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Trade & Commerce

Trade & Commerce (1100-)

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Timeline
    1156  CEThe first foreign exchange contracts were issued and allowed the repayment of Genoese pounds debt with Byzantine bezants.  
    1510  CEThe Florentine banker Bartolommeo di Marchionni lent the King of Spain money for the crown's first shipment of Africans to Santo Domingo.
    1510  CESlave trade began with a consignment of African slaves to work on Portuguese sugar plantations in Brazil.
    1510  CEJuan de la Cosa, cartographer, made an early map of the New World.
    1516  CEThe first processed sugar was shipped from Santo Domingo to Spain which was originally brought there by Columbus and soon afterward Portugal began importing sugar from Brasil.
    1557  CEThe first Russian Embassy opens in London, Russia and USA sign a trade agreement.
    1562  CEMilled coins were first introduced in England.
    1562  CEJohn Hawkins, English naval commander, removed 300 African slaves from a Portuguese ship bound for Brazil. This marked the start of the English participation in the slave trade.
    1565  CEFather Andres Urdaneta sighted land believed to be the California coast while sailing on the Manila to Acapulco trade route.
    1570  CEThe Japanese opened the port of Nagasaki to overseas trade.
    1571  CECatholic Italian businessman Roberto Ridolfi leaves England.
    1571  CEEnglish Queen Elizabeth I opens Royal Exchange in London.
    1579  CEPortuguese merchants set up trading stations in Bengal.
    1583  CERichard Martin of London takes out the first known life insurance policy, issued in England on the life of Londoner William Gibbons. His life was insured for 383 6s 8d at a premium of eight per cent per annum.
    1584  CEA European public banking system was begun with the establishment of the Banco di Rialto in Venice.
    1584  CEA Dutch trading post was established at the Russian port of Archangel.
    1585  CEAntwerp was sacked by the Duke of Parma, resulting in long-lasting loss of trade for that port.
    1594  CECompany of Distant established for business on East-Indies.
   Jul 1595  CEThe galleon San Augustin left Philippines with 130 tons of cargo and 70 men.
   Nov 1595  CEThe San Augustin, a Manila galleon, sank off the coast of northern California near Point Reyes with a load of silks and porcelains from the Orient.
    1600  CEBritain's East India Company was founded.
    1601  CEJohn Lancaster leads the first East India Company voyage from London.
 20 Mar 1602  CEShareholders formed The United (Dutch) East India Company. The company traded to 1798.
    1602  CEDenmark imposed a strict trade monopoly and cut off Iceland's products from lucrative markets.
    1604  CEThe French East India Company is founded.
    1605  CEThe Dutch began seizing control of Portuguese-held trade with the Spice Islands (historically called the Moluccas) gaining full control by 1621.
    1608  CESettlers in Jamestown, Virginia, shipped distilled tar back to its sponsors in England, the first manufactured item exported from the US.
    1610  CERetired-Japanese Samurai Hachirobei Mitsui pawned a couple of his swords and started a ribbon and kimono shop. It grew to become the world's oldest department store, Tokyo's Mitsukoshi.
 25 Dec 1616  CENathaniel Courthope, a British merchant-adventurer under direct orders from James I, landed his ship Swan at the Banda Island of Run. He persuaded the islanders to enter an alliance with the British for nutmeg. He fortified the 1 by 2 mile island and with 30 men proceeded to hold off a Dutch siege for 1,540 days.
    1619  CEDutch settlement on Java changes name to Batavia.
    1619  CEAmsterdam opened a stock exchange.
    1621  CEJan Pieterszoon Coen's fleet sets sail to the Moluccas from Jacarta.
    1621  CESpices bought in the West Indies for $227 sold for $2 million in Europe.
 10 Sep 1623  CELumber and furs were the first cargo to leave New Plymouth in North America for England.
  7 Nov 1626  CEPeter Schager of Amsterdam informed the States General that the ship 'The Arms of Amsterdam' had arrived with a cargo of furs and timber from New Netherlands and that the settlers there had bought the Island of Manhattes for 60 guilders.
 15 Nov 1626  CEThe Pilgrim Fathers, who settled in New Plymouth, bought out their London investors.
    1627  CEFrance introduces registered mail.
    1627  CEThe Spanish government went bankrupt.
    1627  CEJapan banned contact with foreigners and closed its ports except for limited trade with Holland.
    1631  CEA French newspaper carries classified advertisments.
    1636  CEThe Portuguese were expelled from their Japanese trade island Deshima but the Dutch were allowed on-going contact with Japanese traders through Hirado and eventually Deshima in 1641.
    1636  CEThe Dutch tulip craze began and was known as the 'tulipomania'. Prices crashed 95% by 1637.
    1640  CEThe Massachusetts Bay Colony sent 300,000 codfish to market.
    1652  CEJohn Hull of Boston in Massachusetts was selected to establish a New England mint.
    1652  CEThe Dutch founded Cape Colony (Cape Town) in South Africa when they sent two ships to Table Bay to establish a garden to provide fresh foods and fruits for sailors on their voyages around the Cape of Good Hope.
    1653  CEParisians are able to put postage-paid letters in mail boxes.
  3 May 1654  CEA bridge in Rowley, Mass., was permitted to charge a toll for animals, while people crossed for free.
    1659  CEThe penny post is introduced in London.
    1659  CEThe first known check (for 400). It is now on display at Westminster Abbey.
c.    1660  CEThe British began to dominate the trade in port wine from Portugal after a political spat with the French denied them the French Bordeaux wines. Brandy was added to the Portuguese wines to fortify them for the Atlantic voyage.
    1661  CEPostal service within the colony of Virginia.
 24 Mar 1663  CECharles II of England awarded lands known as Carolina in North America to eight members of the nobility who assisted in his restoration. This established the American Colony of North Carolina.
    1663  CEKing Charles II affirms charter of Royal African Company.
    1664  CE(1664-1769) The French East India Company was chartered to carry on trade in the East Indies.
    1665  CEThe British briefly recaptured the Banda Island of Run from the Dutch.
    1668  CEEnglish King Charles II gives Bombay to East India Company.
    1672  CEThe first US copyright law is enacted by Massachusetts in America.
    1672  CEThe Royal African Co. was granted a charter to expand the slave trade and its stockholders included philosopher John Locke. The operation supplied English sugar colonies with 3,000 slaves annually.
    1673  CEMail is delivered on a route between New York and Boston.
    1673  CEThe first recorded wine auction is held in London.
    1675  CEThe first American commercial corporation chartered, the New York Fishing Company.
    1678  CEIn England, Lady Godiva rides naked through Coventry in protest of high taxes.
    1685  CEIn Canada there was a shortage of currency and playing cards were assigned monetary values for use as money.
    1686  CETwo Mohican Indians signed a mortgage for their land in Schaghticoke, New York, with simple markings. It was notarized by Robert Livingston, whose family became one of the greatest agricultural landlords and international merchants in the colony of New York.
    1688  CEIn England Edward Lloyd opened a London coffee shop where shipping insurance was bought and sold.
  3 Feb 1690  CEThe first paper money in America was issued by the colony of Massachusetts. The currency was used to pay soldiers fighting a war against Quebec.
    1690  CEMassachusetts Bay becomes the first American colonial government to borrow money.
    1691  CEThomas Neale granted British patent for American postal service.
 27 Jul 1694  CEThe Bank of England received a royal charter as a commercial institution.
    1694  CEJohn Law, Scotsman, fled England after killing a rival in a duel. He traveled in Europe, played the casinos and studied finance. He set up a bank in France and issued paper money and established the Mississippi Company to exploit the French-controlled territories in America.
    1710  CECzar Peter the Great sets the first Russian state budget.
    1711  CEThe South Sea Company is set up.
    1713  CEAsentio Treaty signed by Britain and Spain which begins the most active period of the British slave trade.
    1713  CESouth Sea Company received the right to supply slaves to the Spanish colonies.
   Jul 1720  CEWhen South Sea Company shares were at a vastly inflated unrealistic and unsustainable level confidence collapsed and nvestors lost considerable amounts and some even committed suicide - despite the Bubble bursting the company survived into the 1850s.
    1720  CEThe British government encouraged investors to trade governments stocks for South Sea Company shares and more and more people speculated in them (forcing the share price up).
    1721  CEJohn Copson becomes America's first insurance agent.
    1724  CEAbraham De Moivre studies mortality statistics and the foundation of the theory of annuities in Annuities on Lives.
    1725  CESpain and Austria sign a trade treaty.
    1729  CEChina banned opium importation which would be seriously compromised by the British East India Company until 1839.
 
  1739  CEThe War of Jenkins’s Ear, a trade war between Britain and Spain, developed due to British attempts to circumvent the Peace of Utrecht
 
 
24 Oct 1747  CEFormation of the Ohio Company of Virginia.
 
 
  1752  CEEast Indies invasion 'Geldermalsen' leaves at Malakka results in 92 killed.
 
 
  1755  CERegular mail ship runs between England and the colonies.
 
 
  1755  CEThe Transylvania Land Company buys Kentucky for $50,000 from a Cherokee chief.
 
 
  1759  CEThe first American life insurance company is incorporated in Philadelphia.
 
 
  1761  CEThe first life insurance policy in America in Philadelphia.
 
 
  1764  CEThe Sugar Act taxing the colonies is amended.
 
 
  1764  CEJames Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny, which meant that more than one thread could be produced at a time.
 
 
  1764  CESt Louis is founded as a French trading post by Pierre Laclade Ligue.
 
 
  1767  CEBritish government disbands Americans import duty on tea.
 
 
  1767  CEBritish passes Townshend Revenue Act levying taxes on America for tea, paper and other products.
 
 
  1772  CEThe first traveler's checks are issued (London).
 
 
  1775  CEPoland & Prussia sign trade agreement.
 
 
  1775  CEThe first American joint stock company, who make cloth, offers shares at 10.
 
 
  1778  CEOliver Pollock, a New Orleans businessman, creates the symbol '$' to represent a dollar.
 
 
  1779  CESamuel Compton's Mule allowed the spinning of finer cloths.
 
 
  1784  CEThe first American ship to trade with China, the 'Empress of China', sails from New York.
 
 
  1785  CEDr. Edward Bancroft was awarded exclusive rights by the British Parliament to use the yellow coloring agent 'quercitron' for the dyeing and printing of fabrics. It was extracted from the black oak 'Quercus velutina'.
 
 
  1785  CEStagecoaches begin to carry the mail between towns in the US.
 
 
  1786  CEThe Annapolis Convention was agreed to determine US interstate commerce.
 
 
  1789  CEThe first loan to a US Government which was from New York City banks.
 
 
  1790  CEThe first book is copyrighted under the US constitution in Spelling, Philadelphia.
 
 
  1790  CEThe US copyright law is enacted.
 
 
  1790  CEThe US Patent system is established.
 
 
  1791  CEThe first Bank of US is chartered.
 
 
  1791  CEThe first US Internal Revenue Act is enacted. It taxes distilled spirits and carriages.
 
 
  1792  CEIn Britain, postal money orders are first used.
 
 
  1792  CEThe US Postal Act gives mail regularity throughout US thus creating the US postal service.
 
 
  1792  CE24 merchants form the New York Stock Exchange at 70 Wall Street.
 
 
  1792  CEThe US authorizes the $10 Eagle, the $5 half-Eagle and the 2.50 quarter-Eagle gold coins. It also authorises the silver dollar, dollar, quarter, dime and half-dime.
 
 
  1792  CEUS Congress establishes the Philadelphia mint.
 
 
  1793  CEOn his second voyage, Captain Bligh carried mango trees from Timor to British gardens in Jamaica and St. Vincent.
 
 
  1793  CEEli Whitney invented the cotton gin and applies for a patent which was granted in 1794. By 1807 the US supplied 60% of Britain's cotton becoming the world's largest producer by 1820.
 
 
  1793  CEPatent granted Ralph Hodgson, New York, for oiled silk and linen.
 
 
  1794  CEJay's Treaty, a commerce and navigation treaty, was signed by United States and Britain. It was also the first US extradition treaty.
 
 
  1794  CEFirst US letter carriers appear on American city streets.
 
 
  1795  CETreaty of San Lorenzo is signed providing free navigation of the Mississippi in the US.
 
 
  1795  CEThe US pays $800,000 and a frigate as tribute to Algiers and Tunis.
 
 
 Feb 1797  CEThe Bank of England (1797-1821) suspendes its the obligation to exchange banknotes on demand for gold. This led to the issuing of the first 1 banknotes.
 
 
  1797  CEThe Salem ship 'Rajah' returned to New York with full cargo of bulk pepper from Sumatra. Investors made 700% profit and so it spawned investment by other Salem merchants which created some of the first great fortunes in the US.
 
 
  1799  CEThe Dutch East India Company fell bankrupt.
 
 
  1799  CEBank of Manhattan Company opens in New York City. This was the forerunner to the Chase Manhattan Bank.
 
 
  1799  CEIncome Tax is introduced in UK.
 
 
  1799  CEThe first American law regulating insurance passed by Massachusetts.
 
 
  1805  CEThe Grand Junction Canal, between London and Birmingham, was built.
 
 
  1807  CEThe first railway passenger service began in England.
 
 
  1810  CEJohn Jacob Astor organizes the Pacific Fur Company (Astoria, Oregon).
 
 
  1810  CEThe first US fire insurance joint-stock company organized in Philadelphia.
 
 
  1811  CEAustria declares bankruptcy.
 
 
  1811  CEUS President Madison prohibits trade with Britain for the third time in four years.
 
 
  1812  CEThe first cargo arrives in New Orleans by steam, from Natchez.
 
 
  1812  CEThe US Congress authorizes war bonds to finance the War of 1812.
 
 
  1813  CEThe US Congress authorizes steam boats to carry mail.
 
 
  1813  CEThe first US raw cotton-to-cloth mill is founded in Waltham, Massachusetts.
 
 
  1814  CEThe Netherlands Bank is established.
 
 
  1815  CEThere are three thousand post offices in the US at this time.
 
 
  1816  CEUS Newspapers are carried for less than 2 cents postage.
 
 
  1816  CEThe second Bank of US is chartered.
 
 
  1816  CEThe first savings bank in US opens, the Philadelphia Savings Fund Society.
 
 
  1819  CEThe first whaling ship arrives in Hawaii.
 
 
  1824  CEThe First Ashanti War when the British fought the Ashanti in Ghana for control of West African trade.
 
 
  1824  CEBritain and the Netherlands sign a trade agreement.
 
 
  1824  CEUS inter-state commerce comes under federal control.
 
 
  1826  CETax records went to paper transactions in England. The archive of 'twigs' was burned and the resulting fire escaped control and took with it the Houses of Parliament. Noched 'twigs', predominately of basket willow, had prevoiusly been utilized in England to record tax payments.
 
 
  1826  CEGranite Railway, the first chartered railway in the US, begins operations.
 
 
  1827  CEDutch Trade Company NHM gets opium monopoly on Java.
 
 
  1827  CEThe first commercial railroad in US, Baltimore & Ohio (B&O) is chartered.
 
 
  1830  CEStephenson completed the Liverpool and Manchester Railway the first steam passenger line.
 
 
  1830  CEThe Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company begins carrying revenue traffic. The frst US Railroad Station is built at Baltimore.
 
 
  1830  CENew York Stock Exchange slowest day ever when only 31 shares were traded.
 
 
  1830  CEThe first passenger rail service in the US begins. It runs between Baltimore and Elliots Mill in Maryland.
 
 
  1833  CEThe US and Siam conclude commercial treaty.
 
 
  1834  CEJoseph Hansom of London receives patent for Hansom cabs.
 
 
  1835  CENew Orleans gives Jackson Square to the US government to be used as a mint.
 
 
  1835  CEThe first US mutual fire insurance company issues the first policy.
 
 
  1836  CERowland Hill starts to reform the British postal system.
 
 
20 Jul 1837  CEEngland issues its first stamp costing one penny showing Queen Victoria.
 
 
  1837  CESamuel F. B. Morse exhibits an electric telegraph in the US.
 
 
  1837  CEThe Astor Hotel, the most elaborate in the US, opens in New York City. It later becomes the Waldorf-Astoria.
 
 
  1837  CECharles Goodyear obtains his first rubber patent.
 
 
  1837  CEThere was a riot in New York over the high price of flour.
 
 
  1838  CESamuel F. B. Morse made first public demonstration of the telegraph.
 
 
  1838  CEThe first telegraph message sent using dots and dashes, in New Jersey.
 
 
  1838  CEThe US mint in New Orleans begins operation (producing dimes).
 
 
  1839  CETea from India first arrives in Britain.
 
 
  1840  CEIn Britain, the first postage stamps, the 'Penny Black', goes on sale.
 
 
  1840  CEThe US Penny Post mail system started.
 
 
  1844  CEJohn Mercer invented a treatment for cotton that involves stretching the fibers under pressure in a cold bath of caustic soda. This gives the cotton increased sheen and durability and promotes the uptake of dyes.
 
 
  1845  CEThe first clipper ship the 'Rainbow' was launched in the USA.
 
 
  1845  CEThe 'Great Britain' built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, became the first propeller-driven iron ship to cross the Atlantic from Liverpool to New York.
 
 
  1845  CEThe US Postal reform bill lowers rates and regulates domestic and international service.
 
 
  1845  CEHenry Jones, from Bristol, patents self-raising flour.
 
 
  1846  CEElias Howe patents the sewing machine.
 
 
  1846  CERobert Thomson obtains an English patent on a rubber tire.
 
 
  1847  CEIn England, Bakewell constructs a 'copying telegraph'.
 
 
  1847  CENew York and Boston are linked by telegraph wires.
 
 
  1847  CEThe Rotterdam-Hague Railway opens.
 
 
  1847  CEThe first money is minted in Hawaii.
 
 
  1847  CEThe first US telegraph company is established in Maryland.
 
 
  1848  CEAlexander Stewart opens the the first US department store.
 
 
  1848  CENew Haven Railroad opens.
 
 
  1848  CEPresident Polk triggers Gold Rush of '49, when he confirms the California gold discovery.
 
 
  1848  CEThe first gold seekers arrive in Panama en route to San Francisco.
 
 
  1849  CEThe main US Californian Gold Rush took place.
 
 
  1849  CEColonel John W Geary arrives as the first postmaster of San Francisco.
 
 
  1849  CEA patent granted for an envelope-making machine.
 
 
  1849  CEUS Gold Coinage Act authorizes the $20 Double Eagle gold coin.
 
 
  1849  CEVancouver Island is granted to the US Hudson's Bay Company.
 
 
  1850  CEHenry Wells and William Fargo forms American Express in Buffalo.
 
 
  1850  CEThe first US $20 gold piece is issued.
 
 
  1851  CEThe Amsterdam-Nieuwediep telegraph connection is linked.
 
 
  1851  CEThe 'City of Glasgow' steamer inaugurates Philadelphia-Liverpool line.
 
 
  1851  CEGold fields are discovered in Australia.
 
 
  1851  CEThe Great Exhibition opens in London's Hyde Park, at Crystal Palace.
 
 
  1851  CEIn Maine, the first US alcohol prohibition law is enacted.
 
 
  1851  CEThe US Congress authorizes smallest US silver coin, a 3 cent piece.
 
 
  1852  CEThe Netherlands begins issuing postage stamps.
 
 
  1853  CEThe Envelope-folding machine is patented by Russell Hawes of Worcester, Massachusetts.
 
 
  1853  CEThe first train in Asia from Bombay to Tanna, over 36 km.
 
 
  1853  CEThe US transcontinental railroad survey is authorized by Congress.
 
 
  1853  CEThe US Assay Office in New York is eastablished.
 
 
  1853  CEThe US authorizes minting of $3 gold pieces.
 
 
  1854  CEThe Elgin Treaty over Canadian trade between the USA and Britain.
 
 
  1854  CEUS Commodore Matthew C. Perry opened Japan's doors to the West with signing of the Treaty of Kamagawa which opened Japanese ports to foreign trade.
 
 
  1854  CEAllen Wilson of Conneticut patents a sewing machine that sews curving seams.
 
 
  1854  CECharles Miller patents first US sewing machine to stitch buttonholes.
 
 
  1854  CEA marine Telegraph from Fort Point to San Fransisco was completed.
 
 
  1855  CEThe first steps were taken toward eventual production of rayon which is derived from cellulose extracted from wood chips.
 
 
  1855  CEThe Bessemer steelmaking process is patented.
 
 
  1856  CEWilliam Henry Perkin set up the first synthetic dye factory for the production of mauveine.
 
 
  1857  CEJames Gibbs of Virginia, patents a chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine.
 
 
  1857  CEUS Congress outlaws foreign currency as legal tender in US.
 
 
  1858  CEAlbert Potts of Philadelphia patents the US street mailbox.
 
 
  1858  CECanada begins using decimal currency system.
 
 
  1858  CERH Macy & Co opens the first store, at 6th Ave-New York City. the gross receipts were $1,106.
 
 
  1858  CEThe first bank in Hawaii opens.
 
 
  1859  CEThe Comstock silver load is discovered near Virginia City, Nevada. 
 
 
  1859  CEThe Hibernia Savings and Loan Society of San Francisco incorporates.
 
 
  1860  CEThe first successful silver mill in the US in Virginia City, Nevada.
 
 
  1860  CEPony Express began between St Joseph Mo and Sacramento California.
 
 
25 Feb 1862  CEPaper money is introduced in the US.
 
 
  1862  CEJean Joseph Etienne Lenoir builds the first gasoline-engine automobile.
 
 
  1863  CEFree home delivery of mail is introduced in large US cities.
 
 
  1863  CEThe first bank is chartered in the US, the National Bank of Davenport, Iowa.
 
 
  1863  CEThe first US accident insurer, Travelers Insurance Co of Hartford is chartered.
 
 
  1864  CEWillima Siemens and Pierre Emile Martin developed the Siemenns-Martin Process or 'open hearth method' for the production of steel.
 
 
  1864  CEUS Workers in a 'railway post office' begin sorting mail on trains.
 
 
  1864  CEThe firts Postal money orders are sold in the US. A total $13 million were sold in the first 6 months.
 
 
  1864  CECharing Cross Station opens in London.
 
 
  1866  CEThe first US company to make sewing needles by machine is incorporated in Connecticut.
 
 
  1867  CEThe first ship passes through Suez Canal.
 
 
  1867  CEThe first telegraph 'ticker' is used by a brokerage house, Groesbeck & Co, New York.
 
 
  1867  CETokyo is opened for foreign trade.
 
 
  1869  CEBlack Friday when Wall Street panics after Gould & Fisk attempt to corner the gold market.
 
 
  1869  CEThe free US postal delivery service is formally inaugurated.
 
 
  1869  CEUS postage stamps showing scenes are issued for first time.
 
 
15 Apr 1870  CEOfficial proclamation sets April 15 as the last day of grace for US silver coins to circulate in Canada.
 
 
  1870  CEJohn D Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil. 
 
 
  1870  CEThe US mint at Carson City, Nevada, begins issuing coins.
 
 
  1872  CEThe California Stock Exchange Board is organized.
 
 
  1872  CEThe first Japanese commercial ship visits San Francisco, carrying tea.
 
 
  1872  CEWorld's largest gold nugget (215 kg) found in New South Wales in Australia.
 
 
  1873  CEBlack Friday casied because Jay Cooke & Co fails, causing a securities panic (a railroad bond default/bank failure).
 
 
  1873  CEUS Congress abolishes bimetallism and authorizes $1 and $3 gold coins.
 
 
  1874  CEFreedmen's Bank closes. 
 
 
  1874  CESydney General Post Office opens in Australia.
 
 
  1876  CEThe US New Orleans Mint reopens as an assay office.
 
 
  1877  CEChase National Bank opens in New York City. It later merges into Chase Manhattan Bank.
 
 
  1878  CEBased on a new Hungarian mechanical process, the Washburn experimental flour mill in Minneapolis marked the beginning of modern milling in the US.
 
 
  1878  CEFull page newspaper advertisments first appear.
 
 
  1878  CEThe Edison Electric Light Company is incorporated.
 
 
  1878  CEThe Silver dollar became US legal tender.
 
 
  1878  CEA US store in Philadelphia becomes the first to install electric lights.
 
 
  1879  CEConstantine Fahlberg discovers saccharin, an artificial sweetener.
 
 
  1879  CEF W Woolworth opens its first store, which failed almost immediately.
 
 
  1879  CEJames Ritty and John Ritty patent the first cash register to combat stealing by bartenders in their Dayton, Ohio saloon.
 
 
  1880  CEThe SS Strathleven arrives in London with the first Australian frozen mutton.
 
 
  1881  CEChile defeated Bolivia in a war to take control of coastal and island areas. These areas were where huge deposits of guano (bird droppings) could be harvested for sale to Europe for use in agricultural fertilizers. The war left Bolivia landlocked.
 
 
  1882  CEBecause of US anti-monopoly laws, Standard Oil is organized as a trust.
 
 
  1882  CEMatson founds his shipping company (San Francisco and Hawaii).
 
 
  1882  CEThe US Pacific Stock Exchange opens, as the Local Security Board.
 
 
  1883  CEAlabama becomes first US state to enact an antitrust law.
 
 
  1883  CEThe first US state labor union legislation is passe when New Jersey legalizes unions.
 
 
  1885  CEAmerican Telephone & Telegraph (AT&T) incorporates.
 
 
  1885  CEThe US special delivery mail service began.
 
 
  1887  CEMontgomery Ward mails out one of the first 'mail-order' catalogues. It had 540 pages.
 
 
  1889  CEKansas passes the first general antitrust law in the US.
 
 
  1890  CEThe US stops minting $1 and $3 gold coins.
 
 
  1891  CEOperations begin at Philips and Company in Holland.
 
 
  1892  CEUS farmers first became aware that the boll weevil had crossed the Rio Grande River into Texas cotton fields. Within a decade it was threatening the destruction of the US cotton industry.
 
 
  1893  CEThe 'Panic of 1893', the great crash on New York Stock Exchange.
 
 
  1896  CEThe announcement of Gold in the Yukon. 
 
 
  1896  CEDow Jones begins reporting an index of the average of 12 industrial stocks (closing is 40.94).
 
 
  1896  CEGold is discovered in the Klondike. It is first found at Bonanza Creek, Alabama.
 
 
  1897  CEIn England, postmen begin delivering mail to every home.
 
 
  1897  CEJapan adopts the Gold Standard.
 
 
  1898  CENew York State passes a law against misleading advertising.
 
 
  1899  CEAmerican Marconi Company is incorporated, the forerunner of RCA.
 
 
  1901  CEAfter 63 years, England stops sale of Queen Victoria postage stamps series and begins King Edward VII series.
 
 
  1901  CEOil is discovered at Spindletop claim near Beaumont, Texas.
 
 
  1902  CEThe US patent for window envelope granted to H.F. Callahan.
 
 
  1902  CEPortugal is made bankrupt by a revolt in Angola.
 
 
  1903  CEA definitive treaty for the construction of the Baghdad railway drawn up.
 
 
  1903  CEFord Motors incorporates.
 
 
  1903  CEQueen Wilhelmina opens Berlages Merchants bureau in Amsterdam.
 
 
  1903  CEThe San Francisco-Hawaii telegraph cable opens for public use.
 
 
  1904  CEThe Bank of Italy (now the Bank of America) first opens.
 
 
  1904  CEThe control of the Panama Canal Zone is acquired by US for $10 million.
 
 
  1904  CEThe 'Louisiana Purchase Exposition' opens in St Louis.
 
 
  1904  CENetherlands Indies colony begins opium production.
 
 
  1904  CETheodore Roosevelt, appoints a seven person committee to study the Panama Canal.
 
 
  1905  CEIn New Zealand, the postage meter is introduced.
 
 
  1905  CEThe 'Yellow Pages' telephone book is introduced. 
 
 
  1905  CELewis and Clark Centennial Exposition opens in Portland, Oregon.
 
 
  1906  CEBritish Rolls, Royce and Johnson form Rolls Royce Ltd.
 
 
  1906  CEThe first time Dow Jones closes above 100 (100.26).
 
 
  1907  CEThe US United Parcel Service begins service, in Seattle.
 
 
  1908  CEThe US enact the Aldrich Vineland Currency Act, a forerunner to US Federal Reserve System.
 
 
  1908  CEGeneral Motors is founded by William C Durant.
 
 
  1910  CEThe material 'Rayon' is first commercially produced, by Marcus Hook.
 
 
  1911  CEThe US Supreme Court dissolves Standard Oil via the Sherman Antitrust Act.
 
 
  1911  CEThe first airmail service (the British Post Office).
 
 
  1914  CEThe stock brokerage firm of Merrill Lynch is founded. 
 
 
  1914  CEThe US signs treaty of commerce with Ethiopia.
 
 
  1915  CEAT&T becomes the first corporation to have 1 million stockholders.
 
 
  1915  CEJapan claims economic control of China.
 
 
  1915  CEThe World's Fair opens in San Francisco.
 
 
  1920  CEThe US Post Office accepts the use of the postage meter.
 
 
  1920  CEThe value of Silver reaches a record $1.37 an ounce. 
 
 
  1920  CEUS Air Mail service begins from New York City to San Francisco.
 
 
  1921  CEGeorge Washington Carver appeared before the US Congressional Ways and Means Committee promoting a protective tariff on peanuts.
 
 
  1921  CEUS Western Union begins is wirephoto service.
 
 
  1922  CEUtica becomes the first US electric power line commercial carrier in New York.
 
 
  1923  CEThe Flying Scotsman first goes into service.
 
 
  1924  CEThe 'Mass Investors Trust' becomes the first mutual fund set up in the USA.
 
 
  1926  CEThe first check sent by radio facsimile transmission across the Atlantic.
 
 
  1929  CEThe New York Stock Market crashes on 'Black Tuesday', triggering the 'Great Depression'.
 
 
  1929  CEAn automatic electric stock quotation board is installed in New York City.
 
 
  1929  CEGeneral Motors acquires German auto manufacturer Adam Opel.
 
 
  1929  CEThe first US trade show at Atlantic City Convention Center (electric light).
 
 
23 Jun 1948  CEBerlin is divided into two different currency zones.
 
 
  1950  CEDiner's Club issues its 1st credit cards.
 
 
  1950  CEGeneral Motors reports net earnings of $656,434,232, which is a new record.
 
 
  1951  CEAT&T is the first US company to have one million stockholders.
 
 
  1951  CEIran nationalizes the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company.
 
 
  1960  CERhode Island in the US has an automated electronic post office.
 
 
  1960  CEBank of France issues new franc, worth 20
 
 
  1960  CEEuropean Free Trade Association forms in Stockholm.
 
 
  1960  CEOil pipe line from Rotterdam to Ruhrgebied opens
 
 
9 Aug 1961  CEBritain applies for membership in the European Economic Community (EEC or "Common Market").
 
 
  1961  CEDutch guilder revalued 4.74%.
 
 
  1961  CERussia introduces a new ruble worth $1.11.
 
 
  1961  CETrucial States (now UAE) issue their first postage stamps.
 
 
  1962  CEK-Mart opens.
 
 
  1962  CEMinister De Pous confirms natural gas reserves in Groningen Netherlands.
 
 
1 Jan 1999  CEThe 12 of the EU member countries planning to adopt a common currency tied their national currencies together in monetary union using the Euro as the intermediate currency.
 
 
1 Jan 2002  CEThe 12 eurozone countries in the EU introduce the Euro as a cash currency: Netherlands, Ireland, France, Austria, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal and Spain. A two month transition period followed.
 
 
1 Mar 2002  CEThe Euro become the sole legal tender currency in 12 EU member countries, redering the old currencies obsolete. This currencey will be used by 300 million EU citizens. The United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden are the remaining EU countries still using their national currencies.
 
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
Note 2: The events are sorted in semi-chronological order according to what is factually known about the date of the event ( Explain ).
Note 3: Events with more information are marked as follows:
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