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Films & Movies

Films & Movies (1832-1995)

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The development of the moving image from the early silent films through to completely digital productions.
Introduction

Since the first moving picture toys 150 years ago, people have always been fascinated with the moving image.  This technology has grown in sophistication to the point where it is a major global business sector that touches most of the world's population.

Timeline
c.    1600  CEA Jesuit priest wrote in Latin the first recorded description of the magic lantern, a forerunner of later movie and slide projectors: 'Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae'.
    1794  CEPanorama, the forerunner of movie theaters, opens.
    1832  CEThe Phenakistoscope in Belgium and the Stroboscope in Austria point the way to the technology for motion pictures.
    1832  CEJoseph Plateau builds the Phenakisticope, an optical toy, that creates the illusion of movement by mounting drawings on the face of a slotted, twirling disk
  2 Jan 1839  CEFrench photographer Louis Daguerre takes the first photograph of the Moon.
    1840  CEAlexander Wolcott patents Photographic Process.
    1843  CEThe first theatre matinee took place in the Olympic Theatre, New York City.
    1854  CEAaron Allen of Boston patents a folding theater chair.
    1856  CEAlexander Parkes, years before its photographic potential was realized, invented celluloid as a 'transparent support for sensitive coating', but he never was able to use it photographically.
    1861  CEKinematoscope patented by Coleman Sellers, of Philadelphia.
    1861  CEThe first US moving picture peep show machine is patented by Samuel Goodale of Cincinnati.
    1863  CEA patent granted for a process to make color photographs.
    1864  CELouis Ducos du Hauron patents a movie machine (which was never built).
    1868  CELouis Ducos du Hauron patents trichrome color photographic process.
    1869  CECelluloid patented by John Wesley Hyatt, Albany, New York.
    1870  CEThe first motion picture shown to a US theater audience in Philadelphia.
    1872  CEJohn W. Hyatt begins manufacturing celluloid.
    1873  CEThe term is 'Celluloid' registered as a trademark.
    1878  CEThe Dry-plate photographic process was invented.
    1878  CEFirst attempt at motion pictures by Muybridge who used 12 cameras, each taking 1 picture. This experiment was to see if all 4 of a horse's hooves leave the ground.
    1879  CEDennis Redmond develops the electric telescope to produce moving images
    1880  CEMuybridge demonstrates to an audience at the San Francisco Art Association Rooms his Zoopraxiscope, a Zoetrope adapted to project photographic images in motion
    1881  CEFirst book about television, The Electric Telescope, is published
    1882  CEFrench physiologist Étienne-Jules Marey invents the chronophotographic gun, a camera shaped like a rifle that records twelve successive photographs per second.
    1884  CEGeorge Eastman patents paper-strip photographic film.
    1885  CEThe Eastman Film Company manufactures the first commercial motion picture film.
  2 May 1887  CEHanibal W Goodwin applied for a patent for a transparent roll-film made of nitro-cellulose and camphor. However, Goodwin’s claim was not specific enough for the patent examiners and he was not granted a patent until September 1898 after several revisions and delays.
    1887  CECelluloid film introduced and eventually replaced glass plate photography.
    1887  CEHarvey Wilcox of Kansas subdivides 120 acres he owned in Southern California and starts selling it off as a real estate development. This later became known as Hollywood.
    1888  CEEastman Kodak forms.
    1888  CEGeorge Eastman patents the first roll-film camera and registers the name 'Kodak'.
    1888  CEThe first motion picture films are made on sensitized paper rolls taken with a camera by Louis Aime Augustin Le Prince
 10 Dec 1889  CEThe Eastman Company was granted a patent for a nitro-cellulose roll-film which included a non-curling layer of hardened gelatin on the back of the celluloid. They were eventually sued sucessfully for patent infringement by the owners of The Goodwin Film & Camera Company and settled for five million dollars.
    1889  CEThomas Edison shows his first motion picture.
    1889  CEThe development of motion-picture roll film
    1890  CEIn England, Friese-Greene builds the kinematograph camera and projector.
    1891  CEThe telephoto lens is first used with cameras.
    1891  CEThe first motion picture to be shown to the US National Federation of Women's Clubs.
    1891  CEW. K. L. Dickson and Thomas A. Edison patent the 'peep-show' Kinetoscope, a type of viewing device in which a film loop ran on spools between an incandescent lamp and a shutter for individual viewing
    1893  CEDickson builds a motion picture studio in New Jersey.
    1893  CEThomas Edison completes worlds first movie studio at West Orange New Jersey.
    1893  CEFred Ott sneezing in 'Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze January 7 1894', was filmed at the 'Black Maria', a motion picture studio that rotates on tracks to follow the light of the sun built by Edison
    1893  CEDickson's camera is patented as the Kinetograph which was a device that ensured the intermittent but regular motion of the perforated celluloid film strip to ensure precise synchronization between the film and the shutter.
    1894  CEA motion picture experiment took place with comedian Fred Ott filmed sneezing.
    1894  CEThe 'Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze' is released in movie theaters.
    1894  CELouis and Auguste Lumière invent the Cinématographe in Lyon, a combination camera-projector that can project moving images onto a screen.
    1894  CEEdison opens the first Kinetoscope parlor in New York City.
    1894  CERobert Barker opens the first Panorama, prototype of future movie houses
    1895  CEBritish inventor Birt Acres patents a film camera/projector.
    1895  CEThe first US commercial movie performance (153 Broadway, New York City).
    1895  CEThe birth of cinema: In Berlin, Max and Emil Skladanowsky show a 15-minute public program of films made using their Bioscop
    1895  CEFirst advertised public screening of films at LeGrand Café, Paris including the Lumière brothers' 'Arrival of a Train at a Station', one of the many actuality films or documentary views they made is screened
    1896  CEThe first movie is shown in the Netherlands (Kalverstr 220).
    1896  CEPublic demonstration in New York City of the Edison Vitascope designed by Thomas Armat, bringing projection to the United States
    1896  CEBritain's first projector, the Theatrograph (later the Animatograph) is demonstrated by Robert W. Paul
    1896  CEBritish photographers George Albert Smith and James Williamson construct their own motion picture cameras and begin production of trick films
    1897  CE125 people, most of them from the upper classes, die during a film screening at the Charity Bazaar in Paris after a curtain is ignited by the ether used to fuel the projector lamp
   Sep 1898  CEHanibal W Goodwin was granted a patent for a transparent roll-film made of nitro-cellulose and camphor.
    1898  CEPhotographs are first taken by artificial light.
    1899  CEDickson's kinetophone synchronizes the kinetograph and the phonograph (1891-1899)
    1899  CEFounding of Pathé-Frères, the world's largest film producer and distributor through WW I
    1900  CEBeginning of film production in Czechoslovakia, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, Scandinavia.
    1902  CEThe first science fiction film, "A Trip To The Moon", is released.
    1902  CEThe first science fiction film,'A Trip to the Moon' by Georges Méliès, pioneer of film fantasy, is released.
    1902  CELeon Gaumont's Chronophone in France and Cecil Hepworth's Vivaphone system in England produced hundreds of synchronized (sound and picture) shorts between 1902 and 1912.
    1902  CEOtto von Bronk applies for German patent on colour television.
    1902  CEPathé acquires the Lumière patents and commissions the design of an improved studio camera.
    1903  CEAmerican filmmaker Edwin S. Porter's 'The Great Train Robbery', is important for its use of realistic narrative and continuity of action.
    1904  CEThe film 'The Great Train Robbery' creates demand for fiction movies.
    1905  CEIn France, Pathe colours black and white films by machine.
    1905  CEBeginning of the growth of film theatres in the United States with the opening of the 'Nickelodeon', in Pittsburgh in 1905, theatres are makeshift facilities frequently in storefront properties.
    1906  CEAn animated cartoon film is produced.
    1906  CEAn experimental sound-on-film motion picture is made.
    1906  CEThe first animated cartoon is copyrighted.
    1906  CEBeginning of the animated film industry: J. Stuart Blackton's 'Humorous Phases of Funny Faces'.
    1906  CEGeorge Albert Smith and Charles Urban develop first commercially successful photographic colour process called 'Kinemacolor'.
    1906  CEPanchromatic plates are marketed by Wratten and Wainright in England.
    1906  CETh screen aspect ratio of 4:3 is established as an international viewing standard.
    1906  CEThe Australian film 'The Story of the Kelly Gang' becomes the first first feature-length dramatised fiction film in the world.
    1907  CEBell and Howell develop a film projection system.
 
  1907  CEAlfred Korn announces Fac-Simile telegraphy.
 
 
  1907  CEEdouard Belin makes the first telephoto transmission, from Paris to Lyon to Bordeaux and back to Paris.
 
 
  1907  CEDr Lee de Forest perfects the Audion tube, a triode vacuum tube that magnifies sound.
 
 
  1907  CELumière Brother's autochrome colour process is marketed.
 
 
  1907  CEMultiple-reel film comes to be called a feature when Adolph Zukor distributes Pathe's three reel 'Passion Play'.
 
 
  1908  CEIn the US, Smith introduces true colour motion pictures.
 
 
  1908  CEThe first horror movie (Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde) premieres in Chicago.
 
 
  1908  CED.W. Griffith and other American filmmakers systematize the use of the close-up, fade-out, iris dissolve, back lighting, soft focus, cross-cutting.
 
 
  1908  CEFilm d'Art's 'The Assassination of the Duc de Guise', is a transference of a stage play to the screen in an effort to legitimise motion pictures.
 
 
  1908  CEGabriel Lippmann wins a Nobel Prize for his method of reproducing colour by photography.
 
 
  1908  CEHollywood is founded in the Los Angeles area.
 
 
  1908  CEThe most powerful American film companies form the Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC), pool the 16 most significant US patents in order to establish a monopoly on domestic film production.
 
 
  1908  CEWorking for Gaumont, Émile Cohl becomes the first person to devote his energies to drawn animation.
 
 
  1909  CEColored moving pictures are demonstrated at Madison Square Garden, in New York City.
 
 
  1909  CEWinsor McCay, cartoonist, produces first animated cartoon 'Gertie the Dinosaur'.
 
 
  1910  CEA early movie stunt when a man jumps into Hudson river from a burning balloon.
 
 
  1910  CEAmerican cartoonist John Randolph Bray patents the cell process for film animation.
 
 
  1910  CEBeginning of popular commercial film production in Australia, Argentina, Canada, Ireland, Spain.
 
 
  1910  CEMelodramas, westerns, and slapstick comedy become popular American film genres.
 
 
  1910  CEThe serial episode film becomes the main attraction in many theatres in France, Germany, and the United States.
 
 
  1910  CEThomas Ince's New York Motion Picture Co. and the Selig company of Chicago set up studios near Los Angeles, initiating the establishment of west coast studio production.
 
 
  1911  CEEfforts are made to bring sound to motion pictures.
 
 
  1911  CEThe first photo in the US taken from an airplane took place in San Diego.
 
 
  1911  CEAustralia produced 16 feature films. At this time there were a total of 25 produced worldwide.
 
 
  1912  CEMotorized movie cameras replace hand cranks.
 
 
  1912  CEMaurits Binger establishes 2 Dutch movie companies.
 
 
  1912  CEThe first Mack Sennett 'Keystone Comedy' movie is released.
 
 
  1912  CENikkatsu is formed out of several smaller companies to become the most powerful studio in Japan.
 
 
  1913  CEAn early animated cartoon, 'The Dachshund' by Pathe Freres, is released.
 
 
  1913  CEThe US Kansas legislature approves censorship of motion pictures.
 
 
  1913  CEThe first movie serial, 'Adventures of Kathlyn', premiered in Chicago.
 
 
  1913  CEEastman Kodak Company establishes first industrial photographic research laboratory.
 
 
  1914  CECharlie Chaplin debuts 'The Tramp' in 'Kid Auto Races at Venice'.
 
 
  1914  CEThe first feature-length silent film comedy, 'Tillie's Punctured Romance' is released. It starred Marie Dressler, Mabel Normand & Charles Chaplin.
 
 
  1914  CEThe first full color film, 'The World, The Flesh & the Devil', is shown in London.
 
 
  1914  CEKeystone Cops; slapstick comedy; visual humour.
 
 
  1914  CEThe 3,300-seat Strand opens in New York City, marking the end of the nickelodeon era and the beginning of an age of the movie palaces.
 
 
  1915  CECharlie Chaplin's 'The Tramp'.
 
 
  1915  CED. W. Griffith's 'The Birth of a Nation', a film of great technical assurance and innovation, is strongly attacked in the liberal and black press for its racist content and is banned in several US states.
 
 
  1916  CEMutual signs Charlie Chaplin to a film contract.
 
 
  1916  CE3A Autographic with coupled Rangefinder is introduced.
 
 
  1916  CECharlie Chaplin, international star of the American silent comic cinema, stars in 'The Pawnshop'.
 
 
  1917  CEFoundation of Universum Film Aktiengesellschaft (UFA), the largest studio in Europe for the next decade.
 
 
  1917  CEMexico is the first country to formally protest the misrepresentation of its people by Hollywood.
 
 
  1918  CEThe first Tarzan film, "Tarzan of the Apes", premieres at Broadway Theater
 
 
  1918  CEAgit-prop trains, self-contained mobile propaganda centres equipped to disseminate entertainment and information to faraway posts, leave Moscow for the Eastern front.
 
 
  1918  CEAmerican cartoonist Winsor McCay creates what may be the first feature-length animated film, 'The Sinking of the Lusitania'.
 
 
  1918  CEFollowing litigation for anti-trust activities, the MPPC is ordered to disband by the US Supreme Court.
 
 
  1918  CEOscar Micheaux, the most successful early African American producer/director, begins making films on black-related topics.
 
 
  1919  CEGolden Age of German cinema begins, until 1933, the UFA conglomerate becomes single largest studio in Europe.
 
 
  1919  CELee de Forest, in collaboration with Theodore Case and E. I. Sponable, develop an optical sound-on-film process patented as Phonofilm.
 
 
  1919  CEMary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, Charles Chaplin, and D. W. Griffith establish United Artists, a prestigious firm distributing only independently produced films.
 
 
  1919  CENationalization of the Soviet film industry and foundation of the State Film School.
 
 
  1920  CEWalt Disney starts his first job as an artist eaning $40 per week with Kansas City Slide Co.
 
 
  1920  CEFormation of Shochiku studio in Japan.
 
 
  1920  CEFrench Impressionism is founded, a movement predicated on the belief that cinema is an art form of personal expression.
 
 
  1920  CEGerman Tri-Ergon process is developed, whose flywheel mechanism is essential to the continuous reproduction of optical sound.
 
 
  1920  CELev Kuleshov's Soviet State Film School workshop conducts experiments on film space and time.
 
 
  1920  CEMurder trial of film comedian Roscoe 'Fatty' Arbuckle, murder of director William Desmond Taylor, and drug-addicted death of Wallace Reid are part of a cycle of scandals that increase public demands for greater industry regulation.
 
 
  1920  CERobert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, a foundation work of German Expression.
 
 
  1920  CESoviet cinema is influential for its strategies of montage, graphic approach to the film frame, 'biomechanical' acting, and political use of the motion picture medium.
 
 
  1920  CESoviet silent era filmmaker, Dziga Vertov, now acknowledged as the father of cinema-verite (realistic documentary movement of the 1960s - 70s), produces a series of newsreel-documentaries.
 
 
  1921  CEThe film 'The Sheik, starring Rudolph Valentino, is released.
 
 
  1921  CEThe Kid, starring Charlie Chaplin and Jackie Coogan, is released.
 
 
  1921  CEFirst transatlantic telephoto transmission is made between Annapolis, Md., and Belin's laboratories at La Malmaison, Fr.
 
 
  1922  CEGermany's UFA produces a film with an optical sound track.
 
 
  1922  CEThe first 3-D movie is produced. To be viewed correctly, it required spectacles with one red and one green lens.
 
 
  1922  CEThe film 'Nanook of the North' becomes the first documentary.
 
 
  1922  CEThe first cartoon to receive a Pulitzer Prize, 'On the Road to Moscow' is released.
 
 
  1922  CEWalt Disney incorporates his first film company Laugh-O-Gram Films.
 
 
  1922  CEFounding of the Mingxing Film Company in Shanghai, the centre of Chinese film production.
 
 
  1922  CEHerbert Kalmus' Technicolor Corporation introduces a successful subtractive process for two-colour film which uses a special camera and procedure to produce two separate positive prints that are then cemented together into a single print. Used in films: 'Toll of the Sea' (1922) and Douglas Fairbank's 'The Black Pirate' (1926).
 
 
  1922  CEWill H. Hays, former Postmaster General for President Harding, is appointed head of the newly created Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA), a self-regulatory organization comprised of industry leaders.
 
 
  1923  CEKodak introduces home movie equipment.
 
 
  1923  CEThe Disney Company is founded.
 
 
  1923  CELee de Forest demonstrates his sound-on-film moving pictures in New York City.
 
 
  1923  CEThe first sound on film public performance shown at Rialto Theater in New York City.
 
 
  1923  CECecil B. DeMille's 'The Ten Commandments' and James Cruze's 'The Covered Wagon', are examples of silent era big-budget filmmaking.
 
 
  1923  CEKodak introduces 16mm movie film for amateur use.
 
 
  1923  CEPola Negri and Ernst Lubitsch are wooed by American studios following the success of 'Madame Dubarry', starting a regular flow of European talent to Hollywood.
 
 
  1923  CEVladimir Zworykin patents television picture tube.
 
 
  1924  CEErich von Stroheim's naturalistic epic 'Greed' is mutilated by studio interference.
 
 
  1925  CEFrom France - a wide-screen film
 
 
  1925  CE'Little cinema' movement begins with the establishment of the Screen Guild in New York, a group dedicated to screening experimental works and films of historical and aesthetic significance.
 
 
  1925  CERCA patented sound-on-film system RCA Photophone.
 
 
  1925  CEWestern Electric, the manufacturing subsidiary of AT&T, perfects a sound-on-disc system called Vitaphone.
 
 
  1926  CEIn US - first 16mm movie is shot
 
 
  1926  CEThomas Edison says Americans prefer silent movies over talkies
 
 
  1926  CEWalt Disney Studios is formed
 
 
  1926  CEFritz Lang's 'Metropolis', a triumph of production design.
 
 
  1926  CEWarner Bros. debuts Vitaphone to the public with a series of demonstration shorts and the feature film Don Juan.
 
 
  1926  CEWilliam Fox responds to Warners' success with Movietone, the first commercially successful sound-on-film process developed in conjunction with General Electric.
 
 
  1927  CEJolson's 'The Jazz Singer' is the first popular 'talkie'
 
 
  1927  CEMovietone offers newsreels in sound
 
 
  1927  CETechnicolour
 
 
  1927  CE"Jazz Singer", the first movie with a sound track, premieres (NYC)
 
 
  1927  CEAcademy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences forms
 
 
  1927  CELouis B Mayer forms Academy of Motion Picture Arts & Sciences
 
 
  1927  CEAbel Gance's 'Napoléon' is partially filmed in Polyvision and utilizes triptych sequences to produce wide and multi-screen effects.
 
 
  1927  CEBox office success of 'The Jazz Singer' sets film industries worldwide on the course of sound film production.
 
 
  1927  CEFirst Laurel and Hardy film 'Leave 'Em Laughing'.
 
 
  1927  CEThe Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is founded by industry leaders in response to mounting labour unrest in Hollywood.
 
 
  1927  CEThe Production Code of America, a self-regulatory code of ethics setting forth standards of good taste and specific 'Donts and Be Carefuls', is created by the MPPDA under Will H. Hays.
 
 
  1928  CE'Steamboat Willie' introduces Mickey Mouse
 
 
  1928  CEA motion picture is shown in colour
 
 
  1928  CEWalt Disney's Mickey Mouse debuts in NY in "Steamboat Willie"
 
 
  1928  CEDanish director Carl Theodor Dreyer's 'The Passion of Joan of Arc', is shot in France with massive technical and financial resources.
 
 
  1928  CEKodak introduces 16mm lenticular KODACOLOR Film for making motion pictures in colour.
 
 
  1928  CERCA enters into film production by forming RKO (Radio-Keith-Orpheum.
 
 
  1928  CERCAs RKO, Warner Bros, 20th Century-Fox, Loews and Paramount are the 'big five,' an oligopoly that controls the American film industry for the next 30 years.
 
 
  1928  CETechnicolor introduces an imbibition or dye-transfer process for two-colour films.
 
 
  1928  CEWalt Disney's 'Steamboat Willie', starring Mickey Mouse, the first animated cartoon designed for synchronized sound.
 
 
  1928  CEWarner Bros. takes over First National Pictures
 
 
  1929  CEIn Germany, magnetic sound recordings are made on plastic tape.
 
 
  1929  CEGeorge Eastman demonstrates the first technicolor movie, in Rochester New York.
 
 
  1929  CEPopeye makes his first appearance, in a comic strip 'Thimble Theatre'.
 
 
  1929  CEThe first all color talking picture, 'On With the Show', was exhibited in New York City.
 
 
  1929  CEThe first feature talking motion picture taken outdoors, 'In Old Arizona'.
 
 
  1929  CEDziga Vertov's 'The Man with a Movie Camera', is a film essay on the vicissitudes of perceptual reality.
 
 
  1929  CEMotion picture cameras are standardized to run at a speed of 24 frames per second to ensure consistent sound synchronization.
 
 
  1929  CEPostsynchronization is used by King Vidor in 'Hallelujah'.
 
 
  1929  CEThe Academy Awards are presented for the first time, with the Best Picture honour going to 'Wings'.
 
 
  1929  CEThe 'Film and Foto' exhibition that synthesized modernism in photography is held in Stuttgart.
 
 
  1930  CEBetty Boop debutes in Max Fleischer's animated cartoon Dizzy Dishes
 
 
  1930  CE(Between 1930-1940) Double features are introduced to counter Depression-era box-office slump, with 'B' films shown for the second half of double bills.
 
 
  1930  CE(Between 1930-1940) Gangster films and romantic comedies become staples of American sound cinema.
 
 
  1930  CE(Between 1930-1940) Japan is the world's largest producer of film entertainment and the only country in which Hollywood films do not overshadow domestic product. Popular genres include the historical drama, the contemporary-life film, and melodramas.
 
 
  1930  CE(Between 1930-1940) Movies from this golden age of Hollywood help people escape or understand the troubled world. Child star Shirley Temple, Marx Brothers, Fred Astaire, and Ginger Rogers are popular.
 
 
  1930  CE(Between 1930-1940) Significant genre of movie musicals contingent upon sound.
 
 
  1930  CEChicago gangsters are a national fad; Al Capone in real life and Edward G. Robinson in the film 'Little Caesar'.
 
 
  1930  CEGaspar bleached-colour process is announced.
 
 
  1930  CELuis Buñuel's and Salvador Dali's surrealist L'Age d'or provokes riots in Paris.
 
 
  1931  CEThe first Dracula movie released
 
 
  1931  CEThe first showing of a Donald Duck cartoon
 
 
  1931  CEThe first theater built for rear movie projection (New York NY)
 
 
  1931  CEHarold Edgerton invents a repeatable short-duration electronic flash, which captured stop-action images that were beyond the perceptive capacity of the eye.
 
 
  1931  CERené Clair's early sound feature 'Le million' and 'À nous la liberté' combine musical comedy and politics.
 
 
  1932  CEDisney adopts a three-colour Technicolour process for cartoons
 
 
  1932  CEKodak introduces 8 mm film for home movies
 
 
  1932  CECamera exposure meter patented, WN Goodwin
 
 
  1932  CEWalt Disney Art School created
 
 
  1932  CE8 mm Cine Camera and film are introduced.
 
 
  1932  CE'Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica', the world's first film festival, is inaugurated by Mussolini at the Lido in Venice.
 
 
  1932  CEPhil T. Farnesworth demonstrates electronic television.
 
 
  1932  CETechnicolor, a three-colour system, is introduced.
 
 
  1932  CEWalt Disney's cartoon short Flowers and Trees is the first film made using new three-strip, three-colour Technicolor and is the first cartoon to win an Academy Award.
 
 
  1933  CEThe first drive-in theatre opens (Camden NJ)
 
 
  1933  CEWalt Disney's "3 Little Pigs" released
 
 
  1933  CEIn 'Queen Christina', Greta Garbo places affairs of state over those of the heart.
 
 
  1933  CEJohn Grierson, father of the British documentary movement, heads up the General Post Office (GPO) Film Unit.
 
 
  1933  CETechnology is developed to mix separately recorded tracks for music, sound effects, and dialogue at a dubbing stage.
 
 
  1933  CEThe British Film Institute is established in London to 'encourage the use and development of the cinematograph as a means of entertainment and instruction'.
 
 
  1933  CEWalt Disney's cartoon 'The Three Little Pigs' in three-colour Technicolor
 
 
  1933  CEWith the Nazis' rise to power, Dr. Josef Goebells becomes Minister of Propaganda and gradually nationalizes the film industry. More than 1,500 filmmakers flee Germany.
 
 
  1934  CEDrive-in movie theater opens in New Jersey
 
 
  1934  CEThree-colour Technicolour used in live action film
 
 
  1934  CEThe first Donald Duck cartoon, The Wise Little Hen, released
 
 
  1934  CEThe first Dutch talkie movie, Jan Teunissen's "Willem of Orange", premieres
 
 
  1934  CEBombay Talkies studio is formed in India.
 
 
  1934  CE'It Happened One Night', is the first of series of populist Frank Capra comedy-dramas.
 
 
  1934  CEJoseph I. Breen, director of the Production Code Administration, implements the Production Code in response to pressure from the Catholic Legion of Decency. It will remain in effect for more than thirty years.
 
 
  1934  CELeni Riefenstahl, using 30 cameras and 120 assistants, films 'Triumph of the Will', a powerful Nazi propaganda film.
 
 
  1935  CEEastman Kodak markets Kodachrome film.
 
 
  1935  CEFoundation of the Museum of Modern Art Film Library in New York.
 
 
  1935  CEFoundation of the National Film Library (later National Film Archive) in London.
 
 
  1935  CEFoundation of the Reichsfilmarchiv in Berlin.
 
 
  1935  CERouben Mamoulian's 'Becky Sharp', is the first three-strip Technicolor feature.
 
 
  1936  CECharlie Chaplin speaks on film for the first time in Modern Times.
 
 
  1936  CEPépé le Moko starring Jean Gabin, is the fatalistic hero of French Poetic Realism.
 
 
  1936  CEThe Cinémathèque Française is founded in Paris by Henri Langlois and Georges Franju.
 
 
  1937  CE'Snow White' is the first feature-length cartoon
 
 
  1937  CEThe first feature-length color & sound cartoon premiers (Snow White)
 
 
  1937  CEOpening of Cinecittá, a modern government-owned studio complex, is built on the outskirts of Rome.
 
 
  1937  CEWalt Disney produces 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs', the first feature-length animated cartoon.
 
 
  1938  CEFoundation of the International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF).
 
 
  1939  CEWorld premiere of "Gone With The Wind" in Atlanta GA
 
 
  1939  CEDavid O. Selznick's 'Gone With the Wind' and MGM's 'The Wizard of Oz', two enduring Technicolor classics, debut.
 
 
  1939  CETelevision broadcast from New York World Fair.
 
 
  1939  CEThe National Film Board of Canada is established under the directorship of British documentary filmmaker John Grierson.
 
 
  1940  CE'Fantasia' introduces stereo sound to American public
 
 
  1940  CETom & Jerry created by Hanna & Barbera debut by MGM
 
 
  1940  CEWalt Disney's "Fantasia" released
 
 
  1940  CEWalt Disney's 2nd feature-length movie, "Pinocchio", premieres (New York NY)
 
 
  1940  CEWalt Disney's animated movie "Pinocchio", released
 
 
  1940  CEAnsco, Agfa, and Sakura Natural colour films are introduced.
 
 
  1941  CEFCC sets US TV standards
 
 
  1941  CE"Citizen Kane", directed by & starring Orson Welles, premieres in New York
 
 
  1941  CEGlenn Miller begins work on his 1st movie for 20th Century Fox
 
 
  1941  CEWalt Disney's "Dumbo" released
 
 
  1941  CEDue to a nitrate fire at Svenska, the pre-eminent preserver of its nation's film heritage, the negatives of 95% of all films produced in Sweden in the preceding 34 years are destroyed in minutes.
 
 
  1941  CEEastman Kodak introduces KODACOLOR negative film.
 
 
  1941  CEFirst commercial television license is issued in US.
 
 
  1941  CEFollowing the German invasion of the USSR, Mosfilm compiles short film reports, documentary sketches, satirical scenes, and musical numbers into several 'Fighting Film Albums' to aid the war effort.
 
 
  1941  CEUnited States government establishes Office of War Information to coordinate wartime propaganda with Hollywood. Frank Capra's seven-part 'Why We Fight' series is produced over the next two years.
 
 
  1942  CEWalt Disney's "Bambi" is released
 
 
  1942  CEWW II romantic drama 'Casablanca', starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid Bergman, debuts as one of the most popular films of all time.
 
 
  1943  CEMaya Deren's Meshes of the Afternoon, is a key work of American avant-garde cinema.
 
 
  1944  CE16th Academy Awards: "Casablanca", Jennifer Jones & Paul Lukas win
 
 
  1945  CEWalt Disney's "The 3 Caballeros" released
 
 
  1945  CENationalization of film industries in Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Yugoslavia
 
 
  1945  CERoberto Rossellini's 'Rome, Open City' launches the Italian neorealist movement.
 
 
  1945  CEThe Motion Picture Export Association of America (MPEAA) is created to promote the elimination of international trade barriers, negotiate agreements with other nations, and protect American copyrights.
 
 
  1946  CE4th "Road" film, "Road to Utopia" premieres (New York NY)
 
 
  1946  CEWalt Disney's "Song Of The South" released
 
 
  1946  CEEstablishment in Berlin of Deutsche Film Aktiengesellschaft (DEFA), a Soviet company that will soon pass into East German control.
 
 
  1946  CEHollywood's most successful year in its history in terms of motion picture attendance and box-office earnings.
 
 
  1946  CEHoward Hawks's 'The Big Sleep', starring Humphrey Bogart and Lauren Bacall, sets the standard for urban American crime dramas for the next decade.
 
 
  1946  CENew film types introduced in the late '40s: American films dealing with social consciousness; problems of racism, alcoholism, mental illness; semi-documentaries about criminal cases and film noir.
 
 
  1946  CEThe first Cannes Film Festival is held, and the first winner of the Palme d'Or is Maria Candelaria, a Mexican film photographed by one the world's greatest masters of black and white cinematography, Gabriel Figueora.
 
 
  1947  CEFormation in New York of the Actors' Studio, soon to become the centre for advancing 'The Method' technique of acting embodied in the styles of Marlon Brando, Montgomery Clift, James Dean, Paul Newman, and Joanne Woodward.
 
 
  1947  CEIn the first round of House Un-American Activities (HUAC) hearings in Hollywood, political conservatives seek leftist content in film scripts. The 'Hollywood Ten' are held in contempt of Congress and jailed for invoking the Fifth Amendment.
 
 
  1947  CEMichael Powell and Emeric Pressburger's Black Narcissus, is a masterpiece of Technicolor design.
 
 
  1948  CEHollywood switches to nonflammable film
 
 
  1948  CEThe first color newsreel filmed, Pasadena CA
 
 
  1948  CE(Between 1948-1949) A wave of protectionist legislation in France, Britain, and Italy sets quotas on American film imports or screen time allotted to domestic product.
 
 
  1948  CEFirst U.S. cable television systems appear.
 
 
  1948  CEMilton Berle begins Texaco Star Theatre.
 
 
  1948  CENationalization of film industries in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Rumania.
 
 
  1948  CERoberto Rossellini's 'The Miracle' is denied an exhibition permit by the New York State of Censors on the grounds that it is blasphemous, setting in motion a series of ground-breaking court cases dealing with film censorship.
 
 
  1948  CES. S. Vasan's historical superproduction 'Chandralehka' sets Indian cinema on the course of big-budget entertainment.
 
 
  1948  CEThe Bicycle Thief brings worldwide recognition to neorealist director Vittorio De Sica and screenwriter Cesare Zavattini.
 
 
  1949  CEWalter & John Huston become 1st father-and-son team to win Oscars (actor & director of "Treasure of Sierra Madre")
 
 
  1949  CEBritain's Ealing Studios establishes its reputation for witty comedies with 'Passport to Pimlico', 'Whiskey Galore!', and 'Kind Hearts and Coronets'.
 
 
  1949  CEColumbia Pictures converts its short-subject division to television production, beginning a trend other Hollywood studios would soon follow.
 
 
  1949  CEFollowing a decade of anti-trust litigation, the United States Supreme Court finds Hollywood guilty of monopolistic practices and hands down the 'Paramount' decision, ordering the studios to divorce and divest their theatre chains.
 
 
  1949  CEThe Communist Party in the newly established People's Republic of China founds the Beijing Film Studio and nationalizes the film industry.
 
 
  1950  CEWalt Disney's 'Cinderella' is released.
 
 
  1950  CE(Between 1950-1959) Dramatic rise in independent production marks the dwindling power of the Hollywood studio system.
 
 
  1950  CE(Between 1950-1959) European nations enter into bilateral co-production agreements to increase access to international markets, spread out financial risks, and produce big-budget films to compete with Hollywood.
 
 
  1950  CE(Between 1950-1959) One-quarter of the total American box-office income comes from drive-in theatres.
 
 
  1950  CE(Between 1950-1959) Revival of the Western and the movie musical.
 
 
  1950  CEBilly Wilder's 'Sunset Boulevard' with Gloria Swanson and Joseph L. Mankiewicz's 'All About Eve' starring Bette Davis, are the first of a series of films critical of Hollywood mythology.
 
 
  1950  CEKodak introduces a new multi-layered film stock in which emulsions sensitive to red, green, and blue are bonded together on a single roll. Patented as Eastmancolor.
 
 
  1951  CECinerama introduced with a wide - curved screen and three projectors
 
 
  1951  CE"I Love Lucy" debuts on CBS TV
 
 
  1951  CELife After Tomorrow, 1st film to receive an "X" rating, premieres
 
 
  1951  CEAfter decades of research, acetate film stock is developed and becomes the industry standard, replacing unstable and highly flammable cellulosenitrate.
 
 
  1951  CEAkira Kurosawa's award-winning 'Rashomon' focuses world attention on Japanese cinema.
 
 
  1951  CEFounding of 'Cahiers du cinéma', an influential Parisian journal notable for its 'politique des auteurs', or celebration of the film director as author and source of meaning.
 
 
  1951  CEThe Berlin International Festival is launched.
 
 
  1951  CEThe first Dryden Theatre series is devoted to 'The Transition From Silence to Sound'.
 
 
  1951  CEThe second round of HUAC hearings requires witnesses to 'name names' of others they know to be members of the Communist Party or face unemployment through an industry 'blacklist,' which would remain in effect for more than a decade.
 
 
  1952  CE3-D movies offer thrills to the audience
 
 
  1952  CEBing Crosby's company tests video recording
 
 
  1952  CEWide-screen Cinerama appears - other systems soon follow
 
 
  1952  CEFred Waller premieres his three-screen, three-projector wide screen process with 'This Is Cinerama'.
 
 
  1952  CEGene Kelly and Stanley Donen's 'Singin' in the Rain', a peak in the movie musical form.
 
 
  1952  CELuis Garcia Berlanga's 'Welcome, Mr. Marshall!', Spain's first official entry at the Cannes Film Festival, satirizes America's expanding power.
 
 
  1952  CENorman McLaren's animated short 'Neighbours' develops pixillation technique.
 
 
  1952  CEThe US Supreme Court declares that films are protected by the First Amendment's guarantee of free speech.
 
 
  1952  CEVittorio De Sica's 'Umberto D' causes controversy in Italy for cantering on the plight of the nation's aged and urban poor.
 
 
  1953  CEPeter Pan by Walt Disney opens at Roxy Theater, NYC
 
 
  1953  CEPremier of 1st animated 3-D cartoon in Technicolor-"Melody"
 
 
  1953  CEThe first movie in Cinemascope (The Robe) premieres
 
 
  1953  CEHenry Koster's 'The Robe', the first CinemaScope film, premieres at the Palace Theatre in Rochester. The next half-decade will witness a host of competing wide screen technologies.
 
 
  1953  CEJacques Tati introduces his enduring comic persona in 'Mr. Hulot's Holiday'.
 
 
  1953  CETeinosuke Kinugasa's Gate of Hell, Kenji Mizoguchi's 'Ugetsu Monogatari', and Yasujiro Ozu's 'Tokyo Story' bring international acclaim to Japanese cinema.
 
 
  1953  CEThe success of Arch Oboler's independent production Bwana Devil, made with a polarized 3-D process requiring special lenses and glasses, spawns a brief craze for 3-D films.
 
 
  1954  CEAmpex markets first commercial video tape recorder.
 
 
  1954  CEEastman Kodak introduces high speed black-and-white Tri-X film.
 
 
  1954  CEFederico Fellini's 'La Strada' sets the stage for the next decade of European art cinema addressing the 'human condition'.
 
 
  1954  CELaunching of film festivals in San Sebastian, Sydney, Tokyo.
 
 
  1955  CEWalt Disney's "Lady & the Tramp" released
 
 
  1955  CE(Between 1955-1958) Major Hollywood studios enter into 'telefilm' series production and sell or lease their pre-1948 feature films to TV syndicates.
 
 
  1955  CEBengali Satyajit Ray's 'Pather Panchali', is the first of his famous Apu Trilogy.
 
 
  1956  CEAmpex builds a practical videotape recorder
 
 
  1956  CEAmpex Corp demonstrates 1st commercial videotape recorder
 
 
  1956  CEThe first video recording on magnetic tape televised coast-to-coast
 
 
  1956  CEFirst television program broadcast from tape - 'Douglas Edwards and The News'.
 
 
  1956  CEFoundation of the Zagreb studio in Yugoslavia, whose animation unit will attract international attention for its lyrical, highly stylised cartoons.
 
 
  1957  CE29th Academy Awards: "Around World in 80 Days", Yul Brynner & Ingrid Bergman win
 
 
  1957  CEPope Pius XII encyclical On motion pictures, radio, TV.
 
 
  1957  CELaunching of film festivals in London and San Francisco.
 
 
  1958  CEVideotape delivers colour
 
 
  1958  CE(Between 1958-1963) Documentary film practice is transformed by the introduction of lightweight 16mm professional cameras and portable tape recorders utilizing the Pilitone system to synchronize soundtrack to image track during shooting.
 
 
  1958  CEGilles Groulx's 'Les Raquetteurs', shot at the annual congress of the snowshoes clubs with the camera as participant, soon becomes amanifesto for Québécois filmmaking.
 
 
  1958  CEOrson Welles's 'Touch of Evil' marks the end of the American film noir cycle.
 
 
  1958  CEThe release of B-movie 'The Fly' which brings Genetics to popular entertainment.
 
 
  1959  CEThe first movie opening simultaneously in major cities (On The Beach)
 
 
  1959  CEWalt Disney's "Sleeping Beauty" released
 
 
  1959  CEAlain Resnais's Hiroshima mon amour and François Truffaut's 'The 400 Blows' win at Cannes and confer international prestige to a growing young French film movement, 'la nouvelle vague'.
 
 
  1959  CELaunching of film festivals in Barcelona and Moscow.
 
 
  1959  CERobert Frank's 'The Americans' is a controversial and ironic commentary on the emptiness of modern America.
 
 
  1959  CEThe portable Nagra tape recorder is developed by Swiss inventor Stefan Kudelski.
 
 
  1960  CE(Between 1960-1969) American drive-in theatre attendance peaks, then begins to decline as anew exhibition trend makes its appearance in the latter half of the decade: the shopping mall multiplex.
 
 
  1960  CE(Between 1960-1969) Commercial colour film is perfected.
 
 
  1960  CEAlfred Hitchcock's 'Psycho' and Michael Powell's 'Peeping Tom' break new ground for representations of violence and criminal pathology.
 
 
  1960  CE'Breathless', Jean-Luc Godard's debut feature
 
 
  1960  CEEG&G develops an extreme depth underwater camera for U.S. Navy.
 
 
  1960  CEFederico Fellini's La dolce vita, Michelangelo Antonioni's L'avventura, and Luchino Visconti's 'Rocco and His Brothers' spearhead the European art cinema's modern turn.
 
 
  1960  CEKarel Reisz's 'Saturday Night and Sunday Morning', is one of a cycle of British 'Kitchen Sink' films dealing with everyday working-class life.
 
 
  1961  CEWalt Disney's '101 Dalmations' released.
 
 
  1961  CEAlain Resnais's 'Last Year at Marienbad', is a touchstone of reflexive, cerebral art cinema.
 
 
  1961  CEEastman Kodak introduces faster Kodachrome II color film.
 
 
  1961  CEIn Hong Kong, the Shaw Brothers (Shaoshi) builds Movietown, a 46-acrecomplex of studios, sets, laboratory facilities, and dormitories.
 
 
  1961  CEThe film 'Chronicle of a Summer' by Jean Rouch and Edgar Morin, an experiment in collaborative ethnography and 'cinéma verité' techniques.
 
 
  1962  CE(Between 1962-1969) The major Hollywood studios are bought by and become subsidiaries of American conglomerates.
 
 
  1962  CEDavid Lean's 'Lawrence of Arabia' stars Peter O'Toole and Omar Sharif.
 
 
  1962  CEGlauber Rocha's 'Barravento', is a foundation work for Brazil's Cinema Nôvo movement.
 
 
  1963  CEMovie "Cleopatra" opens in NY
 
 
  1963  CEThe first demonstration of home video recorder, at BBC Studios, London
 
 
  1963  CEAlfred Hitchock's 'The Birds'.
 
 
  1963  CEFoundation of the Swedish Film Institute, revolutionary in its system of awards to quality films.
 
 
  1964  CEThe videotape recorder for home use was introduced from Japan
 
 
  1964  CEStanley Kubrick's"Dr Strangelove", premieres
 
 
  1964  CEWalt Disney's "Mary Poppins" released
 
 
  1964  CEPolice arrest theatre owners on obscenity charges in Los Angeles and New York City for screening Jack Smith's Flaming Creatures and Kenneth Anger's Scorpio Rising, two scandalous works of the American underground.
 
 
  1965  CEColour news film
 
 
  1965  CEKodak offers Super 8 film for home movies
 
 
  1965  CEIntroduction of Super 8, a new amateur format.
 
 
  1966  CEAndy Warhol's 'Chelsea Girls', a two-screen film with random reel order,is the first mainstream success of the American underground.
 
 
  1966  CE'Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf', the first American film released with a rating ('SM'-Suggested for Mature Audience).
 
 
  1967  CEPre-recorded movies on videotape sold for home TV sets
 
 
  1967  CEWalt Disney's "Jungle Book" is released
 
 
  1967  CE(Between 1967-1973) European art films link social with sexual revolutions: Vilgot Sjöman's 'I Am Curious-Yellow', Pier Paolo Pasolini's 'Teorema', Dušan Makavejev's 'WR: Mysteries of the Organism'.
 
 
  1968  CEMotion Picture Association of America adopts film rating system
 
 
  1968  CELaunching of the Journées Cinématographiques de Carthage, an important festival for Arab cinema held biennially in Tunis.
 
 
  1968  CEStanley Kubrick's '2001: A Space Odyssey', is a science fiction film of great technical accomplishment and a visionary quality without precedent.
 
 
  1968  CEStudent demonstrations in Czechoslovakia, France, Japan, Spain, theUnited States, and West Germany generate a wave of politically engaged collective filmmaking.
 
 
  1968  CETet offensive staggers Vietnam.
 
 
  1968  CEThe Motion Picture Producers of America (MPPA, formerly MPPDA) introduces a new four-point ratings system ranging from 'G' to 'X' to replace the now defunct Production Code.
 
 
  1969  CELaunching of the Pan-African Film and Television Festival (FESPACO) in Ougadougou, Burkina Faso.
 
 
  1970  CEA videodisc is demonstrated in Germany
 
 
  1970  CEWalt Disney's "The Aristocats" is released
 
 
  1970  CE(Between 1970-1979) As American horror and science-fiction films are revived, the Western and the movie musical go into decline.
 
 
  1970  CE(Between 1970-1979) Formation of 'New Cinemas' in West Germany, Australia, and the USSR.
 
 
  1970  CEAfrican filmmakers create the Fédération Pan-Africaine des Cinéastes (FEPACI), an association of more than 30 countries aiming to solve common problems.
 
 
  1970  CEThe IMAX process is introduced at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan.
 
 
  1971  CEStanley Kubrick's 'A Clockwork Orange', is the first film to employ theDolby noise reduction system during sound recording.
 
 
  1972  CESony introduces 3/4 inch 'U-Matic' cassette VCR
 
 
  1972  CEDigital television comes out of the lab
 
 
  1972  CESony's Port-a-Pak - a portable video recorder
 
 
  1973  CEWilliam Shatner marries Marcy Lafferty
 
 
  1973  CEBernardo Bertolucci's Italo-French co-production 'Last Tango in Paris' generates controversy for its sexual frankness.
 
 
  1973  CEErotic film 'Deep Throat' ruled indisputably and irredeemably obscene.
 
 
  1974  CEMel Brooks' "Blazing Saddles" opens in movie theaters
 
 
  1974  CEErotic and pornographic films reach widespread, international audiences with Just Jaeckin's 'Emmanuelle' and Gerard Damiano's 'Deep Throat'.
 
 
  1974  CEWest German government signs the Film and Television Agreement, earmarking state funds for script development and offering favourable terms for joint productions between film and television.
 
 
4 Mar 1975  CESilent film legend Charlie Chaplin has became Sir Charles Chaplin when he was knighted during a ceremony at Buckingham Palace.
 
 
  1975  CESony's Betamax and JVC's VHS battle for public acceptance
 
 
  1975  CEIndia surpasses Japan as the world's most prolific film-producing nation.
 
 
  1975  CESony Corporation introduces Betamax videotape.
 
 
  1975  CESteven Spielberg's 'Jaws', the first film to surpass $100 million in rentals and marks the arrival of the New Hollywood blockbuster strategy: saturation advance television advertising, commercial tie-ins, enormous budgets, and summer releases.
 
 
  1975  CEWith the launching of America's first commercially available geo-stationary orbit satellite, SATCOM I, Home Box Office (HBO) initiates pay-cable television boom.
 
 
  1976  CENagisa Oshima's 'In the Realm of the Senses' directly challenges the Japanese system of film censorship that conceals sex and permits violence.
 
 
  1976  CEThe Steadicam, a camera stabilizing system, is first used to film sequences in Rocky.
 
 
  1977  CEMovie "Star Wars" debuts
 
 
  1977  CEJohn Badham's 'Saturday Night Fever', starring John Travolta, demonstrates the multimedia potential of movie hits and keys a shift from the traditional Hollywood musical to the 'music movie'.
 
 
  1977  CELaunching of the Hong Kong Film Festival.
 
 
  1977  CEMatsushita Electric Industrial Company introduces its video home system (VHS), setting off a battle for the home-video market.
 
 
  1977  CEThe success of George Lucas's 'Star Wars' leads theatre owners to install Dolby sound systems.
 
 
  1978  CE"Star Wars" released
 
 
  1978  CEEgyptian Youssef Chahine's 'Alexandria... Why?', is the first of a celebrated trilogy of autobiographical films that form the fullest self-portrait yet achieved by a Third World filmmaker.
 
 
  1978  CEJohn Carpenter's 'Halloween', initiator of a cycle of stalker-slasher films.
 
 
  1979  CEFrom Holland comes the digital videodisc read by laser
 
 
  1979  CEGeorge Miller's 'Mad Max' launches the career of Mel Gibson and generates a cycle of masculinist action films to replace the period film, the flagship genre of 1970s Australian cinema.
 
 
  1979  CELaunching of the International Festival of Latin American Cinema in Havana, Cuba.
 
 
  1980  CEIn France - a holographic film shows a gull flying
 
 
  1980  CE(Between 1980-1985) Scitex, Hell, and Crossfield introduce computer-imaging systems.
 
 
  1980  CE(Between 1980-1989) The age of the media empires: in the wake of unprecedented profits, Hollywood studios are purchased by financial interests lying outside the United States.
 
 
  1980  CESony demonstrates first consumer camcorder.
 
 
  1981  CEMTV begins broadcasting.
 
 
  1982  CEFrom Japan - a camera with electronic picture storage - no film
 
 
  1982  CE(Between 1982-1985) British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher cuts government funding for film production, thrusting television producer Channel 4 into a central position for film production.
 
 
  1982  CESteven Spielberg's 'E.T. & SHY; The Extraterrestrial' is the first film to surpass $200 million in rentals.
 
 
  1983  CEArnold Schwarzenegger becomes a US citizen
 
 
  1984  CEEdgar Reitz's sixteen-hour 'Heimat', a programmatic response to the American miniseries 'Holocaust', is screened as a film in two parts at European festivals and released as an eleven-part television series in Germany.
 
 
  1984  CEFounding of Eurimages, a fund for European film co-production.
 
 
  1984  CEMPPA rating system is revised to include a 'PG-13' category.
 
 
  1985  CECable-TV mogul Ted Turner buys MGM.
 
 
  1985  CEPixar introduces digital imaging processor.
 
 
  1985  CEPublishing magnate Rupert Murdoch buys 20th Century-Fox.
 
 
  1986  CE"Top Gun" premieres
 
 
  1986  CEBobby (Patrick Duffy) returns to Dallas, his death is attributed to his wife Pam's bad dream (erases all of last season)
 
 
  1986  CEHalf of major American film companies' domestic revenues come from videocassette sales.
 
 
  1986  CEWorld conference establishes standards for sound, video, and digital recordings.
 
 
  1987  CECanal +, a French cable television company, becomes the major source of funding for filmmaking in France.
 
 
  1987  CEKatsuhiro Otomo's 'Akira' brings international attention to the feature-length science-fiction Japanese cartoon, or anime.
 
 
  1987  CEThe 12 nations of the European Community (EC) found MEDIA and the European Film Distribution Office to offer financial incentives for distributors to handle imported films.
 
 
  1988  CE"ET" released to home video (14 million presold)
 
 
  1988  CERobert Zemeckis's 'Who Framed Roger Rabbit?', is a triumph of animation technique combining cartoon characters with live-action.
 
 
27 Sep 1989  CESony Corporation buys Columbia Pictures from Coca-Cola.
 
 
  1989  CE"Batman" is released on video tape
 
 
  1989  CE"Star Trek V" premiers
 
 
  1989  CETime Inc. announces the purchase of Warner Communications, Inc, forming the world's largest media and entertainment conglomerate.
 
 
  1990  CEControversy over Philip Kaufman's 'Henry & June' causes the MPAA (Motion Picture Association of America) to create a new rating, 'NC-17'.
 
 
  1990  CEMatsushita purchases the Music Corporation of America (MCA), parent company of Universal Pictures, for $6 billion.
 
 
  1991  CEPeter Greenaway's 'Prospero's Books' makes extensive use of computer paintbox and window technologies.
 
 
  1992  CEBanking concerns in France, Germany, and Luxembourg form Films Ltd. to finance major co-production projects.
 
 
  1992  CEJames Cameron's 'Terminator 2: Judgment Day', exemplary in its use of digital computer technology.
 
 
  1993  CESteven Spielberg's 'Jurassic Park' surpasses 'E.T.' as the top-grossing movie of all time. The film's creatures were generated by computer.
 
 
  1994  CERobert Zemeckis's 'Forrest Gump' adds digitally fabricated figures to historically famous documentary film footage.
 
 
  1995  CEThe film 'Lumière et Cie' (Lumière and Company) by 39 contemporary filmmakers is made under the conditions in which the Lumière cameramen had worked, using a restored Cinématographe camera and with film prepared according to the original Lumière formula.
 
 
  1995  CEThe first full-length feature composed completely of computer animation, 'Toy Story', is released.
 
 
  1997  CEAshes of Star Trek creator, Gene Roddenberry are launched into space
 
 
Note 1: Events described with text like this have been entered from one source but have not yet been verified against a subsequent source ( Explain ).
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