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Islam (0571-1995)

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The founding and the rise of Islam from the birth of the Holy Prophet Mohammad.

Islam was embraced so quickly and by by so many races and cultures, that within a century of the death of the Holy Prophet Mohammad in 632, its Muslim followers existed in territories extending from north west China to Spain.

Islamic civilization became a stabilizing influence in half the known word and made contributions to humanity's basic understanding of science, mathematics, medicine, technology, sociology, and philosophy - usually without this being properly acknowledged.

c.    0500  CENubians turn from their Egyptian-influenced religion to Christianity. A thousand years later the people of their region will convert heavily to Islam.
    0545  CEBirth of Abdullah, Mohammad's father.
    0571  CEBirth of the Holy Prophet Mohammad, (571-632) founder of Islam (submission)
    0571  CEInvasion of Makkah by Abraha the Viceroy of Yemen, his retreat.
    0577  CEMohammad visits Madina with his mother. Death of his mother.
    0580  CEDeath of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of Mohammad.
    0583  CEMohammad's journey to Syria in the company of his uncle Abu Talib. His meeting with the monk Bahira at Bisra who foretells of his prophethood.
    0586  CEMohammad participates in the war of Fijar.
    0591  CEMohammad becomes an active member of 'Hilful Fudul', a league for the relief of the distressed.
    0594  CEMohammad becomes the Manager of the business of Lady Khadija, and leads her trade caravan to Syria and back.
    0595  CEMohammad marries widow Hadrat Khadija, his benefactor, 1st disciple and 1st wife.
    0600  CEAntara ibn Shaddad, 1 of 7 great Islamic poets.
    0605  CEMohammad arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.
    0610  CEAccording to Islam, Lailat-ul Qadar, the night the Koran descended to Earth.
c.    0610  CEThe Holy Prophet Mohammed begins to preach openly, preparing the people of Mecca for the coming of the religion of Islam.
    0610  CEThe first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. Mohammad is commissioned as the Messenger of God.
    0610  CEMuhammad is believed to have had visions of Gabriel, Abraham, Moses and Jesus and these visions convinced Mohammad that he was a messenger of God.
    0610  CEMuhammad is believed by his followers to have had a vision of Gabriel. The angel told him to recite in the name of God. Other visions are supposed to have Gabriel lead Muhammad to heaven to meet God, and to Jerusalem to meet Abraham, Moses and Jesus. These visions convinced Mohammad that he was a messenger of God.
    0610  CE(610-632) A Muslim tradition has it that Mohammed one day found that his favorite wife, Aisha, had purchased some cushions decorated with birds and animals. The prophet proclaimed that only God could bestow life and that pale imitations should be avoided. Thus the hadith, or tradition of the prophet, holds that: The house which contains pictures will not be entered by the angels.'
    0612  CEMohammad began preaching at Mecca.
    0613  CEDeclaration at Mt. Sara inviting the general public to Islam.
    0614  CEInvitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam.
    0615  CEPersecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for Abyssinia.
    0615  CEThe earliest records of some Mohammad's teachings.
    0616  CESecond Hijrah to Abysinnia.
    0617  CESocial boycott of the Hashimites and Mohammad by the Quraish. The Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.
    0619  CELifting of the boycottof the Hashimites.
    0619  CEDeaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadija. Year of sorrow.
    0620  CEJourney to Taif. Ascension to the heavens.
    0621  CEFirst pledge at Aqaba.
 16 Jul 0622  CEMohammad flees Mecca to Media (The Hegira) and the start of the Moslem lunar calendar.
 24 Sep 0622  CEIn Medina Mohammad tried to unite the Jews and Arabs and initially faced Jerusalem to pray. The Jewish leaders did not accept Mohammad as a prophet so he expelled from the city the Jews who opposed him and from then on he commanded the Muslims to face the Kaaba in Mecca when praying.
    0622  CESecond pledge at Aqaba. Mohammad and the Muslims migrate to Yathrib.
    0623  CENakhla expedition.
    0624  CEMoslem army occupies Kurashitische Caravan.
    0624  CEBattle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Madina.
    0624  CEMohammad married 3rd wife Aisha daughter of Abu Bekr.
    0625  CEBattle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr.
    0626  CEExpedition of Banu Mustaliq.
    0627  CEThe Jerusalem cross is retrieved from the Persians, who stole the relic in 614.
    0627  CEBattle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews.
    0628  CETruce of Hudaibiya.
    0628  CEExpedition to Khyber.
    0628  CEMohammad addresses letters to various heads of states.
    0629  CEMohammed returns to Mecca with the Koran (recitation), the holy book of Islam, which records the religion's principles
    0629  CEMohammad performs the pilgrimage at Makkah.
    0629  CEHeraclius, Byzantine Emperor, defeated Muslims at Battle of Mu'ta & recovered Jerusalem till 638.
    0630  CEMuhammad raises an army of 10,000 and captures Mecca, destroys all the idols at Kaaba and the area around the remaining black stone became the first mosque, or Muslim house of worship
    0630  CEConquest of Makkah. Battles of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif.
    0631  CEExpedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations.
  7 Jun 0632  CEDeath of the Holy Prophet Mohammad (571-632).
    0632  CEStart of the Orthodox Caliphate (Mecca and Medina) (632-661)
    0632  CEMohammed's daughter, Fatima, dies and her two sons, Hassan and Hussein, establish the Fatimid Dynasty, which will rule North Africa from 909 to 1171
    0632  CEAbu Bakr was chosen as Mohammad's successor (caliph). The four contenders were: (a) Abu Bakr, his trusted father-in-law, (b) Ali, a cousin and Mohammad's son-in-law and the father of Mohammad's grandsons, (b)Umar and (c) Uthman, both long-time friends and advisers
    0632  CEFarewell pilgrimage at Makkah.
    0632  CEElection of Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Caliph.
    0632  CEUsamah leads expedition to Syria.
    0632  CEBattles of Zu Qissa and Abraq.
    0632  CEBattles of Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra.
    0632  CECampaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar.
    0632  CEMohammad's companions compiled his words and deeds in a work called the Sunna which containes the rules for Islam. The most basic are 'The Five Pillars of Islam' which are: 1) profession of faith 2) daily prayer 3) giving alms 4) ritual fast during Ramadan 5) Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. The Sunna also calls for 'jihad' which loosly translated means 'struggle'.
    0632  CEFour contenders stood out to succeed Mohammad. They were Abu Bakr, his trusted father-in-law. Umar and Uthman, long-time friends and advisers, and Ali, a cousin and blood relative. Ali was Mohammad's son-in-law and the father of Mohammad's grandsons. Abu Bakr was chosen as caliph i.e. successor.
    0632  CEAbu Bekr (573-634), was made the first Islamic Caliph, with his capital at Medina.
    0633  CEMuhammad's chief clerk collects Mohammad's revelations into one work called the Koran which loosely translated it means 'recitation'
    0633  CECampaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut.
    0633  CERaids in Iraq.
    0633  CEBattles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein at tamr, Daumatul Jandal and Firaz.
    0634  CEAbu Bakr, Mohammed's father-in-law, died. Before his death he appointed Umar as his successor
    0634  CEBattles of Basra, Damascus and Ajnadin.
    0634  CEDeath of Hadrat Abu Bakr.
    0634  CEHadrat Umar Farooq becomes the Caliph.
    0634  CEBattles of Namaraq and Saqatia.
    0634  CEAbu Bakr, Mohammed's father-in-law, died. Before his death he appointed Umar as his successor.
    0634  CEUmar, 2nd Islamic Caliph, conquered Syria.
    0635  CEBattle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl.
    0635  CEDamascus was captured by the Muslims.
 15 Aug 0636  CEEraclius, Byzantine Emperor, defeated by Muslims in Syria at Battle of Yarmuk River.
    0636  CEBattle of Yermuk. Battle of Qadsiyia. Conquest of Madain.
    0637  CEConquest of Syria. Fall of Jerusalem. Battle of Jalula.
    0637  CEMuslim armies conquer Mesopotamia.
  0638  CEThe start of the Islamic calendar.
  0638  CEConquest of Jazirah.
  0638  CEUmar, 2nd Islamic Caliph, Jerusalem.
  0639  CEConquest of Khuizistan. Advance into Egypt.
  0639  CEUmar, 2nd Islamic Caliph, Egypt.
  0640  CECapture of the post of Caesaria in Syria.
  0640  CEConquest of Shustar and Jande Sabur in Persia.
  0640  CEBattle of Babylon in Egypt.
  0640  CEMuslim Arabs invade Armenia and capture Dvin, its principal town.
  0640  CEThe Muslim government began minting coins about this time.
  0641  CEBattle of Nihawand. Conquest Of Alexandria in Egypt.
  0642  CEBattle of Rayy in Persia. Conquest of Egypt. Foundation of Fustat.
  0642  CEOmar, the second caliph, successor of Mohammed, conquered Alexandria, then the capital of world scholarship.
  0642  CEUmar, 2nd Islamic Caliph, Persia.
  0642  CEAfter successfully defending itself against the Roman/Byzantine Empires for centuries, the Persian Empire was swiftly vanquished by nomadic tribesmen armed with a newly acquired faith, Islam.
  0643  CEConquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia).
4 Nov 0644  CEUmar, 2nd Islamic Caliph, was assassinated.
4 Nov 0644  CEUmar of Arabia was assassinated at Medina and was succeeded as caliph by Uthman. On his deathbed Umar named a council to choose the next caliph. The council appointed Uthman. Uthman continued to expand the Muslim empire.
  0644  CEConquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan.
  0644  CEMartyrdom of Hadrat Umar.
  0644  CEHadrat Othman becomes the Caliph.
  0645  CECampaigns in Fats.
  0646  CECampaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor.
  0647  CECampaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cypress.
  0648  CECampaigns against the Byzantines.
  0651  CENaval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.
  0652  CEDiscontentment and disaffection against the rule of Hadrat Othman.
  0652  CEArabs introduced Islam to Afghanistan.
  0656  CEMartyrdom of Hadrat Othman. Hadrat Ali becomes the Caliph. Battle of the Camel.
  0656  CEUthman appointed members of his own family as regional governors and causing bitter jealousy among other families which reulted oin his own murder. This gave Ali an opportunity to claim power, but following civil war, he was also murdered. The followers of Ali became known as Shiites from the Arabic meaning 'the party of Ali.' Those who believe that the election of the first three caliphs was valid reject the Shiite idea of the Imam, and are called the Sunnis.
  0656  CEThe Imam Ali mosque in Najaf marks the grave of Ali, the son-in-law of Mohammed and a central figure in Shiite Islam.
26 Jul 0657  CEMu'awiyan defeated Caliph Ali in the Battle of Siffin in Mesopotamia.
  0657  CEHadrat Ali shifts the capital from Madina to Kufa.
  0657  CEBattle of Siffin.
  0657  CEArbitration proceedings at Daumaut ul Jandal.
  0658  CEBattle of Nahrawan.
  0659  CEConquest of Egypt by Mu'awiyah.
  0660  CEHadrat Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Mu'awiyah.
  0660  CEMu'awiyah declares himself as the Caliph at Damascus.
  0661  CEStart of the Omayyad Caliphate (Damascus) (661-750)
  0661  CEMartyrdom of Hadrat Ali.
  0661  CEAccession of Hadrat Hasan and his abdication.
  0661  CEMu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph.
  0661  CEMuawija became caliph and moved the capital from Medina to Damascus began the practice of appointing his own son as the next caliph. His followers were called the Umayyads.
  0661  CEImam Ali, the Prophet Mohammad's son-in-law and the fourth and last of the 'rightly guided caliphs', was assassinated. This led to the great schism in Islam between the Sunni and Shi'ite sects over the issue of Islamic leadership. Shi'ites believed in the divine right of the family of Mohammad through his daughter Fatima and her husband Ali to lead the Islamic world.
  0662  CEKhawarij revolts.
  0666  CERaid of Sicily.
  0670  CEAdvance in North Africa.
  0670  CEUqba b Nafe founds the town of Qairowan in Tunisia.
  0670  CEConquest of Kabul.
  0672  CECapture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan.
  0674  CEThe Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.
  0677  CEThe Arabs attempt to conquer Constantinople by siege but fail.
  0677  CEOccupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz.
  0680  CEDeath of Mu'awiya, who is succeeded by his son, Yazid
  0680  CEAt the Battle of Kerbela, on the Karbala plain in modern day Iraq, the forces of Caliph Yazid defeat the armies of Hussein, grandson of the Mohammed, who is killed. He then became a saint to Shiite Muslims who commemorate his martyrdom as the ceremony of Ashoura.
  0681  CEThe Shiite descendants of Mohammed's daughter, Fatima, begiun celebrating Hussein's martyrdom every year in the month of Muharram.
  0682  CEIn North Africa Uqba b Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Qairowan and withdraw to Burqa.
  0683  CEDeath of Yazid. Accession of Mu'awiyah II.
  0684  CEAbdullah b Zubair declares himself aS the Caliph at'Makkah.
  0684  CEMarwan I becomes the Caliph' at Damascus.
  0684  CEBattle of Marj Rahat.
  0685  CEShi'ite revolt in Iraq (685-687)
  0685  CEDeath of Marwan I. Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph at Damascus.
  0685  CEBattle of Ain ul Wada.
  0685  CEAbd al Malik, Umayyad caliph (685-705), influenced the shaping of Islamic culture declaring Arabic as the official language of the empire and establishing a common coinage system that was purely Arabic which had no images but were inscribed with quotations from the Koran.
  0685  CE(685-705) Abd al Malik, Umayyad caliph, influenced the shaping of Islamic culture. He declared Arabic as the official language of the empire and established a common coinage system that was purely Arabic. They had no images but were inscribed with quotations from the Koran.
  0686  CEMukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa.
  0687  CEBattle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b Zubair. Mukhtar killed.
  0688  CENorth Africa was conquered by the Muslims under Abd al Malik.
  0691  CECaliph Abd al-Malik completes the Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem
  0691  CEBattle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik.
  0692  CEThe fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the sole Caliph.
  0695  CEKhawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz.
  0695  CEBattle of the Karun.
  0695  CECampaigns against Kahina in North Africa.
  0695  CEThe' Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa.
  0695  CEThe Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.
  0696  CEArabic became the official language of the Islamic world.
  0700  CECampaigns against the Berbers in North Africa.
  0700  CEAbd al Malik issued the first pure Islamic coins.
  0702  CEAshath's rebellion in Iraq, battle of Deir ul Jamira.
  0705  CEDeath of Abdul Malik. Accession of Walid I as Caliph.
  0711  CEThe Conquest of Spain
  0711  CEConquest of Spain, Sind and Transoxiana.
  0711  CEThe Umayyads with the help of the North African Berbers, and thier leader Tarik, moved across the Strait of Gibralter and began the conquest of Spain and Portugal (the word Gibralter comes from the term Jabal-al-Tarik, which means the hill of Tarik so Gebel-al-Tarik means 'Rock of Tarik' ).
  0711  CEThe Umayyads with the help of the Berbers in North Africa moved across the Strait of Gibralter and began the conquest of Spain and Portugal. The Berber leader Tarik crossed the Strait of Gibralter and began the Muslim conquest of Spain. The word Gibralter comes from the term Jabal-al-Tarik, which means the hill of Tarik. Gebel-al-Tarik means 'Rock of Tarik.'
  0712  CEThe Muslims advance in Spain, Sind and Transoxiana.
  0713  CEConquest of Multan.
  0715  CEDeath of Walid I. Accession of Sulaiman.
  0716  CEInvasion of Constantinople.
  0717  CEThe Arabs attempt to conquer Constantinople (717-718) for the second time when Byzantine Emperor Leo the Isaurian counters the Arab attempt with "Greek Fire" (a liquid mixture of sulfur, naphtha and quicklime) and great military strength.
  0717  CEDeath of Sulaiman. Accession of Umar b Abdul Aziz.
  0720  CEDeath of Umar b Abdul Aziz. Accession of Yazid II.
  0724  CEDeath of Yazid II. Accession of Hisham.
  0725  CEThe Muslims occupy Nimes in France.
10 Oct 0732  CEAt Tours, France, Charles Martel killed Abd el-Rahman and halted the Muslim invasion of Europe. Islam's westward spread was stopped by the Franks at Poitiers.
  0732  CEAt the Battle of Tours, Frankish forces led by Charles Martel check the Muslim advance into Europe north of the Pyrenees Mountains
  0732  CEThe battle of Tours in France.
  0737  CEThe Muslims meet reverse at Avignon in France.
  0737  CEMarwan, an Arab general, captured the Khazar khagan and forced him to pledge support to the Caliphate and convert to Islam.
  0740  CEShia revolt under Zaid b Ali. Berber revolt in North Africa. Battle of the Nobles.
  0741  CEBattle of Bagdoura in North Africa.
  0742  CEThe Muslim rule restored in Qiarowan.
  0743  CEDeath of Hisham. Accession of Walid II. Shia revolt in Khurasan under Yahya b Zaid.
  0744  CEDeposition of Walid I1. Accession of Yazid II1 and his death. Accession of Ibrahim and his overthrow. Battle of Ain al Jurr. Accession of Marwan II.
  0745  CEKufa and Mosul occupied by the Khawarjites.
  0746  CEBattle of Rupar Thutha, Kufa and Mosul occupied by Marwan II.
  0747  CERevolt of Abu Muslim in Khurasan.
  0748  CEBattle of Rayy.
  0749  CEBattles of lsfahan and Nihawand.
  0749  CECapture of Kufa by the Abbasids. As Saffah becomes the Abbasid Caliph at Kufa.
  0750  CEStart of the Abbasid Caliphate (Baghdad) (750-1258)
  0750  CE(750-850) The Four orthodox schools of Islamic law are established.
  0750  CEAbu-Abbas al-Sarah founds the Abbasid caliphate, which will control most of the Islamic empire for more than three centuries
  0750  CEBattle of Zab. Fall of Damascus. End of the Umayyads.
  0750  CEThe Muslim Abbassid family headed by al Abbas gained power in Persia, until 1258.
  0750  CEWith Persian financing and support, the Abbasids ended Umayyad rule. Their victorious armies were led by a Persian general named Abu Muslim Khorasani. The Islamic capital was relocated from Damascus to Baghdad, a newly built city adjacent to the old Sasanian capital, Ctesiphon.
  0751  CEBattle of Talas. Arabs learn papermaking from Chinese prisoners of war thus introducing papermaking into the Islamic world.
  0751  CEConquest of Wasit by the Abbasid. Murder of the Minister Abu Salama.
  0751  CEDuring a raid into central Asia, the Abbasids captured some Chinese artisans skilled in paper making.
  0752  CEAbu Jafar al Mansur, the second Abbasid caliph, moved the capital to Baghdad.
  0754  CEDeath of As Saffah. Accession of Mansur as the Caliph.
  0755  CERevolt of Abdullah b Ali.
  0755  CEMurder of Abu Muslim.
  0755  CESunbadh revolt in Khurasan.
15 May 0756  CEAbd-al-Rahman was proclaimed the emir of Cordoba, Spain. Abd al Rahman united the Umayyad forces in Spain and made the ancient Roman city of Cordoba his new capital.
  0756  CEStart of Omayyad emirate in Spain (Cordova) (756-1031)
  0756  CEAbd-al-Rahman I becomes emir of Cordova Spain
  0756  CEAbdul Rahman founds the Umayyad state in Spain.
  0762  CEShia revolt under Muhammad (Nafs uz Zakia) and Ibrahim.
  0763  CEFoundation of Baghdad. Defeat of the Abbasids in Spain.
  0765  CEA school of medicine is established in Baghdad.
  0767  CEKhariji state set up by Ibn Madrar at Sijilmasa. Ustad Sees revolt in Khurasan.
  0772  CEBattle of Janbi in North Africa. Rustamid. state set up in Morocco.
  0775  CEDeath or the Abbasid Caliph Mansur, Accession of Mahdi.
  0777  CEBattle of Saragossa in Spain.
  0785  CEDeath of the Caliph Mahdi. Accession of Hadi.
4 Feb 0786  CEHarun al-Rashid succeeded his older brother the Abbasid Caliph al-Hadi as Caliph of Baghdad.
  0786  CEDeath of Hadi. Accession of Harun ur Rashid.
  0786  CEAbd al Rahman began construction of the Great Mosque of Cordoba. It was under construction for 200 years.
  0788  CEIdrisid state set up in the Maghrib.
  0788  CEDeath of Abdul Rahman of Spain, and accession of Hisham.
  0792  CEInvasion of South France.
  0792  CEThe first paper making factory in the Islamic Empire was built in Baghdad.
  0796  CEDeath of Hisham in Spain; accession of al Hakam.
  0799  CESuppression of the revolt of the Khazars. Ninth century.
  0800  CEThe Aghlabid rule is established in North Africa.
  0800  CE(Between 800-900) A timber mosque was built at Shanga, Kenya.
  0803  CEDownfall of the Barmakids. Execution of Jafar Barmki.
  0805  CECampaigns against the Byzantines. Capture of the islands of Rhodes and Cypress.
  0809  CEHarun al-Rashid, an Abbasid caliph who will be memorialized in Arabian Nights, dies
  0809  CEDeath of Harun ur Rashid. Accession of Amin.
  0813  CE(Between 813-833) Caliph al Ma'mun founded a school in Baghdad called the House of Wisdom. In this school scholars translated Greek philosophy classics into Arabic.
  0813  CE(813-833) Caliph al Ma'mun founded a school in Baghdad called the House of Wisdom. In this school scholars translated Greek philosophy classics into Arabic.
  0814  CECivil war between Amin and Mamun. Amin killed and Mamun becomes the Caliph.
  0815  CEShia revolt under Ibn Tuba Tabs.
  0816  CEShia revolt in Makkah; Harsama quells the revolt.
  0816  CEIn Spain the Umayyads capture the island of Corsica.
  0816  CEFatima, sister of the eighth Imam, lies buried in a sanctuary at Qum, one of the sacred cities of the Shia faith.
  0817  CEHarsama killed.
  0818  CEThe Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Izira, Majorica, and Sardinia.
  0819  CEMamun comes to Baghdad.
  0820  CETahir establishes the rule of the Tahirids in Khurasan.
  0822  CEDeath of Al Hakam in Spain; accession of Abdul Rahman. II.
  0823  CEDeath of Tahir in Khurasan. Accession of Talha and his deposition. Accession of Abdullah b Tahir.
  0827  CEMamun declares the Mutazila creed as the state religion.
  0833  CEDeath of Mamun. Accession of Mutasim.
  0836  CEMutasim shifts the capital to Samarra.
  0837  CERevolt of the Jats.
  0838  CERevolt of Babek in Azarbaijan suppressed.
  0839  CERevolt of Maziar in Tabaristan.
  0839  CEThe Muslims occupy South Italy.
  0839  CECapture of the city of Messina in Sicily.
  0842  CEDeath of Mutasim, accession of Wasiq.
  0843  CERevolts of the Arabs.
  0847  CEDeath of Wasiq, accession of Mutawakkil.
  0849  CEDeath of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah b Tahir; accession of Tahir II.
  0850  CE(850-875) The Tradition is formalised.
  0850  CEMutawakkil restores orthodoxy.
  0852  CEDeath of Abdur Rahman II of Spain;. accession of Muhammad I.
  0856  CEUmar b Abdul Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind.
  0858  CEMutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya.
  0860  CEAhmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana.
  0861  CEMurder of the Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil; accession of Muntasir.
  0862  CEMuntasir poisoned to death; accession of Mutasin.
  0864  CEZaidi state established in Tabaristan by Hasan b Zaid.
  0866  CEMutasim flies from Samarra, his depostion and accession of Mutaaz.
  0866  CEDeath of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Munzir.
  0866  CEDeath of Abdullah b Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind.
  0867  CEYaqub b Layth founds the Saffarid rule in Sistan.
  0868  CEAhmad b Tulun founds the Tulunid rule in Egypt.
  0869  CEThe Abbasid Caliph Mutaaz forced to abdicate, his death and accession of Muhtadi.
  0870  CETurks revolt against Muhtadi, his death and accession of Mutamid.
  0873  CETahirid rule extinguished.
  0874  CEZanj revolt in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of Nasr.
  0877  CEDeath of Yaqubb Layth in Sistan, accession of Amr b Layth.
  0885  CEDeath of Ahmad b Tulun in Egypt, accession of Khamar- wiyiah.
  0886  CEUnder Muslim Arabs the Bagratid family rose to prominence in Armenia and established a line of kings from this time to the 10th century.
  0888  CEDeath of Munzir the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Abbullah.
  0891  CEThe Qarmatian state established at Bahrain.
  0892  CEDeath of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail.
  0894  CEThe Rustamids become the vassals of Spain.
  0896  CEDeath of the Tulunid ruler Khamarwiyiah; accession of Abul Asakir Jaish.
  0897  CEAssassination of Abul Asakir Jaish; accession of Abu Musa Harun.
  0898  CEQarmatians sack Basra.
  0900  CEBy this time the Fatimids broke away from the Abbasids and migrated to North Africa. They were descendants of Mohammad's daughter, Fatima.
  0902  CEDeath of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; death of the Saffarid ruler Amr.
  0903  CEAssassination of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Said; accession of Abu Tahir.
  0905  CEAbdullah b Hamdan founds the Hamdanid rule in Mosul and Jazira.
  0905  CEEnd of the Tulunid rule in Egypt.
  0907  CEDeath of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; accession of Muqtadir.
  0908  CEEnd of the Saffarid rule, annexation of their territories by the Samanids.
  0909  CEUbaidullah overthrows the Aghlablds and founds the Fatimid rule in North Africa.
  0910  CEStart of Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt (Cairo) (910-1171)
  0912  CEDeath of the Umayyad Amir Abdullah in Spain, accession of Abdur Rahman III.
  0913  CEAssassination of the Samanid ruler Ahmad II, accession of Nasr II.
  0928  CEMardawij b Ziyar founds the Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan.
  0929  CEQarmatians sack Makkah and carry away the Black Stone from the Holy Kaaba.
  0929  CEIn Spain, Abdur Rahman III declares himself as the Caliph.
  0931  CEDeposition and restoration of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir. Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Tahir; accession of Abu Mansur.
  0932  CEDeath of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir; accession of Al Qahir.
  0934  CEDeposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qahir; accession of Ar Radi.
  0934  CEDeath of the Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah ; accession of Al Qaim.
  0935  CEAssassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardawij; accession of Washimgir.
  0935  CEDeath of Hamdanid ruler Abdullah b Hamdan accession of Nasir ud Daula.
  0936  CEBy coup Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir ul Umara.
  0938  CEBy another coup power at Baghdad is captured by Bajkam.
  0940  CEDeath of the Abbasid Caliph Ar Radi, accession of Muttaqi.
  0941  CEAssassination of Bajkam, capture of power by Kurtakin.
  0942  CEIbn Raiq recaptures power.
  0943  CEAl Baeidi captures power. The Abbasid Caliph Muttaqi is forced to seek refuge with the Hamdanids. Sail ud Daula captures power at Baghdad and the Caliph returns to Baghdad.
  0943  CEPower is captured by Tuzun and Sail ud Daula retires to Mosul.
  0943  CEDeath of the Samanid ruler Nasr II, accession of Nuh.
  0944  CEMuttaqi is blinded and deposed, accession of Mustakafi.
  0945  CEDeath of Tuzun. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra. The Buwayhids capture power. Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Mustakafi. Accession of Abul' Qasim Ungur.
  0946  CEDeath of the Fatimid Caliph al Qaim. accession of Mansur.
  0946  CEDeath of the Ikhshid ruler Muhammad b Tughj
  0951  CEThe Qarnaatiana restore the Black Stone to the Holy Kaaba.
  0954  CEDeath of the Sasanid ruler Nuh, accession of Abdul Malik.
  0961  CEDeath of the Samanid ruler Abdul Malik, accession of Manauf.
  0961  CEAlptgin founds the rule of the Ghazanavids.
  0961  CEDeath of the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Rahman III in Spain; accession of Hakam.
  0961  CEDeath of the Ikhshid ruler Ungur accession of Abul Hasan Ali.
  0962  CEUnder the Ghaznavid Dynasty Afghanistan became the center of Islamic power and civilization, until between 1030 and 1140.
  0965  CEDeath of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Mansur; accession of Hasan Azam.
  0965  CEAssassination of the Ikhshid ruler Abul Hasan Ali; power captured by Malik Kafur.
  0967  CEDeath of the Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula, accession of Bakhtiar.
  0967  CEDeath of the Hamdanid ruler Sail ud Daula.
  0968  CEByzantines occupy Aleppo.
  0968  CEDeath of the Ikhshid ruler Malik Kafur; accession of Abul Fawaris.
  0969  CEShiite Muslims from the Fatimid Dynasty found the city of Cairo in Egypt and impose their will on the local Sunni Muslims
  0969  CEThe Fatimids conquer Egypt.
  0969  CEBy this time the Fatimids had conquered most of North Africa and claimed Cairo as their capital.
  0972  CEBuluggin b Ziri founds the rule of the Zirids Algeria.
  0973  CEShia Sunni disturbances in Baghdad; power captured in Baghdad by the Turkish General Subuktgin.
  0974  CEAbdication of the Abbasid Caliph Al Muttih; accession of At Taii.
  0975  CEDeath of the Turk General Subuktgin. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Muizz.
  0976  CEThe Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula recaptures power with the help of his cousin Azud ud Daula.
  0976  CEDeath of the Samanid ruler Mansur, accession of Nuh II.
  0976  CEIn Spain death of the Umayyad Caliph Hakam, accession of Hisham II.
  0976  CEThe Great Mosque of Cordoba (Spain) was completed and served as a religious, social and educational center. The largest of the 70 libraries in Cordoba contained 500,000 volumes. 70,000 books a year were hand-copied to satisfy the citizen's literary appetites.
  0978  CEDeath of the Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula, power captured by Azud ud Daula. The Hamdanids overthrown by the Buwayhids.
  0979  CESubkutgin becomes the Amir of Ghazni.
  0980  CEAvicenna (Ibn Sina, Afghan scientist) (980-1037), the Muslim philosopher-scientist, was born in Bukhara (Balkh). He wrote 'The Book of Healing,' a vast philosophical and scientific encyclopedia, and 'The Canon of Medicine,' an encyclopedia of the medical knowledge of his time.
  0981  CEEnd of the Qarmatian rule at Bahrain.
  0982  CEDeath of the Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula; accession of Samsara ud Daula.
  0984  CEDeath of the Zirid ruler Buluggin, accession of Mansur.
  0986  CEThe Buwyhid Sultan Samsara ud Daula overthrown by Sharaf ud Daula.
  0989  CEDeath of the Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf ud Daula, accession of Baha ud Daula.
  0991  CEDeposition of the Abbasid Caliph At Taii, accession of Al Qadir.
  0996  CEDeath of the Zirid ruler Mansur, accession of Nasir ud Daula Badis.
  0997  CEDeath of the Samanid ruler Nuh II, accession of Mansur II.
  0998  CEDeath of the Samanid ruler Mansur II, accession of Abdul Malik II.
  0998  CEMahmud becomes the Amir of Ghazni.
  0999  CEEnd of the Samanids.
  1010  CEFirdawsi completes his Epic of Kings, the great epic poem of Persia
  1055  CE(1055-1250) Expansion of Islam under the Seljuks and Christian responses.
  1076  CEThe Al Moravids, a group of Muslim warriors who lived in the Sahara, set out to conquer Ghana. They captured Koumbi in this year but gave it back up to the Soninke in 1087.
25 May 1085  CEAlfonso VI, Spanish Christian ruler, took Toledo, Spain, from the Moslems.
  1087  CEThe Soninke of Ghana recaptured their capital, Koumbi, from the Al Moravids. They tried to re-establish their empire but a number of their states had adopted Islam and others broke away to form separate kingdoms.
13 Nov 1093  CEBattle of Alnwick
 Nov 1093  CEDonald Bane becomes King of Scotland
  1096  CE(1096-1291) European Christians fought Arab Muslims for control of Jerusalem and the Holy Land.
30 Jun 1097  CEThe Crusaders defeated the Turks at Dorylaeum.
3 Jun 1098  CEChristian Crusaders of the First Crusade seized Antioch, Turkey.
  1098  CEThe crusaders of the First Crusade defeat Prince Redwan of Aleppo capturing Antioch and most of Syria, killing the Turkish inhabitants.
5 Jun 1099  CEKnights and their families on the First Crusade witnessed an eclipse of the moon and interpreted it as a sign from God that they would recapture Jerusalem.
8 Jul 1099  CEIn Jerusalem 15,000 starving Christian soldiers marched around barefoot while the Muslim defenders mocked them from the battlements.
12 Jul 1099  CECrusade leaders visited the Mount of Olives where they met a hermit who urged them to assault Jerusalem.
13 Jul 1099  CEThe Crusaders launched their final assault on Muslims in Jerusalem.
15 Jul 1099  CEJerusalem fell to the crusaders of the First Crusade who slaughtered the Jewish and Muslim inhabitants.
12 Aug 1099  CEAt the Battle of Ascalon 1,000 Crusaders, led by Godfrey of Bouillon, routed an Egyptian relief column heading for Jerusalem, which had already fallen to the Crusaders.
  1099  CECrusaders beat Saracens in Battle of Ascalon
  1099  CECrusaders set fire to Mara Syria
  1099  CEThe first Crusaders begins siege of Hosn-el-Akrad Syria.
  1099  CEAfter the Crusaders take Jerusalem, they divide their new territories into four principalities.
  1100  CE(Between 1100-1200) Shihab el-Din was an anti-Crusader cleric. He was believed to be buried in Nazareth next to the Basilica of the Annunciation.
  1107  CEEnrico Dandolo (1107-1205), ruler of Venice, was born. He was blind and spearheaded the 4th Crusade. He funded an army to capture Constantinople and after the 'rape of Constantinople' pocketed some of the city's riches.
  1142  CE(1142-1271) In Syria, the Crac des Chevaliers, a Crusader castle, was built by the Knights Hospitalers.
  1144  CEThe Saracens recaptured the crusader's castles along the Palestine coast.
  1148  CEThe Second Crusade.
  1182  CEIn Constantinople Western Christians were massacred by Muslims. A cardinal was beheaded and 4,000 Western Christians were sold into slavery.
21 Jan 1189  CEPhilip Augustus of France, Henry II of England and Frederick I of Germany assembled the troops for the Third Crusade.
  1189  CEEmperor Frederik I Barbarossa and 100,000 crusaders depart Regensburg.
16 Mar 1190  CEThe Crusades began the massacre of Jews in York, England. The Jewish population of York fled to Clifford's Tower overlooking the rivers Ouse and Foss during an anti-Jewish riot. A crazed friar set fire to the tower and rather than be captured, the inhabitants committed mass suicide.
4 Jul 1190  CERichard I, King of England, starts his Crusade.
  1190  CEThe crusaders lay siege to Acre.
6 Feb 1191  CEQuestionable bull of Pope Clement III approving the German hospitaller order at Acre.
12 Jul 1191  CESiege of Acre ended in crusader victory.
  1198  CEThe Fourth Crusade was funded by Enrico Dandolo, doge of Venice.
  1202  CEThe Fourth Crusade began.
 Apr 1204  CEThe crusaders of the Fourth Crusade capture Constantinople. The sack of Constantinople causes a firm Byzantine hatred of the West.
 Jul 1212  CESpain reconquers the Iberian peninsula from the Muslims in the name of Christianity.
  1219  CEWilliam Marshal dies
22 Nov 1220  CEAfter promising to go to the aid of the Fifth Crusade within nine months, Frederick II was crowned emperor by Pope Honorius III.
29 Jun 1236  CEFerdinand III of Castile and Leon took Cordoba in Spain. Cordoba, Spain, fell to Christian forces. The last Islamic kingdom left in Spain is that of the Berbers in Granada.
  1243  CETurkish nomads settle in Asia Minor.
  1243  CE(Spring ) Simon de Montfort gets custody of Kenilworth castle
23 Aug 1244  CEMuslim Turkish forces expelled the crusaders under Frederick II from Jerusalem and it not recaptured again until 1917.
17 Oct 1244  CEThe Sixth Crusade ended when an Egyptian-Khwarismian force almost annihilated the Frankish army at Gaza.
  1248  CEBath Lady Chapel
  1255  CEAbundant Harvest
  1258  CEMongols sack Baghdad. Abbasid Caliphate ends.
3 Sep 1260  CEMamelukes under Sultan Qutuz defeated Mongols and Crusaders at Ain Jalut.
  1269  CEThe capital of Morocco was moved north to Fez after the Almohad dynasty fell.
30 Oct 1270  CEThe seventh crusade was ended by the treaty of Barbary.
  1270  CEThe Eighth Crusade called by King Louis of France was soon decimated by the Plague.
  1274  CEThe Knights of the Cross overcame the Prussian towns of Nadruva and Skalva between 1274-1277.
18 May 1291  CEThe Sultan of Egypt and his son take the last Christian stronghold of Acre. The Hospitaller and Templar headquarters are moved from Acre to Cyprus and the Teutonic Knights headquarters moved from Acre to Venice
  1297  CEThe people of Riga rose against the Teutonic Knights. The local Bishop asked Vytenis to help and the Knights were pushed back. This opened a northern trade route for Vytenis for weapons and supplies.
  1299  CEOsman I (1299-1326).
  1324  CEMansa Musa, king of Mali, made the 3,500 mile pilgrimage to Mecca between 1324-1325 with gold valued at $115 million in 1999 prices. He traveled with a very large retinue that included 80 camels, 500 slaves and over 10,000 of his subjects.
  1325  CEIbn Battuta, a Muslim, left his home in Tangier to journey to Mecca between 1325-1355. He traveled in Arabia, Asia, Africa, and Spain and recorded many exciting adventures.
  1350  CEStart of the The Ottoman Empire (1350-1918).
  1379  CETamerlane establishes an empire in Persia, Iraq and Syria [untill 1401].
25 Sep 1396  CEThe last great Christian crusade, led jointly by John the Fearless of Nevers and King Sigismund of Hungary, ended in disaster at the hands of Sultan Bajazet I's Ottoman army at Nicopolis.
  1396  CEThe tabla, a 600-year-old invention, was evolved from Arabian drums to accompany a fusion of Islamic Qawali singing and Dhrupad music composed for Sanskrit couplets usually recited in temples.
  1400  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, The Mamluks lost Syria which was occupied by Amir Timur.
  1400  CE(1400-1500) The city of Bagerhat was founded in southern Bangladesh by Ulugh Khan-i-Jahan as a Muslim colony.
  1401  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Death of Timur Qutluq, the ruler, installed by Amir Timur.
  1401  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Accession of Shadi Beg.
20 Jul 1402  CETamerlane's Mongols defeated Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Ankara (Angora). The Defeat of Bayazid and Amir Timur was taken captive.
  1403  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Muhammad I, the son of Bayazid ascended the throne.
  1405  CEIn the Timurids empire, Death of Amir Timur, succession of his son Shah Rukh.
  1407  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Shadi Beg, installation of Faulad Khan by the king maker Edigu.
  1410  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Faulad Khan, installation of Timur.
  1412  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Timur, installation of Jalaluddin.
  1412  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Nasiruddin Faraj, succession of Al Muayyad.
  1413  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Jalaluddin, installation of Karim Bardo.
  1414  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Karim Bardo, installation of Kubak Khan.
  1416  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Kubak Khan, installation of Jahar Balrawi.
  1416  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, deposition of Jahar Balrawi, installation of Chaighray.
  1419  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Death of Edigu, overthrow of Chaighray, power captured by Ulugh Muhammad.
  1420  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad overthrown by Daulat Bairawi.
  1420  CETurkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Yusuf - succession of his son Qara Iskandar.
  1420  CEIn Morocco, Assassination of Abu Said Othman - succession of his infant son Abdul Haq.
  1421  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad I and the accession of his son Murad II.
  1421  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Al Muayyad, succession of Muzaffar Ahmad.
  1421  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Muzaffar Ahmad overthrown by Amir Saifuddin Tata, Death of Saifuddin Tata, succession of his son Muhammad. Muhammad overthrown by Amir Barsbay.
  1424  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Death of Daulat Bairawi, succession of Berk.
  1424  CEIn Algeria, The Halsida of Tunisia occupy Algeria. This state of affairs continued throughout the fifteenth century.
  1425  CEIn the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr, a prince of the house of Uzbeg declares his independence in the western part of Siberia.
  1427  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Berk overthrown by Ulugh Muhammad who captured power for the second time.
  1430  CEIn the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr occupies Khawarazm.
  1434  CETurkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Deposition of Qara Iskandar - installation of his brother Jahan Shah.
  1434  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Qara Othman, succession of his son Ali Beg. In Tunisia, Death of Abul Faris after a rule of forty years, succession of his son Abu Abdullah Muhammad.
  1435  CEIn Tunisia, Deposition of Abu Abdullah Muhammad, power captured by Abu Umar Othman.
  1438  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Barsbay, accession of his minor son Jamaluddin Yusuf - Yusuf overthrown and power captured by the Chief Minister Saifuddin Gakmuk.
  1438  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Ali Beg overthrown by his brother Hamza.
  1439  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad withdrew from Sarai and found the principality of Qazan. Said Ahmad came to power in Sarai.
  1440  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Hamza overthrown by Jahangir a son of Ali Beg.
  1441  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Crimea seceded from Sarai.
  1446  CEIn the Timurids empire, Death of Shah Rukh, succession of Ulugh Beg.
  1446  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Second battle of Kossova resulting in the victory of the Turks. Serbia annexed to Turkey and Bosnia became its vassal.
  1447  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Astra Khan seceded from Sarai.
  1449  CEIn the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr captures Farghana. In the Timurids empire, Death of Ulugh Beg, succession of Abdul Latif.
  1450  CEIn the Timurids empire, Assassination of Abdul Latif, accession of Abu Said.
  1451  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Murad II and the accession of his son Muhammad II.
  1453  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Jahangir - accession of his son Uzun Hasan.
  1453  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Gakmuk and the succession of his son Fakhruddin Othman. Othman overthrown by the Mamluk General Saifuddin Inal.
  1453  CEConstantinople falls to Muhammad II of the Otterman Turks which ends the Byzantine Empire
  1454  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Attack against Wallachia, Wallachia became a vassal state of Turkey.
  1456  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Serbia.
  1456  CEA comet in the sky caused the Pope to issue a catchall edict to his followers to pray for deliverance from 'The Devil, the Turk, and the Comet'.
  1461  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Bosnia and Herzogovina.
  1461  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Inal, succession of his son Shahabuddin Ahmad. Shahabuddin Ahmad overthrown by the Mamluk General Saifuddin Khushqadam.
  1462  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Albania.
  1464  CEUnder the guidance of Sunni Ali, the Songhai began to conquer their neighbors and expand their kingdom. Goa became the capital of the Songhai empire. When Sunni Ali died rule was passed to his son, a non-Muslim.
  1465  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Death of Said Ahmad, succession of his son Khan Ahmad.
  1465  CEIn Morocco, Assassination of Abdul Haq. End of the Marinid rule. Power snatched by Sharif Muhammad al Jati.
  1467  CETurkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Jahan Shah, end of the rule of the Black Sheep Turkoman rule.
  1467  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Jahan Shah of the Black Sheep attacked the White Sheep. Jahan Shah was defeated and the Black Sheep territories annexed by the White Sheep.
  1467  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Khushqadam, accession of his son Saifuddin Yel Bey. Deposition of Yel Bey, power captured by the Mamluk General Temur Bugha.
  1468  CEIn the Uzbegs empire, Death of Abul Khayr, succession of his son Haidar Sultan. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Uzun Hasan defeated the Timurids at the battle of Qarabagh whereby the White Sheep became the masters of Persia and Khurasan.
  1468  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Deposition of Femur Bugha, power captured by the Mamluk General Qait Bay.
  1469  CEIn the Timurids empire, Death of Abu Said, disintegration of the Timurid state. In Khurasan Hussain Baygara came to power and he ruled during the remaining years of the fifteenth century.
  1472  CEIn Morocco, Sharif Muhammad al Jati overthrown by the Wattisid chief Muhammad al Shaikh who establishes the rule of the Wattisid dynasty.
  1473  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, War against Persia when the Persians were defeated.
  1475  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Crimea. War against Venice. Tukey became the master of the Aegean Sea.
  1478  CEThe Spanish Inquisition persecutes Jews, Muslims and heretics.
  1478  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Uzun Hasan, succession of his son Khalil.
  1479  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Khalil overthrown by his uncle Yaqub.
  1480  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Assassination of Khan Ahmad, succession of his son Said Ahmad II.
  1481  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Said Ahmad I1 overthrown by his brother Murtada.
  1481  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad II, accession of Bayazid II.
  1482  CESultan Muhammad XI (also called Boabdil by the Spanish a corruption of the name Abu Abdullah) seized the throne of Granada from his father Muley Abu'l Hassan and thus plunged Granada into civil war at the time the Christian Castilians were beginning their attack on the kingdom.
  1483  CESultan Muhammad XI (Boabdil) was taken prisoner at Lucena, and only obtained his freedom by consenting to hold Granada as a tributary kingdom under Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of Castile and Aragon (Spain).
  1487  CEAs the Christian Castilians overran western Granada, Sultan Muhammad XI (Boabdil) secretly promised them that he would surrender the city of Granada in return for some cities held by the rival Granadian party. However, he later repudiated the agreement.
  1488  CEIn the Uzbegs empire, Death of Haider Sultan, succession of his nephew Shaybani Khan.
  1488  CEIn Tunisia, Death of Abu Umar Othman after a rule of 52 years, succession of Abu Zikriya Yahya.
  1489  CEIn Tunisia, Abu Zikriya Yahya overthrown by Abul Mumin.
  1490  CEIn Tunisia, Abul Mumin overthrown, power recaptured by Abu Yahya.
  1490  CE(Between 1490-1499) Muslims of the Songhai Empire in West Africa supported Askia Muham-mad, who overthrew Sunni Ali's son, and declared Islam the state religion. Songhai grew and expanded to become the greatest trade empire of West Africa.
 Apr 1491  CESultan Muhammad XI (Boabdil) was summoned by Spanish Ferdinand and Isabella to surrender the city of Granada, and on his refusal the Christian Castilians laid siege to Granada.
2 Jan 1492  CESultan Muhammad XI of Granada (Boabdil), surrendered to Spanish forces loyal to King Ferdinand II and Queen Isabella I and fled to Morocco. Granada was the last Arab stronghold in Spain, so its capture effectivly ended Muslim rule in Spain.
 Jan 1492  CEAfter Spain recaptured Granada from the Moors (Granada Day), King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain annex Granada.
  1493  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Yaqub and the accession of his son Bayangir.
  1495  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Bayangir overthown by his cousin Rustam.
  1496  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Abdication of Qait Bay, succession of his son Nasir Muhammad.
  1497  CETurkomans of the White Sheep empire, Rustam overthrown by Ahmad. Anarchy and fragmentation.
  1498  CEIn the Burji Mamluks empire, Deposition of Nasir Muhammad, power captured by Zahir Kanauh.
  1499  CEIn the Uzbegs empire, Shayhani Khan conquered Transoxiana.
  1499  CEIn the Golden Horde empire, Death of Murtada, succession of Said Ahmad III.
  1499  CEIn the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks defeated the Venetian fleet in the battle of Lepanto.
  1500  CE(Between 1500-1600) A Muslim pilgrim brought some coffee beans from Yemen and raised them in India. Yemen was the first great coffee exporter and in order to protect its trade had decreed that no living plant could leave the country.
  1501  CEThe Safavid Empire in Persia began [until 1723].
  1502  CEGranada Moslems forced to convert to Catholicism.
  1511  CEHaving won battles over Muslim forces the Portuguese advanced their control over spice producing areas of India, Ceylon, Java, Sumatra and (by 1514)the Spice Islands.
  1512  CEShi'ism became the state religion of Persia.
  1520  CESuleiman II the Magnificent came to power [until 1566].
  1525  CEIn India Babur, a warrior with an Islamic Persian background, invaded Hindu India. He took Delhi and Agra and made Agra his capital.
  1527  CESultan Muhammad XI (Boabdil) is said to have been killed in battle fighting for his kinsman, the ruler of Fez. The spot from which Boabdil looked for the last time on Granada is still shown, and is known as 'the last sigh of the Moor' (ci ultimo suspiris del Moro).
  1550  CEIn Moscow, Ivan the IV built a stone church to commemorate the triumph of Orthodoxy over Roman Catholicism, Islam and the Uniates, who sought to unite the Catholic and Orthodox churches.
  1556  CESuleiman's mosque in Constantinople was completed after six years of work.
19 Apr 1565  CEIn Malta, the Great Siege lasted until 8 Sep, as Suliman the Magnificent sought to add the island to his conquests. The Grand Master Jean de la Valette led the Knights of St. John in repulsing the Turks and consequently halting the westward advance of Islam in the Mediterranean.
8 Sep 1565  CEThe siege of Malta was broken. The Turkish army of 40,000 men of Suleyman the Magnificent besieged the Knights of Malta (the Knights of St John), led by Jean de la Valette, at their garrison, St. Elmo. The defenders numbered 540 knights, 400 Spanish troops, and Maltese gentry.
  1565  CEThe Battle at Talikota when India Moslems destroy Vijayanagar's army.
  1568  CEHoly Roman Emperor agrees to pay annual tribute to Sultan for peace.
7 Sep 1571  CESpanish and Venetian ships of the Christian League in the naval Battle of Lepanto in the Mediterranean Sea under Don John of Austria gained complete victory over a Turkish fleet with 117 Turkish ships sunk.
  1577  CEJavanese fled the spread of Islam and reached Bali where they kept alive early traditions of Indonesian music.
  1578  CESebastian, King of Portugal, invaded Morocco and was killed along with the King of Fez and the Moorish Pretender in the Battle of Alcazar. He is succeeded by Cardinal Henry.
  1600  CEAbout two-thirds of the Albanians converted to Islam between 1600-1800.
  1609  CESultan Ahmet commissioned the Blue Mosque to rival the other mosques of Istanbul, Turkey.
  1703  CEThe Islamic Cultural revival began under Ahmed III (1703-1730).
  1774  CETreaty of Kucuk Kaynarca.
  1822  CEStart of the Greek War of Independences (1822-1830).
  1853  CEStart of the Crimean War (1853-1856).
  1876  CEThe Ottoman Constitution is promulgated.
14 Apr 1903  CEBulgarians massacre 165 Muslims in Macedonia.
29 Oct 1914  CEThe Ottoman Empire enters World War I.
  1925  CEJihad-Saint war against Turkish government
  1947  CEIndia becomes independent, Islamic part becomes Pakistan
  1954  CEMilitary rule in Egypt; 318 Mohammedan Brotherhood arrested
  1956  CEIslamic Republic established in Pakistan
  1956  CEPakistan proclaimed an Islamic republic in Commonwealth (National Day)
  1977  CEMoslems hold 130 hostages in Washington DC
 Feb 1979  CEIran proclaimed an Islamic Republic following fall of Shah.
  1984  CEMoslem militiamen take over West Beirut from Lebanese army
  1985  CEShite Muslims claim to have killed hostage William Buckley
14 Feb 1989  CEIran's Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini called on Muslims to kill Salman Rushdie, author of 'The Satanic Verses', a novel condemned as blasphemous.
  1989  CE1,000 muslims burn Rushdies' "Satanic Verses" in Bradford England
  1989  CE5 Pakistani Moslem rioters killed protesting "Satanic Verses" novel
  1991  CEShite Muslims release British hostage John McCarthy
  1991  CEShite Muslims release US hostage Edward Tracy
  1995  CEMoslem fundamentalists shoot 20 Shiite mosque goers dead
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
Note 2: The events are sorted in semi-chronological order according to what is factually known about the date of the event ( Explain ).
Note 3: Events with more information are marked as follows:
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