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Food & Drink

Food & Drink (0001-1989)

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Human consumption of food and drink for pleasure or for survival.
Introduction

Over the years man has exploited many of the diverse food sources that have evolved on the planet.  Food, drink and spices have been traded around the word. Stocks of both species of plants and animals have been introduced into countries other than their natural habitat.  Sometimes this has had dramatic detrimental effects on other species and at other times this has alleviated famine and provided important support for the food chain.

Mankind has also sought to diversify its diet purely for pleasure to introduce variety and novelty into the diet.  More recently attempt to improve on evolution and nature through genetic engineering have been greeted by controversial mixed feelings by the general public and scientific communities.

Timeline
c.    0004  CERomans terraced the steep slopes of the Mosel River for the cultivation of grapes.
c.    0050  CEThe 1st century Roman gourmet, Marcus Gavius Apicius, was thought to be the writer of the earliest known cookbook.
    0300  CE(300-400) The book 'Deipnosophistae,' The Dinner Table Philosophers, describes the use of 'happy baskets' for leftovers.
c.    0500  CEOutsiders found coffee in the region of Ethiopia called Kaffa, hence the name.
  4 Jun 1070  CERoquefort cheese was accidentally discovered in a cave near Roquefort, France, when a shepherd found a lunch he had forgotten several days before.
c.    1100  CE(Between 1100-1200) The 12th century book 'Gyuschi' was a compilation of Tibetan medicine that described the making and applications of medications extracted from herbs, roots and minerals often served as hot teas.
    1153  CEA chicken restaurant, the world's oldest existing eatery, opened in Kai-Feng.
    1400  CE(1400-1600) Researchers in 1997 announced that sometime in this period the Sauvignon Franc grape crossed with Sauvignon Blanc grape to produce the Cabernet Sauvignon grape.
    1494  CEThe earliest report of Scots making whiskey was made.
  1 Jun 1495  CEThe first written record of Scotch Whiskey appeared in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. Friar John Cor was the distiller. The later J&B brand stood for Justerini and Brooks.
c.    1500  CEBean and lima bean which were crops native to America became known to Europeans
c.    1500  CEThe sweet potato which was native to South America had been taken to Spain where it was in cultivation at mid-century
c.    1500  CE(Between 1500-1600) A Muslim pilgrim brought some coffee beans from Yemen and raised them in India. Yemen was the first great coffee exporter and in order to protect its trade had decreed that no living plant could leave the country.
    1502  CEPortuguese traders took peanuts from Brazil and Peru to Africa.
    1505  CEThe Portuguese settled Ceylon and their exploitation of the cinnamon forests led to a system of slavery and a monopoly on trade in this spice.
    1506  CEThe Spaniards in the West Indies began raising sugar cane.
    1506  CEJacob Fugger, Augsburg merchant, imported spices to Europe from the East Indies.
    1510  CESunflowers from America were introduced by the Spaniards into Europe.
c.    1510  CEAlexander Barcley wrote his long poetic essay on the 'Miseries of Courtiers'. It described the psychology of feasting.
    1511  CEWestern explorers discovered that the Molucca Islands (the Spice Islands) were the source of cloves.
    1511  CEPortuguese traders reached the Banda Islands, including Run, and broke the Venetian monopoly over nutmeg. Over the next century the Dutch muscled in an almost cornered the nutmeg market.
    1512  CEPortuguese explorers discovered the Celebes and found nutmeg trees in the Moluccas. This began an 84-year monopoly of the nutmeg and mace trades.
    1512  CENewfoundland cod banks were exploited by fisherman from England, France, Portugal and Holland, who sent the dried catch back to Europe.
  2 Apr 1513  CESpanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon landed in Florida. Juan Ponce de Leon, Spanish explorer, discovered Florida and planted orange and lemon trees there. He also discovered the Dry Tortugas, 10 small keys southwest of Key West.
    1514  CEAlvarez was the first European to reach China by sea and in the region of Canton the Portuguese encountered oranges 'superior in sweetness and fragrance even to those brought from India and Ceylon'.
c.    1515  CE(Between 1515-1519) Coffee from Arabia appeared in Europe.
    1516  CEThe banana was introduced to the New World from Africa.
    1516  CEThe first processed sugar was shipped from Santo Domingo to Spain which was originally brought there by Columbus and soon afterward Portugal began importing sugar from Brasil.
    1516  CEIn Germany the Reinheitsgebot law was enacted. It required that beer be made from malt, hops, yeast, water and nothing else.
 20 Sep 1519  CEPortuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan set out from Seville in Spain with 270 men and 5 ships on a voyage to find a western passage to the Indies and the Spice Islands. The members of this fleet would be the first to cicumnavigate the globe, although Magellan himself died en route.
    1520  CEChocolate was brought from the Aztecs in Mexico to Spain for the first time.
    1521  CEHernando Cortes conquered Mexico and while on reconnaissance in southeastern Mexico his soldiers were the first Europeans to discover the Aztec spice - vanilla.
    1522  CEFollowing three years of voyage to the Moluccas Pigaphetta finds evidence of cloves, ginger, sago (which is wood-bread), rice, pomegranates, both sweet and sour oranges, lemons, jasmine and the betel-nut.
    1523  CEAnthony Fitzherbert published the 'Book of Husbandry', the first English manual of agriculture.
    1523  CESugar was grown in Cuba for the first time.
    1523  CEThe first turkeys were introduced to Spain and Europe from America by the conquistadors.
    1524  CERepresentatives of Spain and Portugal met to review maps and charts in an attempt to agree over ownership of the Spice Islands and five years later Portugal paid 350 thousand gold ducats to Spain for relinquishment of their claims.
    1527  CEHernando Cortez and his conquistadores completed the conquest of New Spain. They brought back to Spain tomatoes, avocados, papayas, and vanilla.
    1528  CEWheat was introduced into New Spain.
    1528  CEHernando Cortes was recalled to Spain and he brought with him haricot beans.
    1529  CEThe Turks at Buda planted paprika from the New World.
    1529  CEMaize from America, grown in Turkey, was introduced to England as 'turkey corn'.
    1530  CEPalsgrave's English-French dictionary mentioned bottle corks for the first time.
    1532  CESugarcane was first cultivated in Brazil.
    1536  CESpaniards invaders in Peru began to use potatoes as cheap food for sailors.
    1540  CEThe first potato from South America reached Pope Paul III. It was then taken to France and grown as an ornamental plant.
    1540  CEFrancisco Vazquez de Coronado, Spanish explorer, introduced horses, mules, pigs, cattle, and sheep into the American southwest.
    1541  CEA book to promote cooking with sugar was available in Venice (later Nostradamus wrote the first French book on this topic).
    1541  CEJacques Cartier introduced cabbage to Canada on his third voyage.
    1543  CESugar cane was introduced to Brazil about this time. Fermented sugar cane later became the base for cachaca, a light rum that is the national spirit. Cachaca is used to prepare the national drink, the caipirinha.
    1543  CENew Spain received European vegetables and grains such as broad beans, chickpeas, barley, and wheat, transported by a new viceroy from Spain.
    1550  CEBy 1550 tomatoes which were introduced from the New World were regularly consumed in Italy.
    1550  CECorn which was Introduced to China by 1550 grew so quickly in importance that this crop became a significant factor in the 18th century increase in the Chinese population particularly in inland areas where rice was not prolific.
    1550  CEDamiao de Goes described orange exports from Portugal to Spain.
    1553  CEPierre Belon, French naturalist and traveler, wrote 'Les Observations de Plusieurs Singularitez et Choses Memorables'. It included an account of Turkish fruit sorbets.
    1554  CEFirst written record of the tomato
    1554  CEFlemish hop growers emigrated to England.
    1558  CEAn illustration published by Andre Thevet documented the harvesting and processing of cashew by natives in Brasil.
    1560  CEThree olive saplings were planted in Lima in Peru by the Spaniards which formed the basis of today's South American olive industry
    1564  CEThe European grape vine was imported to California via Mexico which was brought by priests.
    1565  CEAccording to popular history John Hawkins introduced the potato to Ireland.
    1568  CEAlexander Nowell, Dean of St. Paul's in London, invented bottled beer.
    1573  CEThe peanut is known to have been cultivated in Chekiang Province in China probably arriving with the Portuguese from stops sailors made in Brasil en route to the Orient
    1573  CEThe first German cane-sugar refinery was established at Augsburg.
    1581  CEIn a series of letters sent from Portugal (1581-1583) Philip II of Spain wrote to his two daughters about the love of plants and gardening describing a 'sweet lime' (an orange).
    1584  CEPortugal dominated the world's sugar trade and sold Brazilian sugar to Europe.
    1586  CESir Francis Drake lands at Roanoke in Virginia and hears tales of colonists who had survived on soup made from sassafras later returning to England with what may have been the first shipment
    1586  CESir Thomas Herriot introduces potatoes to England from Colombia.
    1587  CEFirst written description of Brussels sprouts, which is a form of cabbage.
    1592  CE'De Plantis Aegypti' by Prosper Alpini published the first picture of a coffee plant.
 19 Aug 1597  CEDon Lorenzo Garcia took posession a land grant, issued by King Philip II, to start the first official winery for the new world at the San Lorenzo Hacienda in Mexico.
    1599  CEJacob van Necks fleet leaves Bantam Java with pepper, clove and muskaat.
    1600  CEBritain's East India Company was founded.
c.    1600  CEPortuguese traders brought the cassava root (or manioc tuber) to Africa from Brazil to feed their slaves.
 20 Mar 1602  CEShareholders formed The United (Dutch) East India Company. The company traded to 1798.
    1605  CEThe Dutch began seizing control of Portuguese-held trade with the Spice Islands (historically called the Moluccas) gaining full control by 1621.
    1608  CEBushmills Distillery in Northern Ireland acquired a license for whiskey production. They had been producing whiskey since the 1100s.
    1609  CEJamestown colonists planted cucumbers and carrots in their gardens.
    1610  CETea was imported to Europe through the Dutch East India Company
    1610  CEThe first cargo of Asian tea arrived in Amsterdam
 
25 Dec 1616  CENathaniel Courthope, a British merchant-adventurer under direct orders from James I, landed his ship Swan at the Banda Island of Run. He persuaded the islanders to enter an alliance with the British for nutmeg. He fortified the 1 by 2 mile island and with 30 men proceeded to hold off a Dutch siege for 1,540 days.
 
 
  1621  CEIn Germany potatoes, native to the Andes, were first planted.
 
 
  1621  CESpices bought in the West Indies for $227 sold for $2 million in Europe.
 
 
  1622  CEThe Spaten's company name comes from Munich brewing family Spaeth, which bought a 225 year-old brewery in 1622 and ran the firm for seven generations.
 
 
  1622  CEIn Aklmaar (Netherlands) the cheese market officially opened.
 
 
  1623  CEDutch representatives commit a brutal massacre of the British and Japanese working on the spice producing island of Amboyna.
 
 
  1623  CEIn London the Coopers Arm pub, now known as The Lamb and Flag at 33 Rose St., went into business.
 
 
  1625  CEThe first apple orchard in the US was planted on Boston's Beacon Hill.
 
 
  1627  CEThe last wild cow in Poland died.
 
 
  1630  CEThe fork was introduced to American dining by Governor Winthrop.
 
 
  1630  CENative American Indians introduce US pilgrims to popcorn, at Thanksgiving.
 
 
4 Mar 1634  CESamuel Cole opened the first tavern in Boston, Massachusetts.
 
 
  1637  CECardinal Richelieu of France creates the table knife.
 
 
  1638  CEDom Perignon (1638-1715), a French monk, was born. He introduced blending, vineyard and cellering practices that made champagne a better wine.
 
 
  1639  CEHugel Corporation first bottled wine in France.
 
 
  1639  CEFrancois Citois, the physician of Cardinal Richeliue, published a book that described the disease colica Pictonum, and noted the prevalence of the disease to the wine region of Poitou, where tart wines needed sweetening.
 
 
  1644  CEThe practice of drinking tea was first introduced to England.
 
 
  1647  CECorrespondence from the Caribbean to the Governor of Massachusetts confirmed that workers at sugar plantations would require food provisions from the outside as the production of sugar was more profitable than the production of other food.
 
 
  1647  CERice was introduced into cultivation in the Carolinas and today this and the surrounding sttes are the main rice producing states of the US.
 
 
  1648  CESweet potatoes were in cultivation in Virginia in the US.
 
 
  1650  CEBy this year coffee had arrived in England and by 1675 there would be over 3 thousand coffee houses.
 
 
  1650  CEFrom this time until around 1900 the Caribbean was the world center for growing sugar cane.
 
 
  1652  CEThe Dutch founded Cape Colony (Cape Town) in South Africa when they sent two ships to Table Bay to establish a garden to provide fresh foods and fruits for sailors on their voyages around the Cape of Good Hope.
 
 
 Sep 1658  CEThe first advertisement for Tea appeared in England.
 
 
  1660  CEIsaack B Fubine of Savoy, in The Hague, patents macaroni.
 
 
  1660  CEThe British began to dominate the trade in port wine from Portugal after a political spat with the French denied them the French Bordeaux wines. Brandy was added to the Portuguese wines to fortify them for the Atlantic voyage.
 
 
  1661  CEIn Japan the Takanoshi family started producing food seasonings and became known for its soy sauce.
 
 
  1662  CEEnglishman Christopher Merret presented a paper to the Royal Society on making sparkling wine.
 
 
16 Aug 1663  CEWilliam Penn observed that all native American plantations included peaches (which are native to Iran) of good quality. This demonstrated how quickly a valuable plant can be distributed and accepted.
 
 
  1665  CEThe British briefly recaptured the Banda Island of Run from the Dutch.
 
 
  1667  CEThe Treaty of Breda provided for cessation of hostilities between Holland and England and as part of this bargain the Dutch gained control of sugar plantations in Surinam.
 
 
  1669  CEThe first written record of cabbage in the US.
 
 
  1670  CECafe Procope, the first cafe in Paris, began serving ice cream.
 
 
  1671  CERice arrived in South Carolina from Madagascar but nobody knew how to husk it for food.
 
 
  1672  CEThe Royal African Co. was granted a charter to expand the slave trade and its stockholders included philosopher John Locke. The operation supplied English sugar colonies with 3,000 slaves annually.
 
 
  1673  CEThe first recorded wine auction is held in London.
 
 
  1680  CELeavened bread was developed in Egypt.
 
 
  1685  CESylvestre Dufour published 'Traitez Nuveaux et Curieux de Cafe, du The, et du Chocolat'.
 
 
  1688  CEIn France a blind Benedictine monk named Dom Perignon discovered the fermentation process that led to champagne. He later devised a cork stopper to hold the bubbles.
 
 
  1688  CEIn England Edward Lloyd opened a London coffee shop where shipping insurance was bought and sold.
 
 
  1690  CE(1690-1700) Particularly severe weather hit Germany and prompted vintners use more wine sweeteners.
 
 
  1692  CEIn Portugal Taylor's restaurant and lodge was founded in Porto.
 
 
  1693  CEFamine struck northern Europe and by 1694 ten percent of the population of northern France had perished.
 
 
  1693  CEThe first record of the grapefruit in the West Indies was made by Hans Sloane in a catalog of Jamaican plants and it is assumed that it originated there from chance hybrids between other cultivated citrus.
 
 
  1693  CEDom Perignon invents champagne.
 
 
  1694  CE(1694-1696) An outbreak of colic struck the region around Ulm, Germany. Eberhard Gockel, the city physician, was able to trace the cause to a wine sweetener that used a white oxide of lead.
 
 
  1696  CEDuke Eberhard Ludwig of Wurttemberg, Germany, learned of Eberhard Gockel's findings on lead poisoning in wine and banned all lead-based wine additives.
 
 
  1697  CEEberhard Gockel published: 'A Remarkable Account of the Previously Unknown Wine Disease'.
 
 
  1699  CEThe King of Spain, due to competition, banned the production of wine in the Americas, except for that made by the church.
 
 
  1720  CEMrs Clements of England markets the first paste-style mustard.
 
 
  1733  CEJoseph Priestly invents carbonated water (or 'seltzer').
 
 
  1747  CEA process to extract sugar from beet roots was developed by Andreas Margraff. It was not until 1877 that a highly productive process would be devised.
 
 
  1751  CEFirst printed record of Chinese cabbage and Chinese mustard in England.
 
 
  1752  CEEast Indies invasion 'Geldermalsen' leaves at Malakka results in 92 killed.
 
 
  1766  CEA colonial garden was established on St. Vincent receiving mango trees as well as East Indian spice trees.
 
 
  1768  CEThe first mustard manufactured in America is advertised in Philadelphia.
 
 
  1769  CESweet oranges were established at San Diego mission.
 
 
  1770  CEAn entire year's supply of nutmeg and cloves was destroyed in Amsterdam with the goal of maintaining high prices.
 
 
  1773  CEFrench explorer Pierre Poivre was able to take propagation material of spices (clove, nutmeg, cinnamon, and black pepper) from the Dutch controlled Molucca Islands to Mauritius and Reunion thus breaking the Dutch monopoly.
 
 
  1776  CEIn a New York bar decorated with bird tail, customer orders a 'cock tail'.
 
 
  1777  CEThe first ice cream advertisement appears in the Philip Lenzi-New York Gazette.
 
 
  1780  CEJohn Hannon (financed by Dr. James Baker) started the first chocolate factory in the US in Dorchester and James Baker later founded Baker's Chocolate.
 
 
  1782  CEOliver Evans contracted to build a flour mill on Red Clay Creek north of Wilmington in Delaware. He subsequntly improvied it to produce the first automated mill.
 
 
  1784  CEE Kidner opens the first cooking school, in Great Britain.
 
 
  1786  CEThe first US commercially-made ice cream is sold in New York.
 
 
  1789  CEBaptist Reverend Elijah Craig of Scott County, Kentucky, is given credit for first aging Kentucky corn whiskey, thus creating America's first bourbon whiskey.
 
 
  1789  CEUS Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson began a career of plant introduction that included vanilla, tea and tomato.
 
 
  1790  CEThe soya bean was grown at Kew but had no crop significance at that time for Europe.
 
 
  1793  CEOn his second voyage, Captain Bligh carried mango trees from Timor to British gardens in Jamaica and St. Vincent.
 
 
  1795  CEThomas Seddal harvests an 8.3 kg potato from his garden in Chester, England.
 
 
  1797  CEThe Salem ship 'Rajah' returned to New York with full cargo of bulk pepper from Sumatra. Investors made 700% profit and so it spawned investment by other Salem merchants which created some of the first great fortunes in the US.
 
 
  1798  CEThomas Malthus discusses human population growth and food production in 'An Essay on the Principle of Population'.
 
 
  1799  CEAgriculturists first described sweet corn which long grown by Iroquois. It's value was not immediately recognized, but by 1980 sweet corn was the most popular canned 'vegetable' in the United States.
 
 
  1799  CEThe first American patent for a seeding machine was granted to Eliakim Spooner of Vermont.
 
 
  1803  CEJohn Hawkins & Richard French patent the Reaping Machine.
 
 
  1804  CECaptain John Chester brought the first shipload of bananas to the US on the Reynard to New York, however, bananas did not become common until after 1870.
 
 
  1806  CENapoleon offered 100 thousand francs to anyone who could create sugar from a native plant. Russian chemist K. S. Kirchhof later discovered that sulfuric acid added to potato starch would make the conversion.
 
 
  1807  CETownsend Speakman first sells fruit-flavored carbonated drinks (Philadelphia).
 
 
  1813  CEThe first pineapples are planted in Hawaii.
 
 
  1815  CEThe world's first commercial cheese factory is established, in Switzerland.
 
 
  1816  CECrop failure was widespread in Europe resulting in food riots in England, France and Belgium.
 
 
  1816  CEHenry Hall is credited as the first person to cultivate cranberries.
 
 
  1817  CEThe first coffee planted in Hawaii on Kona coast.
 
 
  1820  CEThe first potatoes planted in Hawaii.
 
 
  1820  CEThe Tomato is proven to be nonpoisonous.
 
 
  1825  CEEzra Daggett and his nephew Thomas Kensett patent food storage in tin cans.
 
 
  1826  CEAmerican Temperance Society, forms in Boston.
 
 
  1828  CEC. J. van Houten developed the first modern process for making cocoa powder.
 
 
  1832  CEJames Busby introduced the Shiraz garpe variety to Australia.
 
 
  1833  CEa US Patent ia granted for first soda fountain.
 
 
  1834  CECyrus Hall McCormick patents a reaping machine.
 
 
  1838  CETennessee becomes first US state to prohibit alcohol.
 
 
  1839  CETea from India first arrives in Britain.
 
 
  1840  CEJustus von Liebig invents artificial fertilizer.
 
 
  1840  CEOrlando Jones patented an alkaline treatment for starch extraction which impacted the production of wheat, rice and corn starches.
 
 
  1840  CERecords show that tehre are 95,820 licensed public houses (pubs) in England on this date.
 
 
  1845  CEThe start of the Irish Potato Famine in which 15 million people emigrated.
 
 
  1845  CEPotato blight was imported to Europe from the Americas and by 1846 the potato crop in Ireland had totally failed. In 1841 the Irish population was about 8 million but about 1 million people died and another 1 million emigrated.
 
 
  1845  CEHenry Jones, from Bristol, patents self-raising flour.
 
 
  1847  CEChocolate confectionary (candy) was first created.
 
 
  1847  CEThe doughnut is created.
 
 
  1848  CEJohn Curtis in Bangor in the US produced the first commercial chewing gum. It was made of resin from spruce trees. By 1852 the Curtises had built a large chewing gum factory in Portland.
 
 
  1848  CEThe first pure food law enacted in US.
 
 
  1848  CEWilliam G Young patents the ice cream freezer.
 
 
  1850  CEThe soybean was introduced to US California agriculture in San Francisco by direct importation from Japan.
 
 
  1850  CESeed of alfalfa (Medicago sativa or mustard cress) were brought by a gold miner from Chile to California where the plant thrived as a forage crop.
 
 
  1851  CEAn importation of California grapes to Europe introduced white mildew (oidium) which eventually was treated with flowers of sulphur. The subsequent introduction of California rootstocks as a possible cure brought phylloxera which is a much more problematic root aphid.
 
 
  1851  CEDr John Gorrie patents a 'refrigeration machine'.
 
 
  1851  CEGail Borden announces invention of evaporated milk.
 
 
  1851  CEJacob Fussell, Baltimore dairyman, sets up the first ice-cream factory.
 
 
  1852  CEThe Concord grape was discovered which although of uncertain origin became an important grape for eastern US states with humid climates.
 
 
  1853  CEGail Borden patents her process for condensed milk.
 
 
  1853  CEThe first potato chips (crisps) are prepared by Chef George Crum of Saratoga Springs, New York.
 
 
  1858  CEInvention of the Mason jar stimulated use of large quantities of white sugar for preserves reducing traditional reliance on maple sugar and molasses for home cooking.
 
 
  1859  CEIn 'A Tale of Two Cities' Charles Dickens ridiculed the French aristocracy through description of the ritual of chocolate consumption.
 
 
  1860  CEM L Byrn patents a 'covered gimlet screw with a T-handle' (a corkscrew).
 
 
  1861  CEAgoston Haraszthy, the first vintner in the Sonoma Valley, imports 100,000 cuttings of 350 varieties from Europe to the US.
 
 
  1865  CEJames H Mason of Massachusetts patents the first US coffee percolator.
 
 
  1865  CEThe first US cattle importation law passed.
 
 
  1866  CEEighteen year old Jack Newton Daniel established his distillery in Tennessee.
 
 
  1866  CECharles Elmer Hires invents root beer.
 
 
  1866  CEPasteurization is first used, to prevent wine spoilage.
 
 
  1868  CEThe 'refrigerator car' is patented by William Davis, a fish dealer in Detroit.
 
 
  1869  CEAgnes arrives in New Orleans with first ever shipment of frozen beef.
 
 
  1869  CECharles Elmer Hires sells his first root beer in Philadelphia.
 
 
  1869  CEThe first shipment of fresh oysters comes overland from Baltimore.
 
 
  1869  CEWilliam Finley Semple of Mount Vernon Ohio, patents chewing gum.
 
 
  1870  CESome time between 1870 and 1880 the Red Delicious apple would be discovered in the US, in Iowa.
 
 
  1870  CEThe Japanese plum (Prunus salicina) arrived in the US when a Californian grower imported it from Japan.
 
 
  1870  CEThe Soda fountain is patented by Gustavus Dows.
 
 
  1871  CEOleomargarine ('magerine') is patented by Henry Bradley, of Binghamton, New York.
 
 
  1875  CEDaniel Peter and Henri Nestle added condensed milk to chocolate to create milk chocolate.
 
 
  1875  CEViolent bread riots took place in Montreal.
 
 
  1876  CEBananas become popular in US, at Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.
 
 
  1876  CESardines are first canned by Julius Wolff-Eastport.
 
 
  1878  CEBased on a new Hungarian mechanical process, the Washburn experimental flour mill in Minneapolis marked the beginning of modern milling in the US.
 
 
  1879  CEConstantine Fahlberg discovers saccharin, an artificial sweetener.
 
 
  1880  CEFlour rolling mill patented by John Stevens of Wisconsin.
 
 
  1880  CEThe SS Strathleven arrives in London with the first Australian frozen mutton.
 
 
  1881  CEThe loganberry was introduced to commerce by James Logan from his garden in Santa Cruz County in Calafornia.
 
 
  1881  CEKansas becomes first US state to prohibit all alcoholic beverages.
 
 
  1882  CEBordeaux University professor Millardet noticed that the copper sulfate spray applied to grapes deterred downy mildew. By adding lime he invented 'Bordeaux mixture' which was an important early fungicide.
 
 
  1882  CEThe first cargo of frozen meat leaves New Zealand for Britain, on SS Dunedin.
 
 
  1884  CEDr John Harvey Kellogg patents 'flaked cereal'.
 
 
  1884  CEJohn B Meyenberg of St Louis patents evaporated milk.
 
 
  1886  CEAn Atlanta pharmacist (Jacob's Pharmacy) Dr John Styth Pemberton invents Coca Cola which contained cocaine. He used water (later carbonated water), caramel, kola nut, sugar, vanilla, cinnamon, lime, and coca leaf extractions.
 
 
  1888  CEThe first wax drinking straw is patented, by Marvin C Stone in Washington DC.
 
 
  1889  CEThe US Pajaro Valley Evaporation Company of Watsonville in California began small-scale production of dehydrated onions.
 
 
  1889  CEThe first trainload of fruit (oranges) leaves Los Angeles for the east.
 
 
  1890  CEA US St Louis physician formulated peanut butter as a food for invalids and in 1893 J. H. Kellogg made peanut butter for patients with poor teeth.
 
 
  1891  CEGeorge A Hormel and Company introduce the food 'Spam'.
 
 
  1891  CEThe first shipment of asparagus arrives in San Francisco from Sacramento.
 
 
  1892  CEThe first gasoline powered tractor was built by John Froelich of Froelich in Iowa in the US.
 
 
  1892  CEBottle cap with cork seal patented by William Painter of Baltimore.
 
 
  1892  CEMacademia nuts first planted in Hawaii.
 
 
  1893  CEA US Supreme Court decision declared the tomato to be a vegetable based on common usage of the word 'vegetable' as opposed to the word 'fruit'.
 
 
  1893  CEThe US 'critic' reports that the ice cream soda is the US national drink.
 
 
  1895  CEThe first shipment of canned pineapple from Hawaii.
 
 
  1896  CEChop Suey is invented in New York City by chef of visiting Chinese Ambassador.
 
 
  1896  CEFanny Farmer publishes her first cookbook.
 
 
  1897  CEHaving discovered major improprieties in bourbon production the US Congress passed the Bottled-in-Bond Act controlling bourbon production at the source and setting standards for proof and aging.
 
 
  1899  CEThe holdings of Minor Cooper Keith were merged with the Boston Fruit Company to form the United Fruit Company and by 1981 half of all world banana exports came from the US.
 
 
  1899  CECarnation processes its first can of evaporated milk.
 
 
  1901  CEA Japanese chemist invents 'instant' coffee.
 
 
  1901  CEDame Nellie Melba, reveals secret of her now famous toast
 
 
  1903  CEItalo Marchiony is granted the patent for the ice cream cone.
 
 
  1904  CEIced tea was invented at the St. Louis World's Fair by an enterprising British salesman who realized that fair goers were not attracted to hot tea in summer weather.
 
 
19 Feb 1906  CEW K Kellogg and Charles D Bolin incorporate Battle Creek Toasted Corn Flake Company. The company sold breakfast cereals originally developed as a health food for psychiatric patients.
 
 
  1908  CEAvocados were planted at San Marino Ranch (today, the Huntington Botanical Gardens) constituting what was apparently the first commercial avocado grove in California.
 
 
  1908  CENew York tea importer Thomas Sullivan introduced the tea bag as a means of marketing samples. By 1934, 8 million yards of gauze were used annually to be sewn as tea bags.
 
 
  1909  CEDr. Colville and Ms. White begin making crosses to produce the first 18 cultivars of modern blueberries from native US stock.
 
 
  1910  CEA chemist with the Corn Products Refining Company discovered a process that would allow the refining of corn oil for cooking. This gave rise to the product 'Mazola'.
 
 
  1911  CEA two year famine began in Russia and while people starved and died the country continued exporting a fifth of its annual grain production.
 
 
  1912  CEFrederick Hopkins showed that there were chemical substances obtained from food that are essential to human growth and maintenance. Casimir Funk termed these substances 'vitamines'.
 
 
  1912  CEThe GooGoo Cluster a chocolate - caramel - & peanut candy - was created in Nashville in the US.
 
 
  1912  CEThe world's first cannery opens in England to supply food to the navy.
 
 
  1919  CECharles Strite patents the pop-up toaster.
 
 
  1919  CEUS Prohibition is ratified by three quarters of the states.
 
 
  1919  CEThe US Volstead Act passed by Congress, start prohibition over Wilson's veto.
 
 
  1921  CEEdward Mellanby discovers vitamin D and shows that its absence causes rickets.
 
 
  1921  CEGeorge Washington Carver appeared before the US Congressional Ways and Means Committee promoting a protective tariff on peanuts.
 
 
  1922  CEEskimo Pie is patented by Christian K Nelson of Iowa, who was not an Eskimo.
 
 
  1924  CEAn ice cream cone rolling machine is patented by Carl Taylor in Cleveland, USA.
 
 
 Jun 1930  CEW.K. Kellogg combined his business savvy and his love of children to form the Kellogg foundation.
 
 
  1931  CEHaddon Sundblom begins creating a new Santa each Christmas for Coca-Cola advertisements (1931-1964) that appeared world-wide on the back covers of Post and National Geographic magazines. This is the Santa had a red suit trimmed with white fur, leather boots and belt, long white beard and a pack of toys slung onto his back.
 
 
  1933  CEThe first US state liquor stores are authorized in Pennsylvania.
 
 
  1936  CESyrah grape variety cutting were brought to California by oenologist Doctor Harold P Olmo of the University of California.
 
 
  1943  CEFrankfurters replaced by Victory Sausages (mix of meat & soy meal)
 
 
  1989  CEThe US Food and Drug Administration began a quarantine of all fruit imported from Chile after traces of cyanide were found in two Chilean grapes.
 
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
Note 2: The events are sorted in semi-chronological order according to what is factually known about the date of the event ( Explain ).
Note 3: Events with more information are marked as follows:
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