 
25 Oct 1760  CEGeorge III ascends the British throne.
 
 
25 Oct 1760  CEDeath of King George II he is succeeded by his grandson George III.
 
 
23 Apr 1775  CEKing George III proclaims colonies to be in open rebellion
 
 
  1800  CEKing George III survives a 2nd assassination attempt.
 
 
29 Jan 1820  CEKing George III of Britain, dies after a reign of almost 60 years, the second longest in British history.
 
 
29 Jan 1820  CEGeorge IV, the third son of George III, became King of Britain.
 
 
  1830  CEGeorge IV dies and William IV becomes King of Britain.
 
 
20 Jun 1837  CEQueen Victoria at age 18 ascends British throne following death of uncle King William IV. She ruled for 63 years ending in 1901.
 
 
20 Jul 1837  CEEngland issues its first stamp costing one penny showing Queen Victoria.
 
 
  1837  CEWilliam IV, King of Britain, dies and is succeded by his younger brother's daughter, Victoria, who came of age a month before his death.
 
 
  1838  CEBritain's Queen Victoria crowned in Westminster Abbey.
 
 
  1840  CEBritish Queen Victoria marries her cousin Albert von Saksen-Coburg.
 
 
  1842  CEJohn Francis attempts to assassinate Queen Victoria.
 
 
  1857  CEQueen Victoria chooses Ottawa as the new capitol of Canada.
 
 
14 Dec 1861  CEPrince Albert, consort to Queen Victoria, dies.
 
 
  1867  CERoyal Albert Hall foundation stone was laid by Queen Victoria.
 
 
  1871  CERoyal Albert Hall is opened by Queen Victoria in London.
 
 
  1877  CEBritain's Queen Victoria proclaimed empress of India.
 
 
  1887  CEBritain celebrates golden jubilee of Queen Victoria.
 
 
4 Apr 1900  CEBritish Prince of Wales is shot in Belgium in an attempted assasination.
 
 
22 Jan 1901  CEQueen Victoria dies and is suceeded by her son King Edward VII.
 
 
2 Feb 1901  CEQueen Victoria's funeral.
 
 
14 Feb 1901  CEKing Edward VII opens his first parliament.
 
 
  1901  CEEdward VII becomed King of Britain at the age of 59, having been heir apparent for longer than anyone else in British history.
 
 
26 Jun 1902  CEThe coronation of British King Edward VII.
 
 
1 Jan 1903  CEKing Edward VII, of Britain, is proclaimed Emperor of India.
 
 
6 May 1910  CEKing Edward VII dies after a series of heart attacks and King George V ascends to the British throne.
 
 
  1910  CEBritain replaces King Edward VII stamp series with King George V.
 
 
  1910  CEThe funeral for Britain's King Edward VII took place.
 
 
22 Jun 1911  CEThe coronation of British King George V.
 
 
  1922  CEEnglish princess Mary marries viscount Lascelles.
 
 
  1935  CEBritish King George V and Queen Mary celebrate their silver jubilee.
 
 
 Jan 1936  CEGeorge V dies and is succeded by his son Edward VIII as King of Britain.
 
 
10 Dec 1936  CEKing Edward VIII of Britain abdicates for woman he loves, Mrs Wallis Simpson, an American divorcee. He was succeded by his brother Albert who took the name George VI. Edward VIII was later made Duke of Windsor.
 
 
  1936  CEBritain replaces King Edward VIII stamp series with King George VI.
 
 
12 May 1937  CEKing George VI's coronation in Great Britain.
 
 
  1939  CEThe first monarchs of England to visit US, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.
 
 
6 Feb 1952  CEBritish King George VI, failing to recover from a lung operation, dies at the age of 56 in his sleep. He is succeded by his daughter Queen Elizabeth II.
 
 
  1952  CEBritain replaces King George VI stamp series with Queen Elizabeth II.
 
 
2 Jun 1953  CECoronation of Queen Elizabeth II in Westminster Abbey.
 
 
  1953  CEWinston Churchill knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
 
 
  1959  CEBritish Queen Elizabeth & US President Eisenhower open the St Lawrence Seaway linking the Atlantic and Great Lakes.
 
 
  1960  CEBritain's Princess Margaret marries Antony Armstrong-Jones (Lord Snowdon)
 
 
  1969  CEBritish liner Queen Elizabeth II leaves on maiden voyage to New York.
 
 
  1977  CESilver jubilee of Queen Elizabeth celebrated with fireworks.
 
 
  1991  CEQueen Elizabeth becomes the first British monarch to address US congress.
 
 
30 Mar 2002  CEQueen Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, Queen Elizabeth II's Mother, dies at the age of 102 having lived longer than any other King or Queen in British History.
 
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
Note 2: The events are sorted in semi-chronological order according to what is factually known about the date of the event ( Explain ).
Note 3: Events with more information are marked as follows:
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